These Solutions are part of CBSE Class 11 English Passages for Note Making and Summarizing. Here We have given Notice Writing Format CBSE Class 11 English Passages for Note Making and Summarizing as per NCERT Books Syllabus.Here we are providing the Reading Comprehension PDF to improve your comprehension skills while interpreting a passage and answering the related question.
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Format Of Note Making For Class 11 CBSE With Example
Notes are short written record of facts to aid the memory. Notes are usually taken to record a speech or dictation while listening to it or after reading a book, magazine or article. They are referred back whenever needed and may be reproduced in the desired way.
The necessity of note making
Knowledge is vast and unlimited, but our memory is limited. We cannot remember all the information all the time. Hence note-making is necessary. With the help of notes we can recall the entire information read/heard months ago. Note-making is quite useful to students preparing so many subjects. At the time of examinations, it is not possible to go through voluminous books. At such critical times, notes are quite handy. Hence note-making fulfils three useful functions:
- It keeps a lot of information at our disposal for ready reference.
- It helps us reconstruct what was said or written and thus accelerates the process of remembering/recall. .
- It comes in handy in delivering a speech, participation in a debate/discussion, writing an essay and revising lessons before an examination.
How note making helps us
While making notes we do not simply read the passage/listen to speech but consider various points made by the writer/speaker and draw our own inferences about what is being presented. Thus note-making helps us in understanding the passage in a better way and organising our thoughts systematically.
Characteristics of good notes
- Short and Compact: Good notes must be short and compact.
- Complete Information: They must contain all the important information.
- Logical: They must be presented in a logical way.
- Understandable: They should be understandable when consulted at a later stage.
Mechanics of note making
While making notes we follow certain standard practices. These may be listed as follows:
(a) Heading and Sub-headings
(b) Abbreviation and Symbols
(d) Numbering and Indentation
Heading and sub-headings
The heading reflects the main theme whereas the sub-headings point out how it has been developed. The selection of proper heading and sub-heading reveals the grasp of the passage by the students. In the absence of proper assimilation of main ideas and subsidiary points it is impossible to make notes.
Abbreviations and symbols
They are used for precision and economy of words and hence quite helpful in note-making. At least four recognisable abbreviations are to be used in note-making in your board examination.
These are essential components of note-making. Students often make use of abbreviations and symbols in doing their written work.
Note. Confusing abbreviations should be avoided, e.g., the abbreviation ‘under’ may stand for understand, understood and understanding. Similarly ‘indst’ may stand for industry, industrial, industrious.
While making notes the whole information is listed in note-form in points only. Notes should not be written in complete sentences as we can’t remember the whole information. So only the main points are listed one under the other and numbered.
It implies the logical division and sub-division of the listed information by using figures, letters, dashes and spaces.
All examples and figurative speeches are eliminated.
Numbering and indenting
Indentation means leaving space at the beginning of a line of print or writing.
First write the title and then write down the notes in a logical order. From the main headings to the sub-headings, the numbering should be spaced a little to the right.
Note-making is a useful skill. You must develop it with constant practice. Notes form an essential part of your academic life and will serve you well in your School/Board examinations.
How to write note making
Follow the following steps:
Step 1 : (i)Read the passage carefully.
(ii)Try to get the theme and subject of the passage. You may ask yourself: “What is this passage about?” This will provide you the gist.
Step 2 : Read carefully. Identify main ideas and important supporting details.
Step 3 : Make notes of the main ideas under headings and add sub-points under sub-headings.
Step 4 : Use proper layout/format, e.g.,
(a) Indented, linear form
(b) Sequential form
(c) Tabular form
(d) Flow chart
(e) Pie chart, graphs or diagrams, etc.
Step 5 : Use recognisable abbreviations wherever possible
Note making Examples Solved Questions
Read the following passages carefully:
Note making Example – Passage 1:
- Conversation is indeed the most easily teachable of all arts. All you need to do in order to become a good conversationalist is to find a subject that interests you and your listeners. There are, for example, numberless hobbies to talk about. But the important
thing is that you must talk about other fellow’s hobby rather than your own. Therein lies the secret of your popularity. Talk to your friends about the things that interest them, and you will get a reputation for good fellowship, charming wit, and a brilliant mind. There is nothing that pleases people so much as your interest in their interest.
- It is just as important to know what subjects to avoid and what subjects to select for good conversation. If you don’t want to be set down as a wet blanket or a bore, be careful to avoid certain unpleasant subjects. Avoid talking about yourself, unless you are asked to do so. People are interested in their own problems not in yours. Sickness or death bores everybody. The only one who willingly listens to such talk is the doctor, but he gets paid for it.
- To be a good conversationalist you must know not only what to say, but how also to say it. Be mentally quick and witty. But don’t hurt others with your wit. Finally try to avoid mannerism in your conversation. Don’t bite your lips or click your tongue, or roll your eyes or use your hands excessively as you speak.
- Don’t be like that Frenchman who said, “How can I talk if you hold my hand?”
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2.1 Make notes an the contents of above paragraph in any format, using abbreviations. Supply a suitable title also. 5
2.2 Make a summary of the passage. 3
2.1 Title: The Art of Conversation Notes:
- Conv’n—most easily tch’ble art
(a) Reqd. interest’g subject – hobbies
(b) Talk about other fellow’s int./hobby
(c) Win’g reptn. as good conversationalist
(i) good f’ship
(ii) charm’g wit
(iii) brl. mind
- Fit subs, for conversationalist
(a) What subs, to avoid/select?
(b) Avoid unpl’nt subs.
(c) Avoid talk’g about self
- Qualities of a good conversationalist
(a) What to say & how to say it
(b) ment’y quick & witty
(c) pleasant & unhurt’g
(d) avoid mannerisms.
2.2 Conversation is the easiest and the most effective tool than other arts. To have such attractive quality, you need to pick a subject that interest your listners more than you. Talk to your friends on topics that can indulge your friends in the conversation for a longer period of time. Being a good conversationalist, you have to quick and witty. You should have a pleasant and unhurting quality. Mannerism should be avoided.
Note making Example Passage 2:
- A good business letter is one that gets results. The best way to get results is to develop a letter that, in its appearance, style and content, conveys information efficiently. To perform this function, a business letter should be concise, clear and courteous.
- The business letter must be concise: don’t waste words. Little introduction or preliminary chat is necessary. Get to the point, make the point, and leave it. It is safe to assume that your letter is being read by a very busy person with all kinds of papers to deal with. Re-read and revise your message until the words and sentences you have used are precise. This takes time, but is a necessary part of a good business letter. A short business letter that makes its point quickly has much more impact on a reader than a long-winded, rambling exercise in creative writing. This does not mean that there is no place for style and even, on occasion, humour in the business letter. While it conveys a message in its contents, the letter also provides the reader with an impression of you, its author: the medium is part of the message.
- The business letter must be clear. You should have a very firm idea of what you want to say, and you should let the reader know it. Use the structure of the letter—the paragraphs, topic sentences, introduction and conclusion—to guide the reader point by point from your thesis, through your reasoning, to your conclusion. Paragraph often, to break up the page and to lend an air of organisation to the letter. Use an accepted business-letter format. Re-read what you have written from the point of view of someone who is seeing it for the first time, and be sure that all explanations are adequate, all information provided (including reference numbers, dates, and other identification). A clear message, clearly delivered, is the essence of business communication.
- The business letter must be courteous. Sarcasm and insults are ineffective and can often work against you. If you are sure you are right, point that out as politely as possible, explain why you are right, and outline what the reader is expected to do about it. Another form of courtesy is taking care in your writing and typing of the business letter. Grammatical and spelling errors (even if you call them typing errors) tell a reader that you don’t think enough of him or can lower the reader’s opinion of your personality faster than anything you say, no matter how idiotic. There are excuses for ignorance; there are no excuses for sloppiness.
- The business letter is your custom-made representative. It speaks for you and is a permanent record of your message. It can pay big dividends on the time you invest in giving it a concise message, a clear structure, and a courteous tone.
2.1 Make notes on the passage using recognisable abbreviations in any suitable format. Give a title to the passage. 5
2.2 Make a summary of the passage. 3
2.1 Title: Writing a Business Letter
- Features of a gd. busns letter
1.1 conveys info efficiently to get results
1.2 is concise
1.3 is clear
1.4 is courteous
- How to write a gd. busns. letter
2.1 Making letter concise
2.1.1 Intro shd be brief
2.1.2 make your pt in precise words and sent’s
2.1.3 short letr more effective
2.1.4 style is imp.—may ocasnly have hum’r
2.2 Achieving clarity
2.2.1 Have a clear idea of what you wish to say
2.2.2 structr the letter—intro & conclsn.
2.2.3 use accepted format; para, topic, sent’s
2.2.4 check facts, expl’ns, refs.
2.3 Being courteous
2.3.1 Expln. your pt. politely—avoid sarcasm/insults.
2.3.2 careful wrtg & typg.
2.3.3 gram. & spel’g errors to be avoided
- Importance of busns. letr
3.1 a representative
3.2 permanent rec. message.
2.2 A good business letter is that lends you positive and quality results. To get such results, a business letter should be effective in appearance, style and content. Apart from this a letter should be concise, clear and courteous. The business letter should be to the point as the message can be clear to the reader with an impression of you. The structure of letter should have topic sentence, introduction, paragraphs to conclusion. Reread the points you have written to avoid sarcasm and insults that can work against your motive. Further more grammar and spelling errors need to be avoided.
Note making Example Passage 3:
- Good decoration reflects the personality of the people who live in the home. It should, first of all, be distinctive, just as each person is distinctive. A home should have unity
not only within each room but also throughout the house. Rooms should, to some degree, harmonize with each other. The colour and styling of each room, particularly, should fit into the colour and styling of the rooms which run out of it.
- Attractive home furnishings set the stage for pleasant living. If they are an expression of yourself, you will have a feeling of satisfaction every time you enter your home, and friends will share your enjoyment.
- However, furnishings and surroundings expressive of just the right note of restfulness, gay informality, or elegant simplicity are not often assembled by accident. Even enthusiasm alone is not enough. For most home decorators, it takes poring over plans, trying colour schemes, finding ingenious ways to make the best of what you have, and shopping around to search out just the right purchases at prices you can afford to pay. But there is keen pleasure in striving for the perfect result, and great satisfaction in achieving it.
- A successful house and successful rooms will depend upon the proper relationship of each element in it to the others and to the whole. Therefore, in selecting each piece it is well to consider the background, the usage, the draperies, the floor covering, the upholstering materials, the woods, shapes, colour scheme, and the “feeling” you prefer for the room.
- Work and plan to enjoy your house. Limit the expenditures of time, effort and money to the extent of your abilities, so that just running the house doesn’t dominate your life. Elegance and delicate things may be a drain you can afford only in a limited way. If you can’t afford outside help, select a house and furnishings that require less care. Plan your activities so that tumult and upset are limited to a few rooms—an activity room or a bedroom, or a comer of the dining room.
- You’ll get more pleasure out of a house if you have a hobby connected with it—collecting glass or antiques, gardening or indoor flower growing ceramics, art, cooking, decorating, flower arrangements, etc. And you’ll get more satisfaction and a great deal of help from studying household activities.
- You can select a pleasing combination of colours from a wallpaper, a fabric, an oriental mg, a flower or scene, or even a picture in a magazine. If you don’t already have the furniture or mgs, it is a good idea to make up a colour scheme in this way. Let one colour predominate. Limit a colour scheme to two or three colours, with white or gray tones.
These points will help you:
- Always choose colours that please you personally— subtle, calm colours if you prefer a restful atmosphere, intense colours if you like liveliness and cheer.
- Don’t be afraid of colour. Experimenting on paper will give you confidence. (But remember larger batches of colour are more intense.) Try out various colour combinations, then live with them—look at them frequently before you actually start buying.
- Colours should harmonize with furniture, draperies, carpets.
2.1 Make notes on the passage in any suitable format. Use abbreviations, wherever necessary. Give a suitable title. 5
2.2 Make a summary of the passage. 3
2.1 Title: Decorating One’s Home
- Home reflects personality of home-owner
1.1 unity & harmony bet. rooms
1.2 colour & styling sh’d match
- Elements of decoration
2.1 colour schemes
2.2 draperies, rugs, upholstery, woods, shape
- Plan to enjoy the House
3.1 limit time, effort & money
3.2 select fumish’gs which require little care
3.3 confine hectic activities to a few rooms
3.4 hobby connected with house—great pleasure.
- Choice of Colours
4.1 one colour sh’d predominate
4.2 one can expt with colours
4.3 calm colours for restfulness; intense for liveliness
4.4 colours sh’d harmonise with furniture, draperies, carpets
2.2 The maintenance of the house reflects the personality of the people who live in that. So the distinctive decoration is as important as one attire in good clothes. A unity in the home can only be seen if the rooms in the house have a degree of harmony, colour and styling. Furniture is a working strategy for the pleasant living. If there is an expression of oneself then one will have a mental satisfaction everytime one enter one’s home. To attain such satisfaction one need to pore over plants, try colour schemes, window shopping to search the best thing for one’s home.
Note making Example Passage 4:
EXERCISE YOUR WAY TO A HEALTHY HEART
- The epidemic of heart attacks has been attaining alarming proportion in recent times causing grave concern specially to the medical fraternity.
- To contain and control the increasing death and disability from heart attacks and to focus on public awareness and their involvement at global level, the World Health Organisation (WHO) and the World Heart Federation observed September 24th as the World Heart Day.
- What causes heart attacks? Dr H.S. Wasir, Chief Cardiologist and Medical Director, Batra Hospital and Medical Research Centre lists four main habits which adversely affect the heart health. These are lack of physical exercise, wrong eating habits, cigarette smoking and excessive alcohol consumption, and stressful lifestyle.
- The importance of physical exercise in minimising the incidence of heart attacks cannot be underestimated. “Physical exercise,” says Dr Wasir, “plays a major role in achieving a long and healthy life in general and prevention of heart attacks in particular.” There are several studies showing that physically active people have higher longevity than those sedentary or physically inactive.
- In fact, the review of modern medical literature sums up the role of physical activity in health as ‘Regular physical exercise adds not only years to life but also life to years’. It is the experience of many modern day physicians that some patients of angina (chest pain or discomfort on physical or mental exertion or after meals) do get relief with regularly done physical exercise.
- What type of physical exercise and how much, one may ask. It is the isotonic (dynamic) exercise that is beneficial for the heart and not the isometric (static) exercise which should be avoided by heart patients. Weight lifting, carrying heavy suitcases while travelling, pushing a car are some of the examples of isometric exercises. Examples of the beneficial type of physical activity (dynamic exercise) are brisk walking, swimming, golf without power carts, badminton and tennis (doubles for those with old heart attacks but fully recovered, to be started only after physician’s advice).
- Walking is the best mode of doing regular physical exercise which requires no equipment, money, material or membership of a club! 30 to 60 minutes brisk walk even on alternate day has been proven to be beneficial. Stationary cycling or walking on a treadmill at home are the other alternatives.
- Walking up the stairs instead of using a lift if going up to three or four floors or getting off the lift two or three floors before the destination and walking up the rest through stairs. Going up several floors in a overcrowded lift with limited fresh air to be shared by so many may also prove unhealthy.
- Park a little away from the work place and walk that healthy distance.
- Best time for brisk walks would be the early mornings before the traffic flow picks up and walking in the parks with thick plantation. Jogging on the roads with heavy traffic should be avoided as you will be inhaling air polluted with the toxins from vehicular exhaust such as dioxides of sulphur and nitrogen.
- “Before starting any physical exercise programmes for the first time, one must get fully evaluated by a cardiologist so as to avoid any harm being done by exercise if there is serious underlying heart disease needing treatment,” warns Dr Wasir.
2.1 Make notes on the above passage in any suitable format using recognizable abbreviations wherever necessary. Assign a suitable heading to the passage. 5
2.2 Make a summary of the passage. 3
2.1 Title: Having a Healthy Heart
- World Heart Day. 24 Sept.
(a) to control death & disability
(b) to increase awareness
- Causes of Heart Attacks
(a) lack of phy’l exercise
(b) wrong eating habits
(c) smoking & alcohol
(d) stressful lifestyle
- Role of Physical Excse.
(a) prevents hrt attacks—longer life
(b) isotonic-beneficial; isometric—harmful
(c) walking: best excse.
(i) 30 to 60 mts. brisk walk
(ii) no equipment, money, mat’l or membership of club
(iii) early morning: ideal for walking
(d) Other beneficial excses
(i) stay cycling
(iii) walk’g on treadmill
- Consult cardiologist before beginning an excse progrme.
2.2 In recent times, heart attack is an epidemic disease that cause grave concern to the medical fraternity. To have control on increasing death and disability due to heart attacks, the World Health Organisation (W.H.O) and World Heart Federation has observed September 24th as the World Heart Day to focus on public awareness. According to health expert there are four main habits that cause heart attack, these are lack of physical exercise, wrong eating habits, smoking, excessive alcohol consumption and stressful lifestyle. The affects of heart attack can be reduced to greater extent with the help of regular exercise.
Note making Example Passage 5:
- Scientists in the USA and Japan are developing a set of smart materials that clean themselves off dirt and stains besides eliminating foul odours and dangerous bacteria.
- Exploiting powerful catalytic properties, researchers succeeded in creating tiles, glass, paint, paper and cloth that can keep themselves sparkling clean.
- The first item to reach the market, a self-cleaning wall and counter tile, can not only kill bacteria but also eliminate odours and staining associated with smoke from cooking oils and cigarettes, reports the journal Technology Review.
- The key to the self-cleansing world of the future is the interaction between titanium dioxide and ultraviolet rays from the sun or fluorescent lights. The special properties of titanium dioxide—a substance used to make paint and tooth-paste white—were first discovered by Tokyo University chemist Akira Fujishima and Associates in 1969. Their research showed that when exposed to solar energy, titanium dioxide has the ability to break down water into hydrogen and oxygen.
- After a quarter-century of observation, scientists now understand that the reaction occurs as titanium dioxide absorbs ergy from the UV band of sunlight and reacts with water vapour in the air to produce oxygen molecules. These molecules are energetic enough to break down organic matter into carbon dioxide and trace elements.
- “When light shines on the white paint pigment, titanium dioxide, it produces an active form of oxygen that can burn combustible material at room temperature,” says David Ollis, Professor of Chemical Engineering at North Carolina State University. “It is a fire without a flame.”
- Scientists have discovered that titanium dioxide-coated materials can easily remove thin deposits such as bacteria and fingerprints, though they are unable to break down thick splotches of organic materials—such as blood stains—because light and oxygen in the air cannot reach the surface where the reaction occurs.
- Fujishima says that when titanium-dioxide tiles were used in the operating rooms and bathrooms of Ako Central Hospital in Ako, Japan, they killed 99.9 per cent of bacteria on their surface. Included among them were penicillin-resistant Staphylococcus and other germs that can cause secondary infections among patients.
- The tiles—marketed by Japan’s Toto Corp under the name NeoClean—remain effective even though they are coated with a layer of titanium dioxide only one micron thick, about one-fiftieth the diameter of a human hair. Once the fine layer of compound is permanently affixed—it is commonly sprayed and then baked onto the tile’s surface— the company says it is resistant to the abrasion of ordinary scrubbing that might be needed for thicker stains. Moreover, because titanium dioxide acts only as a catalyst for the photochemical reaction, it theoretically never gets used up.
- While cleaning time varies with the thickness of the deposit, Adam Heller, a professor of Chemistry at the University of Texas at Austin, says his experiment shows that titanium dioxide-treated glass removed fingerprints in about two hours. This glass, versions of which both Heller and Fujishima have developed, could be made reactive on both sides, making it ideal for everything from sky-scraper windows to car window glass.
- The Japanese have tested other titanium dioxide-treated materials as well. Kazuhito Hashimoto, a chemist at Tokyo University, applied the compound to a porcelain urinal. After a month, the treated urinal looked sparkling clean while an untreated unit was blotched and yellowed. Elsewhere, researchers are experimenting to see if the tiles can keep themselves clean on the walls of heavily polluted car and truck tunnels. And a Japanese paper company is developing windows and partitions for Japanese houses while a camping equipment manufacturer is testing a self-cleaning tent fabric.
- But the most promising self-cleaning product is likely to be a wash-itself paint. Both the Texas and the Tokyo laboratories have demonstrated the self-cleaning capacities of paints containing titanium dioxide. While they are not saying exactly how they did it, both claim to have overcome an intrinsic problem in which titanium dioxide breaks down materials that bind pigments in coloured paints.
2.1 Give a suitable title to the passage. 1
2.2 Make notes of the contents of the passage you have read. Use a format you consider suitable. Use recognizable abbreviations wherever necessary. 4
2.3 Make a summary of the passage. 3
2.1 Title: Self Cleaning Materials
- Self clg. mats.
(a) clean dirt, stains
(b) eliminate foul odour & dang, bacteria
- Self clg. tiles—pple. of wk.
(a) uv rays —> TiO2
- Spl. props, of TiO2
(a) Ti02 makes paint/tooth paste white
(b) ability to break down H20 into H2 and O2
(c) abs. energy from uv band + reacts with H2O vapours —> prod. O2—> brk. org. matter —> CO2 + trace elements
- Discovery Testing & Research
(a) dis.- Akira Fujishima (Tokyo Univ.)—1969
(b) Testg.- Ako Central Hospl.
(c) Adam Heller (Texas Univ.)—TiO2 coated glass—removed finger prints in 2 hrs.
(a) Tiles called ‘Neo clean’
(b) Jap. Toto Corp.
- Future Prospects wash itself paint
2.3 Scientists of Japan and USA have developed many smart materials that not only clean themselves off dirt and stains but also eliminate adours and dangerous bacteria. Some tiles, glass, paint, paper and cloth have been introduced those can be kept clean manually. Titanium dioxide and ultraviolet rays from the sun are the keys to the self cleaning world. But the most effective and promising, self cleaning product is likely to be wash itself paint.
Note making Example Passage 6:
- It’s headache having a headache. Almost all of us have suffered from a headache at some time or the other. For some headache is a constant companion and life can be a painful hell of wasted time.
- The most important step to cope with headaches is to identify the type of headache one is suffering from. In tension headaches (two hand headache), a feeling of a tight band around the head exists along with pain in the neck and shoulders. It usually follows activities such as long stretches of driving, typing or sitting on the desk. They are usually short-timed, but can last for days or weeks?
- A headache is usually caused due to spinal misalignment of the head, due to poor posture. Sleeping on the stomach with the head turned to one side and bending over positions for a long time make it worse.
- In migraine headaches (one handed headaches), the pain is usually on one side of the head and may be accompanied by nausea, vomiting, irritability and bright spots of flashes of light. This headache is made worse by activity, especially bending. The throbbing pain in the head gets worse by noise and light. Certain triggers for migraines may be chocolate, caffeine, smoking or MSU in certain food items. The pain may last from eight to 24 hours and there may be a hangover for two-three days.
- Migraines are often preceded by an aura—changes in sight and sensation. There is usually a family history of migraine.
- In a headache the pain originates not from the brain but from irritated nerves of muscles, blood vessels and bones. These send pain signals to the brain which then judges the degree of distress and relays it at appropriate sites. The pain may sometimes be referred to sites other than the problem areas. This is known as referred pain and occurs due to sensation overload. Thus, though most headaches start at the base of the skull the referred pain is felt typically behind the eyes.
- Factors causing headaches are not fully understood but it is known that a shift in the level of body hormones and chemicals, certain food and drinks and environmental stress can trigger them.
- If headaches trouble you often, visit the doctor, who will take a full health history relating to diet, lifestyle stresses, the type of headache, triggering factors and relief measures. You may be asked to keep a “headache diary” which tells you to list the time the headache started, when it ended, emotional, environmental and food and drink factors which may have contributed to it. The type and severity of pain and the medications used which provided most relief, are also to be listed.
- This helps the doctor in determining the exact cause and type of headache and the type of drugs to use. Apart from this a physical examination is done to rule out any serious underlying cause. The blood pressure is recorded, vision tested and muscle coordination o; the eyes is checked to rule out these as causes. Blood tests may be done to rule out anaemia, diabetes and thyroid disease. If any of the above is abnormal or otherwise a CT Scan or MRI may be done to see tissues and structures around the brain. These will rule out causes such as tumors, haemorrhage and infection of the brain, this examination gives a clear picture of the problem to the doctor.
- Immediate relief can be obtained by certain medications and a few simple self-care techniques. Using ice against the pain site, covering eyes with dark glasses, drinking plenty of fluids and lying down in a dark and quiet room, provide relief in a migraine attack. Pain killers like aspirin, ibuprofen (brufen) and crocin can be taken and provide relief in different proportions. These should be used with caution and under medical supervision, if used for long periods and large quantities as all of them can cause many side effects. An antiemetic like perinorm can help the nausea associated with a migraine.
2.1 On the basis of your reading of the passage make notes on it, using recognizable abbreviations wherever necessary. Use a suitable format. Supply an appropriate title. 5
2.2 Make a summary of the passage. 3
2.2 All of us suffer from headache. It can be of many types. The tension headache is short lived. But there can be headache due to body posture. Migraine headache is caused due to nausea, vomitting and irritability. In headache pain starts from irritated nerves of muscles; blood vessels and bones. There are many other factors like food environment and body postures that may result in a headache. It can be cured through physical examination of doctor. Other diseases like B.P., diabetes may also be got checked. The best technique is to have self care or to use pain killers as per prescription of the doctor.
Note making Example Passage 7:
- It is an unpretentious structure tucked in a comer of Chandni Chowk. It could be missed by a passer-by but for the chirping which gives away its unique mission. The Charity Birds Hospital is the only one of its kind in the country. Many people arrive here daily with injured birds which they may have found lying by the roadside. After a quick inspection, an attendant makes a simple entry in the register: name of the person, kind of bird and date and “admits the patient” for treatment free of cost. The bird then becomes the sole responsibility of the hospital.
- The ailing bird is administered first-aid and then kept in an isolated cage. Often medication and proper care is all that is needed. After the wound heals, the bird is moved to a common section with other birds of its kind. Soon it will be healthy enough to fly away, may keep visiting the terrace for food and water. The work began way back in 1929 in a small one-room structure. One Lala Lachumal Jain, along with others, decided to start a medical facility for birds. A few years later it became increasingly difficult to treat the large number of birds being brought. In 1957 the present building was inaugurated.
- The progress of the hospital has been slow but steady. Till 1968 only ayurvedic treatment was being administered. Allopathy was adopted that year. And it was as recently as in 1992 that a laboratory was set up to conduct pathological tests. Though surgery is conducted at times and doctors try their best to save the bird’s life, it is often too late. The mortality rate is quite high: around five to six birds die everyday.
- The hospital survives only on charity. The trustees proudly claim that there is a steady flow of donations. Rich businessmen, visitors and even tourists donate generously. Till date they have never approached the government for funds. However, the hospital has drawbacks. It does not accept carnivorous birds and does not admit pet birds. Moreover, the bird is subjected to a lot of stress as, being in old Delhi, the place is not easily accessible. Since it survives on charity, it is unable to take up research work.
- But work goes on. The staff says, they have received as many as 50-60 cases a day. The hospital has an emergency ward and stays open round the clock. It spends approximately ? ₹ 6 lakh to ? ₹ 7 lakh annually and at any given time looks after 4000 to 5000 birds.
2.1 On the basis of your reading of the passage make notes on it, using recognizable abbreviations wherever necessary. Use a format you consider suitable. Supply a suitable title. 5
2.2 Make a summary of the passage. 3
2.1 Title: Charity Hospital for Birds
- Place & Origin
1.1 Locn. : Corner of Ch. Chowk
1.2 Founder : Lala Lachumal Jain (1929)
1.3 Growth : 1929 – 1 room struc.
1957 – pres. bldg.
1.4 Facilities : Upto 1968 – ayurvedic treatment
from 1968 – allopathy introduced
from 1992 – path, lab tests & surgery
- Procedure of treatment
4.1 charitable—no govt, funds
4.2 free of cost trtmt—4000 to 5000 birds per day
4.3 expenditure: Rs 6 – 7 lakhs annually
5.1 carnivorous & pets excluded
5.2 locn. inaccessible
5.3 no research wk.
- Place & Origin
2.2 Chandni Chowk has an unpretentious structure that is charity birds hospital which is one in the whole country. Birds are treated in the hospital after making an entry to the register, name of the person who carries the injured bird and treatment starts free of cost. The hospital takes the sole responsibility to heal the wounds of a bird. The bird is kept under observation till it become able to move to the common section with other birds. The hospital gets fund from tourists, visitors and common men but it does not get any fund from the govt. It’s annual expenditure is ? ₹ 6-7 lakhs.
Note making Example Passage 8:
- The term earthquake is applied to any tremor or shaking of the ground. Many earthquakes are so gentle as to pass almost unrecognised, others are sufficiently pronounced to excite general alarm, while some spread enormous destruction. Destructive earthquakes are usually confined to limited regions. The usual phenomena recorded in well-known earthquakes are first a trembling, next one or more severe shocks, and then a trembling which gradually dies away. In most cases, each shock lasts only a few seconds, but the tremblings that follow may continue for days, weeks, or even months. Noises of various kinds usually accompany an earthquake. They have been likened to the howling of storm, the growling of thunder, the clanking and clashing of iron chains, or the rumbling of heavy wagons along a road. Such noises are conducted through the ground, or thev may travel through the sea or air, and are often heard at great distances from the place where the shock is felt. Some earthquakes, however, are not accompanied by these noises. At the time of the terrible shock which destroyed Riobamba in Ecuador on February 4, 1797, a complete silence reigned.
- Many changes are produced on the earth’s surface by earthquakes. They cause landslips and cracks in the earth, which will sometimes alter the drainage system of a country. They are frequently accompanied by great seawaves, which will often sweep rocks and sand great distances inland. Permanent elevations and depressions of land are sometimes caused. After the great earthquakes of 1750, the coast of Chili was found to have been permanently raised from three to four feet. Well-known examples of permanent depressions are those of the Runn of Kutch and the coastlands near Chittagong, which suddenly sank during the Bengal earthquake of 1762.
- Earthquakes are the most common in volcanic and mountainous regions, and many of them are no doubt due to volcanic action. These appear to originate in the sea, and may be due to the flashing into steam of the water which finds its way down through cracks to the underlying heated rocks. Others appear to originate in volcanoes themselves, being due to the explosion of vapours which expand. Many other causes are ascribed, of which two may be mentioned. Some earthquakes may be due to the collapse of hollows beneath the ground, and others again to the snapping of strata which has been subjected to too great a strain. It is noticeable that most earthquakes occur during the cold months of winter.
- Among destructive earthquakes in modern times may be mentioned the one that altered the Straits of Messina between Italy and Sicily in 1908, and the terrible upheaval in Japan in 1925, which destroyed whole towns and caused the death of thousands of people.
2.1 Make notes of the contents of the passage you have read. Use a format you consider suitable. Use recognizable abbreviations where necessary. Give a suitable title to the passage. 5
2.2 Make a summary of the passage. 3
2.1 Title: Earthquake
- Defn.-tremor/shak’g of grnd
- Types ofE’quake
(a) Gentle – unrecog’d
(b) Suff. pron’d – gentle alarm
(c) Severe—eno. dest’n
- Signs of Occurrence
(a) Trembl’g – 1 or more severe shocks – trembl’g
(b) Various Noises
(i) howl’g of storm
(ii) growl’g of thunder
(iii) clank’g / clash’g of iron chains
(iv) rumbl’g of heavy wagon on road
(c) Range – thro’ grd, sea, air – heard at distance
(d) Some e’quakes silent
- Changes in Earth’s Surface
(a) Landslips and cracks – drainage alt’d
(b) E’quake + sea waves – roAt. & :;.rr,d awept inland
(c) Perm’t elev’ns/depr’ns
(a) mount, region
(a) Volcanic action in mount.
(b) Sea water entg. heated rocks
(c) Explo’n of expanding vapour
(d) Collapse of under grd. hollows
(e) Snap’g of strata
- Occurrence – cold months/winter
- Most Dest. E’quakes
(i) 1908 – straits of Messina altered
(ii) 1925 – Japan – Upheaval – Towns dest’d – thousands kill’d
2.2 Earthquake takes place due to tremor or shaking of the ground. Some earthquakes are so gentle that these are known unrecognised while some spread destruction. Destructive earthquakes are noisy, linked to the howling of storm, the growling of thunder, the clanking and clashing of iron chains. Many earthquakes also cause land slips and cracks in the earth that sometimes affect the drainage system of the country. In volcanic and mountainous regions, earthquakes are common. It is also noted that most earthquake occur during winter.
- The one industry that remains unaffected by any depression in trade is the beauty industry. The women world over continue to spend money on their faces and bodies even when there is a great slump in other areas of trade. The number of advertisements proclaiming the miracles performed by the various beauty aids goes to support the fact that, today, with all the talk about emancipation, equality of sexes and feminism, women are still observed with their physical beauty as they were in the times of Cleopatra.
- America leads the figures, literally and metaphorically. Many parts of Europe by virtue of being affected by political and economic instability, leave precious little for women to beautify themselves. May be, all that women in Europe, can then do is to wash and hope for the best. But, the rich and upper middle class women, everywhere in the world, block a substantial amount of their income on beautifying themselves. Why is it so?
- The richer the man gets the more obsessed he becomes with high powered cars and electronic gadgets and bank balances. On the contrary, the women, especially the urban upper middle class women, find their bodies and faces worthy of investing a major part of their income.
- Women, these days, are much freer than they were in the last century. Not only are they free to take part in social and professional functions of a society as an equal to man, but also to look attractive in any given situation. The beauty industry is shrewd enough to exploit this trend and women in every walk of life have something to buy from the range of products that the beauty industry offers. The British matron, today, is the thing of the past.
- As a result of the number of beauty parlours that have sprung up in every street corner of the metropolises, and the exercises, the health motors and the skin foods that they offer, you can hardly run into an old woman these days. One could say ‘old ladies’ are fast becoming an extinct species. White hair, wrinkles, bent backs and hollow cheeks are features of a bygone era. Cosmetic surgery has slowly eradicated these unwanted phenomena. If children of posterity want to look at an old woman, they might have to run to an art gallery and find a medieval painting.
2.1 On the basis of your reading of the above passage, make notes on it, using recognizable abbreviations where necessary. Use a format you consider suitable. Supply an appropriate title. 5
2.2 Make a summary of the passage. 3
2.1 Title: Beauty Industry
- Flourishing Ind.
(a) Unaffected by depn.
(b) Advts. – miracles of bty. aids .
(c) Phy. bty – still pop. among women
- Craze for Beautification
(a) America leads figs.
(b) Parts of Europe – little for bty. aids
(c) Everywhere in the world – sub. amt.
(ii) Upp. mid. els.
(a) Rich women – invt on bodies & faces
(b) Women’s freedom – eq. to man
(i) social/prof, funct. of soc.
(ii) Look attractive in any sitn.
(c) Shrewdness of bty ind.
(i) Exploits the trend to look btyful
(ii) Women of all classes – buy beauty aids
- Old ladies – extinct species
(a) Beauty parlours
(i) ex. thro, health motors
(ii) skin foods
(b) Cosmetic surgery
No white hair, wrinkles, bent backs or hollow cheeks
2.2 Beauty industry has become flourishing industry which is unaffected by any depression. Advertisements proclaim miracles of beauty aids. Women loves to maintain their physical beauty in all nations. America leads the figures, though in some parts of Europe the women are not crazy for beauty. Yet everywhere in the world the women spent a big amount of their income on beautifying themselves. The women of all classes buy beauty aids and pay a handsome amount in beauty parlours. The features of old age has been challenged by cosmetic surgery. So the old ladies are fast becoming an extinct species.
- According to the National Council for Applied Economic Research’s latest report, India’. Human Development Report which is a profile of the Indian states in the 1990s, there are many problems in women’s education. Girls are taken out of school as soon as some calamity hits the family’s fortunes. They are made to look after their younger siblings and they are not looked upon as ‘investment’. In order to marry them off early and without problems, girls are not allowed to traverse long distances to go to schools. They are not allowed to study under male teachers. Affluent families invest in girls’ education only if they are assured of getting better bridegrooms.
- So high is the girls’ drop out rate that there are only 52 girls to every 100 boys who complete middle school. Gender disparity is higher among matriculates and 40 women to every 100 men ever pass the examination. The only gender egalitarian state is Kerala and it is very difficult to come across a female graduate in a village excepting in Kerala. Gender disparity varies with household income and poverty level and the poorer the family, the greater the temptation to invest in boys’ education. It also varies according to social class. The lowest level of matriculates is among the SC/STs and Muslims.
- Another important finding is that at the critical age of 25 to 34 years, there is higher gender disparity in education, with high levels of female illiteracy, in the problematic central Indian states (Bihar, MP, Rajasthan and UP). This is indicative of other connected problems that these states face. When women are illiterate, they are not able to look after their children’s health and the mortality rate may be high. Faced with a high mortality rate of children, there is a tendency to have more children and the fertility rate remains high. Among the SC/ST women in the reproductive age of 15 to 35, only 6 to 9 percentage of literacy can be found in Bihar and UP.
- Female labour participation reveals that as soon as the family’s income improves, women give up working whether in the fields or in non-farm activities or at home in income generating activities. It is not surprising that they stop working because there is a huge gender disparity in wage rates. Even when women do the same arduous work they are paid on average ? ₹ 17 a day as compared to ? ₹ 23 for men.
- When women are educated they can at least look after their own and the family’s health, better. Without adequate education, there is a low level of awareness about ailments and sheer ignorance can cause them to ascribe ailments to non-medical, often supernatural causes. Uneducated women are often too shy to reveal their diseases and many do not go to doctors out of fear that it may cause undue expenses to their budgetary balances. Pregnant women in many villages have been found not to be given any special diet. In fact they often reduce their food intake because of the prevailing belief that they cannot digest heavy food. There is gender disparity in most states in the treatment of young children and the elderly.
- In any case, a majority of the rural areas do not have provision for primary health care services. The prevalence of diseases is rather high in the southern states, West Bengal and Punjab perhaps because of better reporting of sickness and the availability of treatment. About 41 million individuals receive medication for major illnesses at a point of time in India and the highest prevalence is of hypertension followed by tuberculosis. The critical issues of education and health are closely connected with expansion of job opportunities and while reducing unemployment has been a standard slogan during the elections by all parties, the emphasis on health and education has been subdued.
2.1 Make notes on the contents of the passage you have read. Use a format you consider suitable. Use abbreviations where necessary. Also give a suitable title to the passage. 5
2.2 Make a summary of the passage. 3
2.1 Title: Neglect of Women’s Education & Health
- Female drop-outs in schools
(a) family hit by calamity—girl looks after siblings
(b) girl’s edn. – not regarded invt.
(i) rich – invt. if better bridegm
(c) prob. free mar’ge
(i) early age
(ii) no long dist. to sch’l
(iii) no male trs.
- High drop-out rate/illiteracy
(a) gender disparity in edn – directly: to
(i) h.h. income & poverty level
(ii) social clusters
(iii) prob. central Indian states
- Female labour participation
(a) family income imps. – women give up wkg
(b) huge gender disparity in wage rates
- Results of inadequate female edn.
(a) Health probs.
(iii) shyness about disease
(iv) fear of undue expenses
(v) lack of proper diet to preg. wn.
- Lack of rural/health care services
(a) high prevalence of diseases
41 millions get medn.
(b) southern states, W.B. & Pun.
(i) better report’g of sickness
(ii) availability of trtmt.
(c) most com’n diseases
2.2 Women’s education is still legging behind under various factors. If any calamity hits the family girls are taken out of school to look after their younger siblings. Girls education is not regard as investment. Only the rich class educate their girls for better match. Most of the parents do not like to send their girl child in distant school or taught by male teachers. The working womens give up their job with an increase in their family income. Secondly inadequate education in female create health problems due to ignorance, superstitions and fear of undue expense. There is lack of rural health care services so the rural women become victims of diseases like T.B., hypertension etc.
- The recently concluded Kyoto Conference on the production of gases with a greenhouse effect on the environment has again brought into focus the issue involving the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs).
- These are widely used for their cooling and propelling actions in equipment such as air- conditioners, fire extinguishers and refrigerators. Most of the CFCs are non-toxic, inert and non-inflammable, therefore, ideal for both domestic and commercial use. In medicine, their use is widespread for general purposes listed above. More specifically, they are used as propellants for inhalational drugs commonly used by patients with asthma and other lung diseases. Millions of patients using metered dose inhalers (MDI) are thus dependent on CFCs—until CFC-free inhalers become available.
- The inhalational therapy, which almost revolutionised the management of asthma, is apparently in danger. It was in the 1970s when the scientists first discovered that the CFCs were dangerous for the environment. CFCs released in the environment are broken down by the sunlight to release chlorine atoms. It is the chlorine atom which destroys the ozone layer present about 40 km above the earth.
- The effect is so potent that one atom of chlorine can destroy up to 100000 molecules of ozone.
- The normally present ozone layer prevents the entry of the extra terrestrial rays on the earth. A hole created in this protective umbrella allows the harmful ultraviolet and other rays to pass unfiltered. This phenomenon is commonly referred to as the greenhouse effect resulting in global warming. The size of the hole which was supposedly of a football ground until a few years ago, has grown to that of Antarctica. That in itself speaks of the enormity of the problem.
- The contribution of CFC propellants used in medicine to the greenhouse effect is negligible. CFCs used in inhalers are less than 0.5 per cent of its total worldwide use. In fact, propulsion of a single satellite in space releases more chlorine than that by the worldwide use of MDIs for a whole year. Even the Montreal Protocol which introduced total ban on CFCs had spared the essential uses such as that for MDIs.
- But a ban on CFCs for most of their uses is bound to affect their inhalational therapy. Production of CFCs is likely to stop in the near future. Moreover, a relative scarcity of CFCs is likely to greatly increase the costs of inhalers. Alternative approaches, therefore, are immediately required.
- Inhalational therapy is now established as an important method of administration of drugs. It is certainly the mainstay for treatment of asthma. But several other drugs, including antibiotics are administered in inhaled forms. CFCs are required only when a drug is available in a premixed form in a canister for direct inhalation. But drugs, other than those for asthma are not available as ready-made inhalers. Most of those drugs, including many used for asthma as well, are given by nebulization which involves the use of compressed air (or oxygen) to change the liquid solution into a vapour-form. But nebulization does not solve the problem as it cannot replace the inhalers.
- Alternative propellant gases using fluorocarbons without a chlorine atom, are being developed. Fluorine released by these propellants is considered to be safe for the ozone layer. But inhalers employing such gases are yet not available.
- Another novel technique is to substitute the liquid inhalational drug with a powdered form. Several kinds of dry-powder inhalers are already available in the market. The methodology is easy and simple for the patient but for the problem of dosage. Per dose the amount of drug which can be inhaled in a powder form is generally less than that from an MDI. We have différé .t rotahalers and rotacaps available in India. Elsewhere, in the world, there are disc-halers where a single disc contains multiple (six to eight) blisters of the drug, or a turbohaler where 100 to 200 dosages are made available in a single unit. It is only a question of time when these forms shall be marketed in this country as well. Those are bound to be costlier to absorb the expenses of research, development and marketing.
- Undoubtedly, better alternatives will be developed in future. Until then, one hopes that the benefits of inhalational therapy with or without the use of CFCs are not denied to the patients.
2.1 On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes using appropriate symbols and abbreviations in any one of the accepted formats. Also supply an appropriate title. 5
2.2 Make a summary of the passage. 3
2.1 Title: Inhalers and Environment
- CFCs & Envt
(a) dangerous for envt.
(b) releases Cl – dest. Og
(c) green-house effect—global warm’g
- Use of CFCs
(a) Domestic & commercial
(i) AC, fridge.
(ii) fire extg.
(i) propellants for inhal. drugs
(ii) MDI for asthma.
- Inhaler Therapy
(a) CFC inhal’s – neg. gr’n house eff.
(b) Trtmt. of asthma.
(c) Admn. antibiotic in inhaled forms.
- Alternative Approach
(b) FCS w’out Cl
(c) dry powder inhs.—prob. of dosages
- rotahalers & rota caps.
- disc halers – 6 to 8 dos.
- turbohalers – 100 to 200 dos.
2.2 CFCs is dangerous for environment as it releases chlorine atoms which destroy the ozone layer, causes greenhouse effect and global warming. It is widely used in domestic and commercial purposes. CFC inhalers contribute negligible greenhouse effect. It is not only treatment of Asthma but also administrates antibiotic in inhaled forms. As alternate approaches FCs without chlorine atom are being developed. Another novel technique is to substitute the liquid inhalational drug with a powdered form. Different rotahalers and rotacaps are available in India.
- This may seem like straight out of a Harry Potter book, but it happens to be true. The three thousand year old publishing medium – Paper, might soon get obsolete. Or, its use might get severely curtailed, with the arrival of electronic ink – a close cousin to the e-paper.
- The functionality of the whole experiment lies in its simplicity. The new technology not only looks, feels and is portable like the conventional paper, but is also eco-friendly.
- E-ink, a US based company is on the fast track of developing e-ink that looks just like grey paint, but inside there are hundreds and thousands of microcapsules, which change their colour from light to dark when exposed to an electronic field.
- Since these microcapsules float free in an oil-based liquid – the “carrier medium”, they can be printed on just about any flat surface, convex, concave or even cloth material. Currently, e-ink is hawking this technology only to the likes of JC Penney, which has begun to use its simplified versions for a futuristic promotional campaign. Commercial application is still a bend away. The primitive version of the technology was developed at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Centre and was promptly christened Gyricon (from a Greek word standing for rotate + image). This was because the technology involved floating microspheres.
- The success formula behind the cutting-edge technology lies in the reusable paper that can ‘typeset’ itself through a wireless system, enabling updation of contents throughout the day-almost like a web update.
- The fundamentals are so simple, it is amazing how it eluded scientists for so long. In a nutshell, it combines the clarity, userfriendliness and affordability of the conventional paper, with the immediacy of the Web and can even be folded and kept in the briefcase for an easy lugging to the office.
- “There is a strong demand to retain all the good properties of paper and yet couple it with electronic distribution”, says a senior scientist associated team on the company’s Web site. In other words, if one is to replace paper, the electronic alternative should also look like paper. This might even please the strong environmentalists’ lobby, who have always stood up in arms against the massive tree-felling by the paper industry. According to one conservative estimate, an average reader consumes nearly 740 pounds of paper pulp every year.
- Another drawback with the paper industry is that the printed words are so static that they can neither be erased nor updated. The new technology creates a dynamic high resolution display over a thin and flexible medium and is expected to hit the market by 2003. It will perhaps herald an altogether new reading style with the paraphernalia of e-books and e-paper that can display volumes of information as easily as turning a page and permanent newspaper surfaces that update themselves daily via a wireless broadcast.
- E-ink constitutes of millions of microcapsules having a transparent outer shell. Inside are tiny white pigment chips that float in a blue coloured dye. These white spheres carry a positive charge. The e-ink with millions of such microcapsules are placed between two electrodes. When the top electrode layer is negatively charged, it draws the positively charged white coloured pigment chips towards the top, reading surface, making them shine and stand out against the background of the blue dye. And, Loila! the letters and images become legible. A similar charge in the lower layer pulls the white pigments down, making them invisible to the eye. A combination of such white pigment chips on the surface make the words and images visible. These characters can easily be changed any time by altering with the charge on the electrode layers, which is manipulated through the wireless signals. The e-ink is already in use on display boards at several US supermarkets, airports, ATMs and offices.
- The commercial advantages include its thinness, low weight and power efficiency (0.1 watts). The system is networkable through wireless and wired systems and is also mobile (if supported by wireless system). Thus, the displays can be controlled from one central location. Need a publisher or,a reader ask for anything more? (For more details access the official site, www.eink.com).
2.1 Make notes on the contents of the passage above. Use a format you consider suitable. Use abbreviations where necessary. Also give a suitable title to the passage. 5
2.2 Make a summary of the passage. 3
2.1 Title: E-ink & E-paper .
- Characteristics of E-ink
(a) looks like grey paint
(b) mns. micro caps.
(c) oil-based liquid
(d) printed on any surface.
(i) flat (ii) convex (iii) concave (iv) cloth
- E-paper – Qualities
(a) reus’le – typset itself
(b) updat’g contents – like web
(c) clarity, userfr’dliness, affordability – convn’l paper
(d) imm’cy of web
(e) foldg. & lug’g
- Advantages of E-paper
(a) no tree fell’g – envt. lobby pleased
(b) printed words stat. – no erasion no. updt’g
(c) high display over thin & flex’le medium
- Working of E-ink
(a) white pigment chips inside micro caps —> +ve charge
(b) blue coloured dye
(c) E-ink placed between 2 electrodes
(d) – ve charged top elec, layer – pig’ts shine – letters image
(e) – ve charged lower layer – pig’ts invisible
(f) manipulation by wireless
2.2 Electronic ink-a close cousin of the e-paper looks like grey paint. This oil based liquid has thousands of microcapsules as carrier medium. They can be printed on just about any flat surface, convex, concave or even cloth material. The E-paper is eco-friendly. The printed words are static that they can neither is erased nor updated. High resolution is displayed over a thin and flexible medium. The tiny white pigment chips carry a positive charge. The commercial advantages include its thinness, low weight and power efficiency. The system is manipulated by wireless.
- Many have labelled the prevailing drought situation as a man-made disaster. Towns and villages over large parts of the country are desperate for water. Many are dependent on periodic tanker supplies ferried across considerable distances. As summer advances, communities may be compelled to migrate unless help comes their way.
- Rainfall is often erratic and unevenly distributed over space and time. Many regions regularly experience recurrent drought and/or flood as part of their normal hydrological cycle. Droughts, like floods, are therefore no surprise. It can be mitigated, even averted, by drought-proofing and, like flood, must be appropriately managed as and when it occurs.
- Population growth and development aimed at enhancing the quality of life entails larger water use. This is subjecting India to increase seasonal and regional water stress, with deteriorating water quality being an aggravating factor. Water conservation at all times and places, improved water management and maintaining water quality are therefore critical.
- These measures are not necessarily mutually exclusive and each has certain costs and benefits. The objective should be to secure optimality. The notion that rainwater harvesting, groundwater recharge and sound water management by themselves can provide a complete or sufficient answer to India’s water needs is mistaken. Pursued as a panacea that obviates the need for large dams, it could rob the country of vital insurance against disaster.
- It is wholly fallacious to argue that if hundreds of large dams (over 15 metres high) have not averted the drought this year, the hugely demonised Sardar Sarovar, for instance, will make no difference. The simple answer is that the hundreds of dams and storages on local rain-fed rivers and smaller conservation works and traditional systems must fail if the rains fail. Deserted villages are mute testimony to this truth.
- Sufficient rain must first fall before it can be harvested in situ. North Gujarat, Saurashtra and Kutch suffer aridity. But the Narmada rises over 1300 kilometres away in a relatively high rainfall region. If its abundant flood waters are stored, these can be diverted from the terminal Sardar Sarovar dam to the very areas of Gujarat most troubled by drought. Gujarat’s allotted share of nine million acre feet of water—or even half that quantum— would have averted much of the present distress had the dam height reached 110 metres when the canals would begin to flow and generate energy.
- The distribution system is far advanced and would have guaranteed drinking water, fodder and livelihood to millions. It would have recharged groundwater and filled hundreds of village ponds and depressions en route.
- Dams are not a unique or absolute solution. But it is a dangerous mantra that small is beautiful, big is bad. The two go together. What would northwest India, indeed all of India, be minus the Bhakra-Pong? The country has a huge task ahead to manage its water resources sensibly, optimally and equitably. This is what the nation must address unitedly without losing more time in futile, wholly unproductive arguments. The present drought is both a crisis and an opportunity. Which shall it be?
2.1 Make notes on the contents of the above passage in any format, using abbreviations. Supply an appropriate title also. 5
2.2 Make a summary of the passage. 3
2.1 Title: Managing Country’s Water Crisis
- Effects of Drought
(a) towns & vills. desperate for water
(b) periodic tanker supply
(c) mign. in sum. if ho help
- Cause of Drought
(a) erratic & uneven rainfall
(b) population growth & development – large water use
(c) deterioration in water quality
- Measures to Overcome Drought
(a) wat. conservat’n
(b) improved water management
(c) maintain’g water quality
(d) harvest’g rain water
(e) recharg’g ground water
(f) storage – micro to mega
- Water Mgmt. by Dams
(a) stor. & prop, distn.
(i) drkg. wat.
(b) supplements traditional measures
(i) recharg’g grd wat.
(ii) filling vill. ponds & depressions
- Ideal Solution
dams + trad’l measures
2.2 Drought is manmade disaster. Towns and villages disperate of water get periodic taker supply. In summer in lack of sufficient supply people have to migrate. Drought cause due to uneven rainfall, large use of water by large population. To overcome drought water conservation, water management, rain water harvesting and recharging of the ground water should be promoted. Hundreds of dams and storage on local rain fed rivers and small traditional manners can also reduce the problem of water drought.
- The world today is confronted with a large number of problems like arms proliferation, fundamentalism, separatist movements as well as international terrorism. International terrorism has today emerged as one of the most ominous threats to world peace and security. There has been considerable growth of terrorism between the 1960s and 1980s. This has largely been due to the characteristics of the international system. The most important of these are deep and bitter ethnic, religious and ideological conflicts which remain unresolved and which fester in the international system, spawning many forms of violent conflicts, terrorism and periodically erupting into civil and international wars.
- Another underlying factor for the growth of terrorism is the use of unconventional and proxy war methods. Here terrorism becomes an attractive instrument of policy for states and sub-state organisations such as national liberation movements. Such methods are low-cost, relatively low-risk and yet afford the possibility of high yields.
- The worldwide dissemination of new technology has also facilitated the growth of terrorism. For example, the development of international civil aviation has created new vulnerabilities and lucrative targets for terrorists to exploit. Modern weapon technology has also proved to be a boon to terrorists.
- Terrorism today has taken different forms. These include political terrorism involving not only the use of terrorism by the state but also against the state, religious terrorism, micro terrorism as well as the recent emergence of nuclear terrorism.
- The legitimacy of terrorism depends on various factors. Perceptions vary. The greatest justification which a terrorist finds is in a struggle between two adversaries: it is not the means but the end which is important. The United Nations Human Rights Commission has recognised that terrorism can destroy human rights and fundamental freedom of the people and threatens the territorial integrity of nations.
- One of the most basic rights of every individual is the right to life. Terrorism, which basically involves violence and killing thus takes away this right from individuals. Besides, the use of violence for achieving a goal, no matter how justified it is the same cannot be approved.
- Terrorism also poses a law and order problem for the state while at the same time the economy suffers as a result of damage to trade, valuable resources as well as scaring away of investors. It is thus imperative to look for some mechanism to check the problem of international terrorism. Although there exists a large number of treaties including extradition treaties, they have not been able to check terrorism. This has happened due to the failure of states to comply with the provision of the treaties.
2.1 On the basin of your reading of the passage , make notes on it using recognizable abbreviations wherever necessary. Also suggest a suitable title to the passage. 5
2.2 Make a summary of the passage. 3
2.1 Title: International Terrorism
- Terrorism—threat to world peace & security
(a) probs. like crime proliferation
- Causes of terrorism
(a) deep & bitter ethnic, rel. & ideo. conflicts
(b) periodical civil & internat’l wars
(c) unconv’l & proxy war methods
(i) low cost
(iii) high yield
(d) dissemination of new technology
(e) modem weapon tech.
- Diff. forms of Terrorism
- Justification of Terrorism
(a) struggle between 2 adversaries
(b) end imp. not means
- Dangers of Terrorism
(a) destroy human rights & freedom of people
(b) threatens terr’l integrity of nations
(c) law & order prob.
(d) setback to economy
(i) damages trade & resources
(ii) scares away investors
2.2 Terrorism is threat to world peace and security. The causes behind it are deep and bitter ethnic, religious and ideological conflicts, periodical civil and international wars. Unconventional and proxy war methods are also another factor. The worldwide dissemination of new technology support the terrorism while modem weapon technology has also proved to be a boon to terrorism. Basically terrorism has taken different forms like political, religious, microterrorism and nuclear terrorism. Terrorism is struggle between two adversaries as it destroy human rights and freedom of people. So it must be eradicated to protect integrity of nations.
- Out of the staggering amount of money that the state and central government spend on higher education, fifty per cent is wasted due to fifty per cent failures in the university examinations all over the country. There is a single strong reason why a university degree should be paid for in full by the student himself.
- This thinking has been gathering momentum since January 1986, when the pay scales of college and university teachers were revised and which put an additional burden of more than a hundred crores on the University Grants Commission and the state governments. Arrears to the tune of ₹ 5,000 to ₹ 22,000 were given to all teachers in most of the 150 universities and 5,000 colleges of the country. Because of the enhanced salary and dearness allowance, which is revised every January and July, the government expenditure on higher education has almost doubled during the last five years.
- As against this, the tuition fees have remained static since Independence (with minimal revisions last year). Not that the governments did not consider the question of raising them, but the threat of student agitation and political unpopularity proved a hurdle too strong to surmount. Consequently, there is now a yawning gap between what a college student pays and what the state spends on him.
- According to UGC sources, a student pays rupees 200, 250 and 325 per annum for education in arts, commerce and science respectively, whereas the government subsidy amounts to Rupees 2800, 3400 and 4200 annually. This includes the expenditure incurred by some trust managed colleges which, according to the rules of the states in which they function, comes to 5 per cent to 3 per cent. But as most of the colleges have found ways to evade even this responsibility, the ultimate burden falls on the governments themselves.
- A way out of the imbroglio was thought out in recent years. The Human Resources Development Ministry floated the concept of autonomous colleges. After much public debate it was decided that some hundred colleges should be granted autonomy to begin with. Now about 90 colleges are autonomous. They are making appointments, framing their own syllabi and conducting examinations, but have not yet been able to muster up courage to enhance fees. They continue to eive maintenance grants from the state coffers.
- Under the circumstances, the concept of self-financing higher education seems to be a remote dream. Secondly, as most of the university campuses are politically alive and financially bankrupt, the government will have to continue paying them their annual grants. Suddenly, converting them into self-financing institutions has become impossible. It is a different matter if the states start a new set of educational institutions as totally self-financed. But who will bear the huge initial expenditure—the parents or the government?
2.1 On the basis of your reading of the above passage, make notes on it, using recognizable abbreviations where necessary. Use a format you consider suitable. Supply an appropriate title. 5
2.2 Make a summary of the passage. 3
2.1 Self-financing University Education
- Reasons for making univ. degrees paid in full
1.1. huge expenditure due to hr. edu.
1.2 50% wastage due to univ. exams
1.3. univ. income static
1.4. wide diff. between income & exp.
- Reason for keeping tuition fee static
2.1. threat of student agitation
2.2. fear of political unpopularity
- Concept of autonomous colleges
3.1. HRD Ministry’s brain child – a way out
3.2. have autonomy in
(i) framing syllabi
3.3. Fees not enhanced yet
- Self-financing hr. edu. remote
4.1. univ. campus politically alive, financially bankrupt
4.2. new set of educational institutions – totally self-financed
4.3. to introduce self-financing or not
4.4. huge initial expenditure – who will bear – parents/govt.?
2.2 Fifty percent of staggering amount of money spent by govt, on higher education is wasted. There are various reasons for making university degree paid in full. Huge expenditure due to higher education, static income of university. Fear of political unpopularity and threat of student agitation prevent universities in revising the fees. Autonomous colleges have also failed to enhance fear. Most of the university campuses are politically alive and financially bankrupt. Self financial educational institutions are remote dream under these circumstances but who will bear the huge initial expenditure – the parents or the government?
- There are so many things we humans tend to hold back on. We repress a lot of our emotions, whether they are considered ‘good’ or “had’ ones.
- Sometimes we hold back on expressing our love for fear of being misunderstood, or perhaps thinking the timing is not ‘right’. Most commonly, we have been taught to hold back on our ‘negative’ emotions fear, anger, sorrow, pain, etc.
- As a child, I was often told to squelch those emotions that demonstrated ‘weakness’. I held back my tears in order to appear strong. I repressed my anger to be a ‘good girl’ and ‘loving’.
- Yet, I now realize that holding back anger or any other emotion affects negatively the person who is holding back. The anger I refused to let out stayed locked up inside, fermented, and gave rise to all kinds of poison. Frustrations and anger were withheld, only to explode when I’d ‘had enough’. This anger later had to be released through illness, situations where the anger was unleashed at someone or something else (or at myself), or through therapy.
- What happens when you feel anger (consciously or sub-consciously) but want to hide it? Whatever we hold back becomes a part of us and gets stored in our body as a tangible manifestation in the form of headaches, tension, pain, illness, ulcers, cancer, arthritis, back pain, and many other physical ailments.
- Of course, we feel that by holding back on expressing our anger we are doing the ‘right’ thing and not hurting anyone. Yet, little do we know, the other person may need to hear what we have to say, just as much as we need to express it.
- Of course, we need to learn how to express our anger or discontent without ‘dumping’ on the other. We can express ourselves without destroying the other person’s sense of self-worth or attacking them emotionally, verbally, or physically.
- Expressing our deepest feelings also applies to expressing feelings of love and appreciation. How many times have we felt gratefulness towards another being, sometimes just for their presence in our life, and failed to express it? That person may really need to hear your words of praise to give them a boost in their own self-esteem. May be they are unaware of what you so clearly see in them.
- I have found that at times when I expressed feelings of gratitude and love to others, they were surprised at the way I saw them. Never assume that the other person knows how much you appreciate them. If you think it and feel it, then say it.
- Our rational mind has been well trained to dissect and analyse. It likes to hold back on acting instinctively and instead question scientifically what is the ‘right’ action to take. So, we’ve held our true selves back, and not expressed that inner inspiration to laugh, cry, scream, give a hug, or say a kind word when our first feeling guided us to do so.
- Whatever first thought or feeling comes to you is your intuition, or in other words, your divine inspiration. Any other thoughts that follow, i.e. “may be I shouldn’t say that”, etc., are only your mind (ego) doubting and questioning, afraid of making a ‘mistake’.
- The best thing to do is to follow your first instinct, your inner guidance, which comes as the first feeling or thought. That is your ‘God-self.’ The universal power of Love guides us towards happiness, and that is why our first instinct is always the one that will bring us true happiness and inner peace.
- We can choose to let go of the fear of being wrong, or appearing ridiculous, etc., and act on our feelings. Be true to yourself. Holding back is only postponing the truth and can harm the other as well as ourselves. Holding back is postponing the freedom to be who we really are loving, truthful children who desire to be happy and free from negativity.
- Let go! Express your truth today! You and your world will be better for it.
2.1 On the basis of your reading of the above passage, make notes on it, using recognizable abbreviations where necessary. Yse a format you consider suitable. Supply an appropriate title. 5
2.2 Make a summary of the passage. 3
2.1 Title: Repression V/s Expression of Emotions
- Repression of emotions
(a) children taught to repress -ve emotions
(b) even love not expressed
(i) fear of being misunderstood
(ii) time not rt.
- Negative Effects of Repressed emotions
(a) suppressed anger & frustration —> poison —> sudden explosion
(b) ways of Release:
(c) Tangible manifestations
headache, tension, pain, ulcers, cancer, arthiritis, etc.
(d) postponing truth
∴ harmful to self & others
(e) postponing freedom to be real self i.e.
loving, truthful, happy & free from-vity
- Rational Mind V/s Instinct
(a) Mind dissects & analyses
∴ checks instinctive reaction
(b) First instinct inner inspiration or intuition
∴ gives love, happiness and peace
(a) follow inner inspiration
(b) express yourself freely
2.2 Children are taught to repress negative emotions. Fear of being misunderstood prevent them even in expressing love. Repressed emotions suppressed anger, frustration, poison and sudden explosion which may cause illness like headache tension, pain, ulcers, cancer, arthirites etc. In life postponing truth is harmful to self as well as others. So freedom should not be postponed to make your world better and happier.
- Had it not been for an alert and environmentally conscious judiciary, chances are that we would have literally been wallowing in our own filth. Once again, the Supreme Court has intervened decisively to prevent the further degradation of the Yamuna by asking industries discharging effluents into the river to install treatment plants by November 1 or face closure. The river, once Delhi’s lifeline, is now ‘dead’ for a stretch of around 32 km around the Capital. The courts have been forced into this sort of judicial activism time and again in the face of blatant violations of environmental norms both by industries and citizens. Over the last few years, the courts have facilitated the introduction of lead- free petrol, ordered the phasing out of automobiles which are over 15 years old and made pollution checks for all vehicles mandatory. The apex court has been relentless in its opposition to any move which affects the environment adversely. From banning polythene bags in cities to censuring polluting shrimp farms in Tamil Nadu and chemical units in Rajasthan, it has always upheld the principle that pollution prevention is better than control. The courts have laid down rigorous standards for industries right from the inception stage. Indian industry has been particularly indifferent to preserving the environment and the health of those in and around industrial units.
- The Central Pollution Control Board has come up with a number of positive suggestions on enforcing the green agenda. But the response from industries has been tardy. One was a scheme which sought to pool the resources of industrial units so as to fund a common effluent treatment plant. But, industries find it more convenient to discharge their waste any which way, endangering the lives of those in the vicinity and degrading common resources like land and water. Proposals to levy commercial rates on water supply to industries have been overlooked so far, leaving industries with little incentive to treat and reuse water. Now the government itself has agreed to foot part of the cost to set up effluent treatment plants in the hope that this will motivate industry to take action. The common refrain that the technology required for waste management is expensive is valid, but industries have to realise that they cannot indulge in poisonous practices in the pursuit of profit to the detriment of the greater common good. It is this attitude that the polluter will not pay that has led the courts to step in. An example of the efficacy of judicial activism is the manner in which Agra has been rid of highly polluting industries which were destroying the fabled Taj. The Indian experience has shown that when faced with censure, industries prefer to shut shop rather than invest in clean technology. Many do so in order to cash in on burgeoning real estate prices as in the Bombay mills story. In this context, the courts’ insistence that environmental norms be built into project proposals is commendable. Denying permission to set up shop is hitting industry where it hurts the most. This will, in the long run, force it to stop taking the green agenda quite so lightly.
2.1 Make notes on the contents of above passage in any format, using abbreviations. Supply a suitable title also. 5
2.2 Make a summary of the passage. 3
2.1 Title: Clearing the Mess
- Yamuna – life line of Delhi
dead river for 32 km
- SC’s order to industrialists
(a) instal effluent trtmt. pit. by Nov. 1
(b) face closure
- SC’s Jud’l Actvsm
(a) lead free petl.
(b) phasing 15 yrs. old autos
(c) mandatory polln. check
(d) ban. polybags
(e) censur’g shrimp farm’g in TN
(f) chem. units in Raj
- Responsibility of Industrialists
(a) CPCB’s +ve suggestion: Indus. – ve response
(i) pool resources – com. effluent trtmt. pit.
(b) No incentive for trtmt. & reuse of water
(i) comm’l rates on water supply – o’looked
(c) Govt, setting up eff. trtmt. pit.
(i) Indus, to follow
(d) Tech, for waste management expensive – discharge waste anyhow
- SC’s Intervention
(a) indus, not. profit only – responsibility
(b) common good – no poisonous polln.
(c) polluter won’t pay – S.C. intervention
(d) censured indus: reacts -ve
(ii) no investment in cleaning tech.
(e) SC’s insistence on envtl. norms
2.2 Yamuna, once Delhi’s life line, is now dead for a stretch of around 32 km around the capital. The industries were forbidden to discharge effluents in the river by court. Courts have facilitated the introduction of lead free petrol to check pollution by old automobiles, polybags, consuming shrings farming in Tamil Nadu and chemical units in Rajasthan. The Central Pollution Control Board suggestion got negative response. Govt, is setting up effective treatment plant. Though technique for waste management
is expensive. Yet it is responsibility of all. Overall supreme court insists on environment norms.
- Shop till you drop is no longer a problem that only women with money in their purses and time on their hands suffer from. Excessive shopping and insatiable appetite for goods are causing problems in all countries which have hitherto promoted naked
consumerism because personal debts are mounting, creating innumerable difficulties for credit card businesses. Millions are gripped by an insatiable appetite to spend and visit the frequent sales that keep occurring in New York, Milan, London or Paris. People can become compulsive buyers of anything from household gadgets, food, clothes, to cars.
- Compulsive buying has now been diagnosed as a disease and is the result of the growing advertising campaigns and competition in which shops and firms undercut each other with huge price discounts. If shops are closed and it is too late, there is always the possibility of shopping through the net. The addiction to shopping is spreading all over the world. In UK, 2.5 million people are gripped by the shopping fever. In America, a shopper’s paradise, the number is much more at 15 million. With rising incomes, millions of Indians could join the league of ‘shopoholics’. It is called ‘oniomania’ which is a compulsive disorder that drives people to buy in a repetitive and uncontrolled manner regardless of consequences.
- Self-help groups are springing up to help compulsive shoppers. Because people affected by this problem suffer greatly from feelings of isolation, guilt and fear. It can lead to a break down of relationships under the burden of debt and deceit. Women are more vulnerable than men to this addiction because they tend to believe that to be valued by society they have to look good. They are more insecure about their image and while they are shopping, they get a boost to their self image from the attention they get from shop assistants. They come back feeling beautiful and successful. Men too are now joining the ranks of keen shoppers.
- The results can be devastating and debts can be huge. Compulsive shoppers keep borrowing on their credit cards. Psychologists are now saying that people have to face compulsive shopping as a disorder. It is like the eating disorder or work or exercise addiction. Most people with eating disorders also have shopping/spending problems. To break the habit various tips are now being offered and one of the important tips is not to look at glossy magazines. Most of these magazines work on people’s aspirations and make the readers discontented with their lifestyle and prompt them to buy more. Other tips include taking regular stock of one’s clothes and accessories and piling them up in heaps to convince oneself that one doesn’t need more.
- Other ways to discourage shoppers is to make credit less easily available. Advertising that encourages consumers to borrow and buy instantly are also encouraging shopoholics. Easy credit to the young is one way of encouraging them to shop without guilt and thus more careful screening of potential card holders is necessary to ward off future bad debts. But unfortunately, these deterrents may not work because like the children of alcoholics and drug addicts turn to these substances, children of shoppers also indulge in compulsive shopping.
2.1 On the basis of your reading of the above passage, make notes on it. using recognizable abbreviations where necessary. Supply a suitable title. 5
2.2 Make a summary of the passage. 3
2.1 Title: Compulsive Buying
1.1. insatiable appetite for goods
1.2. mount’g debts.
- Compulsive buying – a disease
2.1. a disorder called ‘oniomania’
2.2. price discounts
2.3. grow’g advt. camp’n & compta
2.4. shop’g thro’ net
2.5. credit cards – easy & instt. borrowing
2.6. shopoholics – worldwide
- Problems of compulsive buyers
3.1. Isolation, guilt & fear
3.2. breakdown of relationship
3.3. women more vulnerable to addiction
- Tips to break habit of compulsive buying
4.1. Avoid looking at glossy mag’s
4.2. Take regular stock of clothes/accessories
4.3. Making credit less easily available
4.4. Check on advt. encouraging easy borrowing
2.2 Consumerism encourage insatiable appetite for goods which mount debts compulsive buying is a disease or a disorder called ‘oniomania’. Price discount, Net shopping growing advertisement, credit cards etc. promote this disorder. This results in isolation, guilt and fear. Women are more vulnerable to addiction. This disorder can be checked by avoiding looking at glossy magazines, taking regular stocks of accessories and making credit less easily available. Advertisements encouraging easy borrowing must be strictly checked.
- Ever since the first genetic sequence was elucidated in the 70s, biotechnology has fast evolved into an information science. Scientists have already compiled the three gigabytes that spell out the human genetic code—a quantity of information that might fill more than 2,000 standard computer diskettes. But that’s just the initial trickle of a flood of knowledge to be tapped from the Human Genome Project. Considering that the project aims to identify all the estimated 80,000 genes in human DNA, the sequences of its three billion chemical bases will definitely be deciphered by the end of 2005. And once these genes are known, the data available will be mammoth, as scientists try to understand how these genes impact health and diseases.
- “At that point,” asserts Dr Philip Campbell, Editor-in-Chief, Nature, “a marriage between biology and computer science will become increasingly crucial within the peripheries of the biotech industry.” In fact, according to a CII (Confederation of Indian Industry) study, the challenge of processing complex colossal data has already spawned a hot global industry called bioinformatics, poised to touch $ 60 billion by 2005. Major players all over the globe have, as a result, formed bioinformatics groups, thereby creating a boom in job opportunities.
- Those in bioinformatics need to perform two critical roles: develop IT tools embodying novel algorithms and analytical techniques, or apply existing tools to achieve new insights into molecular biology. There are, however, other opportunities as well. Jobs range from testing, documentation, running operating procedures and database administration to programming, software development, algorithm creation and scientific visualisation.
- One needs to be either a biologist with a certain degree of computer knowledge or a computer professional with a serious interest in biology. For increased career opportunities, possessing both skill-sets is a good idea though employers usually desire a knowledge in computer applications. Companies need people at all levels. M.Sc., M.Tech., and Ph.Ds. In fact, a number of professionals do advanced diploma courses in bioinformatics, though the most sought-after candidates are those who have done a Masters degree.
- Professionals trained in bioinformatics can expect to earn salaries upwards of ₹ 2,00,000 per annum. A key indicator of the popularity of the field is the placement of students. For instance, students from the University of Pune have been lapped up by various Indian and multinational biotech and pharmaceutical companies. With experience, professionals can expect to earn anything between ₹ 30,000-75,000 per month.
- In fact, industry watchers feel that since the earning potential in the West is much higher, most scientists and professionals from premier research organisations leave for greener pastures, forcing Indian research institutes to go on recruitment drives.
- “We should make job positions in India much more lucrative,” says Prof. P.C. Trivedi, Head, Biotechnology Department, Maharaja’s College, Jaipur. This is more so because there is going to be a huge demand for top class database management. As creating a database is an expensive proposition in the West, Indian IT companies have a cost- advantage when it comes to offering complete database solutions to pharmaceutical and genome-based biotech companies worldwide. Says Prof. Raka Kamal, Principal, Maharani’s College, Jaipur, “Because of its strength in the fields of mathematics, IT, physics and chemistry, the nation is ideally positioned to emerge as a front-runner in biotech and bioinformatics.” What we need is investment, bandwidth and integrated databases. With these in place, India is set to go to the top in this particular race.
2.1 Title: Bioinformatics Bonanza
- Biotech becoming hot
1.1. Developing as info. Sc.
1.2. Expanding Human Genome project
(i) 80,000 human genes
(ii) Deciphering 3 bn. chem’l bases by 2005.
- Union of Biology and Computer Sc.
2.1. processing complex collosal data
2.2. bioinformatics industry: $ 60 bn by 2005
(i) boom in job opportunities
- Career in Bioinformatics
3.1. Job opportunities: 2 main fields
(i) dev’g IT tools
(ii) new insight into molecular biology
(iii) other opportunities
- Qualifications!Skill needed
4.1. Biologist + compu. awareness
4.2. Compu. prof’l + awareness of Bio.
4.3. Compu. appl’s
4.4. Dip. in bioinformatics
- Salary & Mobility
5.1. upwardly of 2,00,000 p.a.
(i) with experience: 30,000 – 75,000 p.m.
5.2 easy placement.
5.3 high earn’g pot’l in West.
- Checking Migration of Scientists
6.1. making job positions in India more lucrative
6.2. India’s strength in IT, Math, Phy. & Chem.
6.3. Investment, bandwidth & strong databases
2.2 Biotechnology has fast evolved into an information science and expanded human genome project. As Union of Biology and computer science it process complex data and become boon in job opportunities specially in developing IT tools, new insight into molecular biology and other opportunities. A deserving candidate should be biologist with computer awareness diploma in bioinformatics and knowledge of computer applications are desirable for attractive salaries and easy placement. Capable scientists should have job positions in India.
- While there is no dearth of activists shouting themselves hoarse about skyrocketing air and water pollution levels in the Capital, it is unfortunate that the equally escalating and medically injurious noise pollution level is totally ignored. With Diwali round the corner, many are resigned to suffering the bone-jarring explosions of firecrackers, not to mention the pollutants they emit.
- Well, it seems everyone is getting into the act. The Department of Environment has carried out campaigns in 150 schools this year to educate children about the harmful effects of bursting crackers on the eardrums and the lungs. The Delhi Pollution Control Committee (DPCC) has already initiated its campaign entitled “Say no to crackers, join the anti-cracker campaign.” NGOs like Pravaha and Pandies Theatre along with the DPCC have organised meetings and plays to get the message across. Last year, the stipulation on restricting cracker burning from 6.00 pm to 11.00 pm on Diwali went a long way in curbing noise levels. The Delhi Government is also requesting people this year to keep away from streets and parking lots within residential colonies and to burst crackers in open spaces and parks. Infants and pregnant women are more vulnerable to the ill-effects of noise pollution.
- But by and large, the problem of noise pollution remains ignored. Despite warnings from the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) the decibel levels on the street are way above safe levels – even in the silence zones. While traffic congestion and increasing population are the main culprits, lack of public awareness and civic sense compounds the problem. The CPCB standards have fixed the daytime noise limits to 55 dB in a residential colony and 45 dB for night. Almost all Delhi colonies are well over these marks. The health and behaviour patterns of those exposed to high noise levels above 55 dB changes. Aggressive behaviour and sleep disturbance along with annoyance and irritability become marked. Regular exposure to 65 dB can lead to hypertension. Anything above 75 dB can cause extreme stress, increasing heart rates and potential hearing loss. In infants, noise pollution can cause speech disorder and decreased learning ability. The medical fraternity maintains that 2 per cent of the Indian population has a hearing problem, the percentage being even greater in metros and industrial townships.
- In Delhi vehicular traffic, three wheelers, trucks and motorcycles with silencers chopped off contribute the most to noise pollution levels. Then there are the zillion generators in residential, commercial and industrial locations. The Delhi High Court had, in August this year, directed the Union Ministry of Environment and Forests to notify the emission norms for portable generators and asked the CPCB to finalise noise standards. Meanwhile the National Committee on Noise Pollution Control (NCNPC) recommended reduction of 5 to 15 dB in the noise levels for gensets up to 2.5 KVA. Unfortunately nothing has been done on this front and gensets of all shapes and sizes continue to drone.
- A gazette notification from the NCNPC will soon make it mandatory for manufacturers to display how noisy each domestic gadget is. According to a study, mixer grinders, which can be heard churning a block away, are also a major source of noise pollution in residential colonies, apart from coolers and gensets. The Delhi Ridge and the Zoo are the major sufferers. The high noise levels in the arterial roads around the Zoo along with the noise caused by movement of trains makes the animals irritable and in some cases has also affected the mating pattern. The silence zones, particularly schools and hospitals, have also been badly hit. In fact, sometimes the biggest culprits are the police—at the busy AIIMS intersection, they use loudspeakers to control traffic and pedestrian movement. Yes, there is no dearth of laws and regulations to curb the noise menace but it’s the implementation that remains tardy. Air horns and loudspeakers are banned in public, but who cares.
2.1 Make notes on the contents of the above passage in a suitable format, using abbreviations where necessary. Also supply an appropriate title. 5
2.2 Make a summary of the passage. 3
2.1 Title: Noise Menace
- Noise pollution – ignored
(a) escalating & medically injurious
(b) near Diwali
(i) noise of crackers
(ii) pollutants emitted
(c) Some reactions
(i) DOE – campaigns in schs. – harmful effs. of crackers on eardrums & lungs
(ii) DPCC – say no to crackers
(iii) NGO – meetings & plays
(iv) D.Govt. – burst crackers in open spaces/ parks
- Prob. of Noise Polln.
(a) Above CPCB stds 55dB(day)
resdl. colonies 45 dB(night)
(i) traffic cong’tn
(ii) increasing population
(iii) lack of pub.awareness
- Effect of Noise Polln.on Health & Behaviour
- Laws & implementation
(a) many laws & regulations
(b) tardy impl’n
2.2 Noise pollution should not be ignored. It is escalating and medically injurious. Near Diwali noise of crackers may harm ear drums and lungs by noise and emitted pollutants. Except it sound above 55 dB results in aggressive behaviour, sleep disturbance, annoyance and irritability. While upto 65 dB cause hypertension and above 75 dB leads to extreme stress, increasing heart rate and potential hearing loss. To check noise pollution many laws and regulations have been made but their implementation remains tardy.
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