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Agriculture NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Geography Chapter 4
Class 8 Geography Chapter 4 Agriculture Exercise Questions and Answers
Answer the following questions.
(i) What is agriculture?
Agriculture is a primary activity. It includes growing crops, fruits, vegetables, flowers, and rearing of livestock.
(ii) Name the factors influencing agriculture.
Factors influencing agriculture are as follows:
- Favourable topography
(iii) What is shifting cultivation? What are its disadvantages?
Shifting cultivation is the form of agriculture in which a plot of land is cleared by felling the trees and burning them. The ashes are then mixed with soil and crops are grown. After some time, the land is abandoned and the farmers move to a different place. It is disadvantageous because it involves deforestation and the burning of trees. Thus it is not good for the environment.
(iv) What is plantation agriculture?
Plantation agriculture is a type of commercial farming where a single crop is grown.
(v) Name the fiber crops and name the climatic conditions required for their growth.
(i) Fibre crops
Climatic conditions required for cotton
Cotton requires high temperature, light rainfall, two hundred and ten frost-free days, and bright sunshine for its growth. Climatic conditions required for jute Jute require high temperature, heavy rainfall, and a humid climate.
Tick the correct answer.
(i) Horticulture means
(a) Growing of fruits and vegetables
(b) Primitive farming
(c) Growing of wheat.
(a) Growing of fruits and vegetables
(ii) Golden fibre refers to
(iii) Leading producer of coffee
(i) In India agriculture is a primary activity.
- In India agriculture is a primary activity because:
- Of its tropical climate and topography which is suitable for cultivation.
- More than 60% of the population is dependent on it.
- Needs food security for feeding millions.
(ii) Different crops are grown in different regions.
The growth of crops depends on a lot of factors. Climate, rainfall, humidity, etc are important factors. In absence of certain conditions, it may not be possible to grow a certain crop. So, different crops are grown in different regions.
Distinguish between the following.
(i) Primary activities and tertiary activities
|Primary activities||Tertiary activities|
|All those activities which are connected with the extraction and production of natural resources are called primary activities. For example, agriculture, fishing, gathering.||Tertiary activities provide support to the primary and secondary sectors through services. For example, transport, trade, banking, insurance.|
(ii) Subsistence farming and intensive farming
|Subsistence farming||Intensive farming|
|It is practiced to meet the needs of the farmer’s family. Low levels of technology and household labour are used to produce crops.||The farmer cultivates a small plot of land using simple tools and more labour. Favourable climatic conditions like a large number of days with sunshine and fertile soils allow the growing of more than one crop annually on the same plot.|
(i) Collect seeds of wheat, rice, jowar, bajra, ragi, maize, oilseeds, and pulses available in the market. Bring them to the class and find out in which type of soil they grow.
Type of soil in which the following crops grow :
(a) Wheat – Well-drained loamy soil
(b) Rice – Alluvial clayey soil which can retain water
(c) Millets (Jowar, Bajra, Ragi) – less fertile and sandy soils,
(d) Maize – well-drained fertile soils.
(ii) Find out the difference between the lifestyle of farmers in the USA and India on the basis of pictures collected from magazines, books, newspapers, and the Internet.
(a) The size of the farmlands is small, about 1.5 hectares.
(b) Generally wheat or rice are grown.
(c) Farmer uses the traditional method of farming by using bullocks for ploughing.
(d) To irrigate the field he takes tube well on rent.
(e) He takes credit from the bank or the agricultural co-operative society to buy HYV seeds and implements.
(f) There is a lack of storage facilities. So, farmers are forced to sell the product even when the market is not favourable to them.
(a) The size of the farm-lands in the USA are large, about 250 to 300 hectares.
(b) The major crops grown are com, soybean, wheat, cotton, and sugarbeet.
(c) Farmer uses tractors, seed drill, levellers, combined harvesters, and threshers to perform various agricultural functions.
(d) Farmers send the soil samples to a soil testing laboratory to check whether soil nutrients are sufficient for the particular crop or not.
(e) Chemical fertilizers and pesticides are used whenever required.
(f) Grains are stored in the automated grain storage.
Solve the crossword puzzle with the help of given clues.
|1. Crop that needs well-drained fertile soils, moderate temperatures and lots of sunshine (5)||7. Coarse grains are also called (7)|
|2. Increasing production through use of HYV seeds, chemical fertilizers and pesticides (5, 10)||8. Cultivation involving slash and burn (8)|
|3. USA, Canada, Russia, Australia are major producers of this crop (5)||9. Growing of crops, fruits, and vegetables (11)|
|4. Type of farming to meet family needs (11)||10. Tea, coffee, sugarcane, and rubber are grown in (11)|
|5. Rearing of animals for sale (9)||11.Requires 210 frost-free days for growth (6)|
|6. Growing grapes for wines (11)||12. Growing of flowers (12)|
|13. Also called ‘Golden Fibre’ (4)|
|14. Also known as paddy (4)|
|15. Activity concerned with the extraction of natural resources (7)|