NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 6 Work, Life and Leisure are part of NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science. Here we have given NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 6 Work, Life and Leisure.
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NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 6 Work, Life and Leisure
From the exam point of view, the students should be able to :
- Interpret the patterns of urbanisation
- Evaluate the process of migration and how it led to the growth of towns
- Identify social changes and urban life
- Differentiate between the patterns of urbanisation in London and Bombay during the 20th Century
- Trace the inter-relation of Urbanisation and Industrialisation
Give two reasons why the population of London expanded from the middle of the eighteenth century.
(a) London dockyards employed a large number of people which led to increase in population of London.
(b) Five major types of industries, viz., clothing and footwear, wood and furniture, metals and engineering, printing and stationery, and precision products were set up which attracted people from neighbouring areas.
What were the changes in the kind of work available to women in London between the nineteenth and the twentieth century? Explain the factors which led to this change.
In the early nineteenth century, a large number of women were employed in factories because during that period,, most of the production activities were carried with the help of households. But with technological developments, women gradually lost their industrial jobs and were forced to work within households. According to 1861 census, about one-fourth of a million women worked as domestic servants in London. Many women used their homes to increase family income by taking in lodgers or through activities such as tailoring, washing or matchbox making.
However, there was a change after the First World War began. Women again started getting employed in wartime industries and offices as most of the men had went to battle. Thus, they withdrew domestic service.
How does the existence of a large urban population affect each of the following? Illustrate with historical examples.
(a) A private landlord
(b) A Police Superintendent in charge of law and order
(c) A leader of a political party
(a) As a result of industrialisation, a large number of people from the rural areas began to move to the cities for seeking jobs in industries. It led to manifold increase in urban population, and created the problem of labour for the private landlords.
(b) Large urban population of London led to the growth of crime in the city. According to an estimate, in the 1870s London was a city of about 20,000 criminals. Thus, such a situation created a serious law and order problem for the Police Superintendent.
(c) Large urban population was a great threat to the leaders of the political parties. Such crowds could be easily instigated to any agitation against the government. Most political movements of the 19th century, such as Chartism and the 10-hour Movement, were the consequences of overcrowding of London.
Give explanations for the following:
(a) Why well-off Londoners supported the need to build housing for the poor in the nineteenth century.
(b) Why a number of Bombay films were about the lives of migrants.
(c) What led to the major expansion of Bombay’s population in the mid-nineteenth century.
(a) The better off city dwellers supported the need to build housing for the poor because the vast mass of one-room houses occupied by the poor were seen as a serious threat to public health.
They were overcrowded, badly ventilated and lacked sanitation. Poor housing could prove a great fire hazards. Moreover, there was a widespread fear of social disorder as people have become conscious about their rights after the Russian Revolution in 1917.
(b) Most of the people in the Bombay film industry were themselves migrants who came from cities like Lahore, Calcutta, Madras and contributed to the national character of the industry. Being migrants, they could easily represent the life of migrants.
(c) Bombay became the capital city of the Bombay Presidency in 1819, so it attracted more and more people towards it. With the growth of trade in cotton and opium, large communities of traders and bankers as well as artisans and shopkeepers came to settle in Bombay.
Establishment of textile mills was also an important reason which led to a fresh surge in migration.
What forms of entertainment came up in nineteenth century England to provide leisure activities for the people?
(a) From the late 18th century, there used to be annual ‘London Season’ for wealthy Britishers in which several cultural events, such as the opera, the theatre and classical music performances were organised.
(b) Working classes met in pubs to have a drink, exchange of news and sometimes also to organise for political action.
(c) Libraries, art galleries and museums were established.
(d) Music halls were popular among the lower classes.
(e) Cinema became the great mass entertainment for mixed audiences by the early 20th century.
(f) British industrial workers were very much encouraged to spend their holidays by the sea to derive the benefits of the sun and bracing wind.
Explain the social changes in London which led to the need for the Underground railway. Why was the development of the Underground criticised?
With industrialisation, the city of London became a powerful magnet for migrant populations. When a large number of people started migrating from the countryside to the city for jobs and due to this living conditions in London altered. London continued to expand and its population multiplied fourfold. Between the two World Wars, the responsibility for housing the working classes was accepted by the British state and a million houses were built by local authorities. Due to this, city had extended beyond the range where people could walk to work. So, the planners realised the need for a means of public transport. Consequently, the London Underground railway developed. The development of the Underground railway was criticised because:
(a) many felt that the ‘iron monsters’ added to the mess and unhealthiness of the city.
(b) to make approximately two miles of railways, 900 houses had to be destroyed.
Explain what is meant by the Haussmanisation of Paris. To what extent would you support or oppose this form of development? Write a Setter to the editor of a newspaper, to either support or oppose this, giving reasons for your view.
Haussmanisation of Paris : It means that the new city of Paris was designed by Baron Haussmann, the Prefect of the Seine. He was the chief architect of the new Paris. He rebuilt Paris for continuous 17 years. Straight, broad avenues or boulevards and open spaces were designed, and full grown trees transplanted. By 1870, one-fifth of the streets of Paris were Haussmann’s creation. In addition, policeman were employed, night patrols werxxxebegun, and bus shelters and tap water introduced.
Letter to either support or oppose Haussmanisation : Do yourself.
To what extent does government regulation and newr laws solve problems of pollution? Discuss one example each of the success and failure of legislation to change the quality of
(a) public life
(b) private life.
Regulation and new laws of government had a mixed history of success and failure as follows:
(a) Smoke was not easy to monitor or measure, and the factory owners were not ready to spend on technologies that would improve their machines.
(b) The Smoke Abatement Acts of 1847 and 1853 failed to clean the air.
(c) Calcutta had a long history of air pollution, however, in 1863, it became the first Indian city to get smoke muisance legislation.
(d) The inspectors of the Bengal Smoke Nuisance Commission finally managed to control industrial smoke, controlling domestic smoke was not easy.
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