CBSE Revision Notes for Class 10 English First Flight Chapter 2 Nelson Mandela: Long Walk to Freedom
This chapter has been taken from Nelson Mandela’s book of the same name ‘Nelson Mandela : A Long Walk to Freedom’. It provides us a glimpse of the early life of Nelson Mandela, his education, 30 years in prison and the pains he had suffered in his young age. The chapter recounts his fight for the freedom for his own people who were tortured by whites.
In the chapter Mandela gives two contradictory pictures of his own country-one, in which the blacks were tortured and suffered quietly and second, the blacks will be free to live the life of their own.
About the Characters
Nelson Mandela First black President of South Africa who fought for the equal rights of the black. He suffered a lot of pain for the freedom.
Zenani Daughter of Nelson Mandela who accompanied Mandela in his inauguration day. She was very much close to him.
Thabo Mbeki First Deputy President of South Africa who was very close to Mandela.
Mr. Deklerk Second Deputy President of South Africa
OVERVIEW OF THE CHAPTER
It was 10th May the day of oath with a bright and shiny sun. Nelson Mandela was supposed to take oath as the first black President of South Africa. A large number of leaders all from around the world had gathered there to be the witness of the swearing-in ceremony of Nelson Mandela as the first black President. The inauguration ceremony took place in a big open building in Pretoria where the first democratic non-racial government was to be installed.
The Swearing-In Ceremony of Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela was accompanied by his daughter Zenani. Mr Deklerk was the first person who took oath as secpnd Deputy President followed by Mr Thabo Mbeki who sweared as the first Deputy President of South Africa. Nelson Mandela was the last person who sweared as the first black President of South Africa. He pledged to obey and uphold the Constitution and to devote himself to the well-being of the people. He also promised to make the nation free from poverty, deprivation, suffering and all sort of discrimination.
Display of the Military Power by South African Jets
When Mandela had taken oath, South African jets displayed the military power. It also showed the loyalty of military to democracy. The highest military generals saluted him. He recounted that they would have arrested him many years before.
It was followed by the playing of two national anthems. The whites’sang ‘Nkosi Sikelel’ the old song and the blacks sang ‘Die Stem’ the new song which marked the end of the ceremony.
Apartheid and South Africa
l Nelson Mandela reminiscences about days gone by which will soon be the part of history where the whites had formed a system of racial dominance against the blacks. It was the basis of the harsh societies which is now overturned. He says , that the policy of apartheid created a deep and lasting wound
on his country and its people.
Now it is the system that recognised the rights and freedom of all people.
Regret of Mandela and Remembrance of Freedom Fighters
On the auspicious day Mandela regretted the loss of thousands of people and remembered their sacrifices for the freedom from discrimination. He thought of himself as the sum of all those African patriots who sacrificed their lives before him. He was pained that he couldn’t thank them.
He recalled great freedom fighters like Oliver, Tambos, Walter Sisulu, Chief Luthuli, Yusuf Dadoo, etc. who were the men of uncommon courage, wisdom and generosity.
He said that the country is rich in minerals but its greatest wealth is its people.
Goodness and Duties of a Man
The author says that being white or black is not the token of your goodness or superiority. No one is born hating other, people should love one another which comes without force as it is natural. It is man’s essential goodness.
A man has to perform duties to his family, community and country which he didn’t see in his country before he pushed himself to fight for the blacks. A black man was punished if he tried to live like a human being and forced to live apart from his own people. So, he was not allowed to perform his duties to his family.
Meaning of Freedom by Mandela
As a kid Mandela had different meaning for being free as he wanted to run in the fields and wanted to stay out at night. As he grew older he wanted the freedom of livelihood for himself and his family.
But soon he realised that such freedom was only an illusion, j He realised that his brothers and sisters who looked like him were not free, so he joined African National Congress (ANC). His hunger for freedom became great for the freedom of his people. He desired that everyone should be given the right to live his life with dignity and respect. He wanted the oppressor and the oppressed to be liberated. As no one is free if one is taking someone else’s freedom. Only such feelings can bring true freedom for everyone.
- 10th of May was, a day of freedom for South Africa and there was huge gathering of international leaders and dignitaries.
- Inauguration ceremony or swearing in ceremony was being held in Union Building in Pretoria and first non-racial government took the charge.
- Nelson Mandela gave speech on the victory for justice, peace and human dignity.
- Mandela pledged to liberate his people from poverty, suffering and discrimination.
- A colourful show by jets and helicopters to show military’s loyalty took place.
- Singing of two national anthems was done-the old ‘Nkosi Sikelel’ by the whites and the new ‘Die stem’ by the blacks.
- A new system that recognised the rights and freedom of all people was formed.
- Mandela remembered and thanked the people who sacrificed their lives for the freedom.
- Salutation to some great freedom fighters – Oliver Tambo, Walter Sisulu, Chief Luthuli, Yusuf Dadoo and others.
- Mandela said in speech that a country is rich because of its people not because of the minerals. Courage is not the absence of fear but the victory over it. People should love others and not hate them due to colour or religion. Love comes naturally not by force, which is the natural goodness.
- He also stated that a man should try to make a balance between his duties – duty to his family and duty to his community and country. A black person was treated badly and not allowed to perform his duties.
- According to Mandela, freedom has many aspects like – for a kid it is to run and play, for an adult it is to fulfil the needs, of his own and his family. Real freedom means equal rights for everyone.
- Nelson Mandela joined the African National Congress (ANC). He desired people to live with dignity and respect. He wanted the oppressor and the oppressed to be liberated.
- Patience and perseverance guided by discipline and system yield the desire result.
The given page nos. correspond to the pages in the prescribed text book.
|policy of racial segregation|
|autobiography||life story (biography) of a person written by himself|
|inauguration||opening ceremony, marking the beginning of|
|amphitheatre||large open theatre|
|decades||period of ten years|
|to keep up|
|well-being||state of cheerfulness|
|outlaws||those who do not observe laws or rules|
|rare privilege||uncommon right|
|emancipation||freedom from restriction, liberation|
|deprivation||state of not having one’s benefits|
|gender||being male or female|
|discrimination||state of being treated differently|
|awe||respect and fear|
|spectacular array||attractive display|
|troop carriers||vehicles carrying soldiers|
|pinpoint precision||complete/ perfect order|
|chevron||a pattern like V|
|symbolised||was like a symbol|
|racial domination||control due to race|
|structure||forming of something, fabricature|
|which can’t be thought of|
|sacrifices||offering something valuable for slaughter|
|generations||single stage in a family history|
|profound||deep and strong|
|unintended||not thought of|
|minerals||metals etc, taken from the earth|
|torture||to tr§at cruelly, to make one suffer physically|
|resilience||ability to deal with any hardship, elasticity|
|defies||(here) that can’t be explained|
|pushed to our limits||(here) pushed to the wall|
|glimmer||a little shine|
|natural tendencies, leanings|
|ripped||(here) taken away|
|twilight existence||(here) a little life|
|secrecy and rebellion||having secrecy and opposition|
|roast mealies||bake maize corns|
|animated||(here) gave life|
|law-abiding attorney||lawyer who obeys rules|
|virtuous||full of virtues|
|oppressor||one who oppresses others|
|oppressed||one who bears tortures|
|narrow-mindedness||state of having narrow beliefs about religion etc|
For More Resources
- NCERT Solutions for Class 10 English
- CBSE Class 10 English First Flight Chapter Wise Question Bank
- CBSE Class 10 English Footprints Without Feet Chapter Wise Question Bank
- CBSE Class 10 English First Flight Extra Questions
- CBSE Class 10 English Footprints Without Feet Extra Questions
- CBSE Revision Notes for Class 10 English First Flight
- CBSE Revision Notes for Class 10 English Footprints Without Feet