- 1 Biodiversity Conservation Needs and Methods to Conserve Biological Diversity
- 1.1 Conservation of Biodiversity
- 1.2 Conservation of Biodiversity in Protected Habitat
- 1.3 In-situ Conservation
- 1.4 A. National Parks
- 1.5 B. Wild Life Sanctuaries
- 1.6 C. Biosphere Reserve
- 1.7 D. Sacred Groves
- 1.8 Ex-situ Conservation
- 1.9 1. Zoological Garden
- 1.10 2. Botanical Garden
- 1.11 3. Gene Banks
- 1.12 4. Captive Breeding
- 1.13 5. Wildlife Safari
Evolution is one of the Biology Topics that has been debated and studied for centuries, exploring the process by which species change over time.
Biodiversity Conservation Needs and Methods to Conserve Biological Diversity
There are several reasons why should we conserve biodiversity. A rich biodiversity is essential for the health of the biosphere and the bioindustrial development of a country. The main uses of biodiversity are described below:
1. Source of Food:
Man depends solely on different plants and animals for food, clothing, and shelter. All the food we eat comes from plants and animals – cereals, pulses, fruits, vegetables, milk, eggs, meat.
2. Source of Improved Varieties:
Biodiversity is also used as a source material for breeding improved varieties. In recent years, many improved varieties of crops and other useful plants have been developed through breeding programs. Similarly, hybrid animals have been produced to increase the production of milk, meat, eggs, etc.
3. Consumptive Value:
This is related to natural products that are used directly for food, fodder, timber, fuel wood, etc. Humans use at least 40,000 species of plants and animals daily. Many people around the world still depend on wild species for most of their needs like food, shelter, and clothing. The tribal people are completely dependent on the forests for their daily needs. Similarly, fishermen in the coastal areas are dependent on the marine resources. The wood derived from the forests has been used from the birth of civilization as fuel. The following tabular form shows the different parts which are used directly by the indigenous people.
|Name of the Plant||Part Used||Use|
|Tulsi||Leaves||Cold and Cough|
|Jambul||Bark||Sore Throat, Asthma|
|Neem||All Parts||Skin Diseases, Antiseptic|
|Ginger||Stem||Sore Throat and Cold|
|Sal, Teak||Woody, Stem||Timber|
|Rauvolfia (Sarpagandha)||Root||Blood Pressure and Heart Diseases|
|Amla||Fruit||Rich Source of Vitamin C and Iron|
|Wheat||Fruit and Stem||Cereal and Fodder|
|Pulses||Seeds||Food and Green Manuring|
4. Drugs and Medicines:
Several substances with therapeutic properties are obtained from a variety of plant species. Several important pharmaceuticals are produced from plant-based substances. Drugs are
- Quinine, obtained from Cinchona ledgeriana.
- Taxol from the bark of Taxus baccata for treating cancer.
- Morphine was obtained from Papaver somniferum.
- Reserpine from Rauvolfia serpentina for treatment of blood pressure and schizophrenia.
About 25% of the pharmaceutical drugs are derived from a mere 120 species of plants. Several plant species are used for the manufacture of innumerable synthetic products.
5. Scientific Value:
Plant and animal species are used in research for experimental purposes. New medicines are tested first on animals. Plant species are used in the biological assay of a substance to examine its effect. New surgical techniques are first tried on animals. Several animal species are regularly used in the laboratory as experimental materials. By using different organisms and their functional attributes man has developed techniques to promote smooth livelihood. For example, with the application of biotechnology we can produce curd from milk, we have develolped radars by using techniques of echo-location from bats, production of DNA in PCR by using enzymes from Thermus aquaticus, etc are different examples of the use of biodiversity in human welfare.
6. Aesthetic Value:
A good environment and natural beauty is always associated with rich biodiversity. Ecotourism, green forests, wildlife, colorful flowers, butterflies, birds, and fishes are all rewards of the aesthetic value of biodiversity. Visitors spend a lot of money to enjoy the beauty of nature created by its biodiversity. The beauty of our planet is because of biodiversity, which otherwise would have resembled other barren planets dotted around the universe. Biological diversity adds to the quality of life and provides some of the most beautiful aspects of our existence. Biodiversity is responsible for the beauty of a landscape. Humans are also attracted to biologically rich regions and nobody likes to live in or visit a barren place. People go to far-off places to enjoy the natural surroundings and wildlife.
7. Social Value:
The lifestyle of the ancient people was closely interwoven with their surroundings. The life of the indigenous people in many parts of the world still revolves around the forests and the environment, even in modern times. Many of them still live in the forests and meet their daily requirements from their surroundings. Due to modernization, their habitats are being encroached upon and their very survival is at stake. It is ironic that the societies, whose whole life is intricately associated with the forests, are now not able to use the natural resources for their sustains. The biodiversity in different parts of the world has been largely preserved by traditional societies. Since the indigenous people always protect the forests for their benefit, the government should formulate plans to involve such people in environmental protection.
8. Cultural Value:
Biodiversity is also related to our cultural and religious beliefs. People of the country pay respect to many of the plant and animal species. Plants like Ocimum sanctum, Ficus religiosa, and animals like elephants and even snakes are considered sacred and are worshipped. Poets and artists are also inspired by the beauty of nature provided by biodiversity.
9. Ecological Balance:
Different plant and animal species maintain their existence through cooperative interaction between them. This relation is expressed through the food chain and food web. Disappearance of any link in a food chain may upset nature’s balance and create problems. For example, the destruction of carnivores will increase the population of herbivores that will damage forests, grasslands, or crops. Clearance of forests will affect rainfall, and thereby entire ecosystems and the human economy.
10. Ecosystem Services:
Biodiversity is essential for the maintenance and sustainable utilization of goods and services from ecological systems as well as from individual species. Different environmental conditions are controlled by the present plant and animal species. Ecological services like the release of oxygen through photosynthesis, pollination through bees, birds, bats, etc., regulation of global climate, storage, and retention of rainwater in water bodies, control of floods and soil erosion, biological control of pests, etc., are maintained by biodiversity. The diverse group of organisms found in a particular environment together with the physical and biological factors that affect them, constitute an ecosystem. Healthy ecosystems are vital to life. The natural environment is responsible for the production of oxygen, maintenance of water-cycle and other biogeochemical cycles.
The more a region is in terms of biodiversity, the better the different cycles are regulated. For example, forests regulate the amount of carbon dioxide in the air by releasing oxygen as a by-product during photosynthesis, and control rainfall and soil erosion. As you are well aware, deforestation further increases carbon dioxide in the earth’s atmosphere leading to the greenhouse effect and global warming. This will cause irreparable damage to all organisms including mankind. Ecosystems depend on the health and vitality of the individual organisms that compose them. As all the organisms in an ecosystem are interdependent, removing just one species can prevent the ecosystem from operating normally.
11. Sports and Recreation:
Several animal species can show a good deal of fun and recreation to the public in circus shows, zoological parks, and aquaria. Fishing is a nice sport and hobby. Visiting gardens, national parks, and sanctuaries gives pleasure and thrill to the people.
12. Ethical and Moral Value:
We must conserve biodiversity for the use of our future generations. Every living species has an intrinsic value though it may not have any direct economic value. Our ethical duty is to protect them. “We must consider our planet to be on loan from our children, rather than being a gift from our ancestors.” (G.H. Brundtland, Prime Minister of Norway). It is based on the principle of ‘live and let others live’. Morality and ethics teach us to preserve all the forms of life and not to harm any organism’s unnecessity. Some people take pleasure in the hunting of animals. People also sometimes degrade and pollute the environment through their unethical actions.
13. Utilizing Gene Pool:
Various forms of organisms are the representation of different gene pools. This gene pool has been a precious property to us. We can use this gene pool for our benefit. For example production of transgenic animals and plants by genetic engineering, the formation of hybrids through mating between different organisms, etc., have given us some promising prospects to achieve benefits.
14. Other Values:
This refers to the value of biodiversity that is yet unknown but needs to be explored for future possibilities and use. Scientists have discovered and named about 1.75 million species, which is of utmost importance. We should preserve all the world’s biodiversity that can be used by future generations.
The Laws Covering Biodiversity Conservation in India:
|1873||The Madras Wild Elephant Preservation Act|
|1879||All India Elephant Preservation Act|
|1897||The Indian Fisheries Act|
|1912||Wild Birds and Wild Animals Prohibition Act|
|1927||The Indian Forest Act|
|1932||Bengal Rhinoceros Preservation Act|
|1951||Bombay Wild Animals and Wild Birds Protection Act|
|1954||Assam Rhinoceros Preservation Act|
|1972||The Wild Life Protection Act|
|1980||The Forest Conservation Act|
|2013||Wild Life Amendment Act|
Conservation of Biodiversity
Advancements in science and technology along with an enormous growing population have expanded the scales of human activities which can bring a total catastrophe. The most pressing need of the present time is to reorient human activities in such a way as to ensure none of the least possible damage to the biosphere. This can be achieved only by the following means :
- Environmental Education: Starting from the grassroots level, environmental education should be involved in all sections of our society and should be able to create awareness and motivate people to conserve resources.
- Environment and Laws: A strict control over ecologically damaging human practices by developing effective laws and their strict enforcement, helps in the conservation of biodiversity.
- Soil Conservation: The soil may be conserved through the plantation, crop rotation, etc.
- Water Conservation The water can be conserved by creating dams using the minimum amount of water, and recycling of wastewater for further use.
- Forest Conservation: Forest can be conserved through plantations on uncultivated roadsides, on sides of train lines, and on unused lands.
Conservation of biodiversity is the protection, upliftment, and scientific management of biodiversity to maintain it at its optimum level and derive sustainable benefits for the present as well as future generations. The most effective and efficient mechanism for conserving biodiversity is to prevent further destruction or degradation of habitats by us. There are two basic strategies of biodiversity conservation: in-situ and ex-situ.
Through the conservation of biodiversity, the survival of many species and habitats that are threatened due to human activities can be ensured. There is an urgent need, not only to manage and conserve biotic wealth but also to restore degraded ecosystems. The benefits of conserving biodiversity are on the planet all biological processes regulated by genes to increase the ability of organisms to cope with environmental stresses. Preserving the genetic diversity among the wide range of crops to increase resistance. The basic strategies of biodiversity conservation are presented in the table.
Conservation of Biodiversity in Protected Habitat
Depending on the degree of management, there are two basic approaches to conserve the biodiversity.
In-situ conservation is on-site conservation or the conservation of genetic resources in natural populations of plant or animal species, such as forest resources in natural populations of tree species. It is the process of protecting an endangered plant or animal species in its natural habitat, either by protecting or cleaning up the habitat itself or by defending the species from predators. It is applied to the conservation of agricultural biodiversity in agroforestry by farmers, especially those using conventional farming practices. In-situ conservation is being done by declaring areas as protected areas. It refers to the conservation of biological diversity in their natural habitats through the protection of the total ecosystem.
The protected areas are ecological or biogeographical areas where biological diversity alongwith natural and cultural resources is protected, maintained, and managed through legal or other effective measures. Protected areas include national parks, sanctuaries, and biosphere reserves. India has over 600 protected areas, which include over 90 National parks, over 500 animal sanctuaries, and 15 biosphere reserves.
Conservation of genetic resources or gene pools through different projects and setting natural conditions aside a larger population of earth surface for wildlife is known as in-situ conservation.
In order to protect endangered species and to find undisturbed habitats for wildlife many protected areas have been established by the Government. Throughout the country, endangered species and wildfires are being protected in the protected areas of different states. Abiding by the laws framed by the constitution, there are. three main types of protected areas, namely
- National Parks
- Wild Life Sanctuaries
- Biosphere Reserve
A. National Parks
National parks are areas where all plants and wildlife are protected in their natural environments, reserved for the betterment of wildlife, and maintained by the government. Cultivation, grazing, forestry, and habitat manipulation are not allowed. These cover quite large areas that may extend from 0.04 square kilometers to 3162 sq. kms. In India, there are 89 national parks (2005) occupying nearly 1.1% of the geographical area. A national park is an area strictly reserved for the betterment of wildlife and where activities like forestry, grazing on cultivation are not permitted. In these parks, even private ownership rights are not allowed. Their boundaries are well-marked and circumscribed. In national parks, the emphasis is on the preservation of a single plant or animal species.
The protected area in which all plants and wildlife in their compatible environments are being protected according to the constitution-framed rules and regulations and under the direct supervision of the government is known as a national park. The aim of these protected areas is to conserve the natural habitat of a species through the protection of a community. National park appears to be quite large in area that may extend from 0.04 sq km to 3162 sq km. However, in most of the cases, the area varies from 100 sq kms to 500 sq kms. In India, there are 88 national parks. For entry of the tourist in the national park there are special arrangements. Hunting is totally prohibited. The authority looks into the matter so that a major part of the area remains undisturbed.
The Important National Parks of India are Listed Below (As of December 2020):
B. Wild Life Sanctuaries
A sanctuary is an area, which is reserved for the conservation of animals only. Activities like collection of forest products, harvesting of timber, private ownership of land, tilling of land, etc., are allowed provided they do not affect the animals adversely. At present, there are 500 sanctuaries in our country occupying over 3.5% of the area. The protected area in which along with the plants, the wildlife are protected is known as a sanctuary. To enter into the sanctuary, permission is required from the forest department. For the purpose of research, some animals may be conserved. Besides some private establishments may also be present within the sanctuary subject to permission from the authority.
Some Important Wild Life Sanctuaries of India are mentioned in the table below (As of December 2020):
Differences between National Park and Sanctuary:
|1. In national parks, cultivation of land is not permitted.||1. In the sanctuary, cultivation of land is permitted.|
|2. Here grazing is not allowed.||2. Here grazing is allowed.|
|3. Forest products are not collected or harvested.||3. Forest products are collected or harvested.|
|4. Here both flora and fauna are protected.||4. Here only fauna are protected.|
C. Biosphere Reserve
The land or aquatic entire ecosystem in which its total biodiversity is protected according to the Man and Biosphere Programme of UNESCO is known as Biosphere Reserve. The biosphere reserve is recognized internationally. Each Biosphere is usually enriched with profuse biodiversity and the protected area represents the major biogeographical area. These are also the symbols of the ideal ecosystem. Such protected areas remain free for the purpose of research studies and therefore they may be used for both education and research. The purpose of the establishment of Biosphere Reserve is to mark the Biogeographical area and conservation of Biodiversity there. These protected areas are expected to promote the cultural and economic development of the inhabitants of the area as well as of the nation. In India, there are 12 biosphere reserves.
The Man and Biosphere (MAB) program of UNESCO formulated the concept of biosphere reserves in 1975. The biosphere reserves are a special category of protected areas of land or coastal environments, which are meant for the conservation of ecosystems and the genetic resources contained therein. These are representative examples of natural biomes and contain unique biological communities. Till 2002, 408 biosphere reserves had been established in 94 countries. In India, 14 potential sites were identified in 1979 by Core Advisory Group. They are also known as national parks. It is a special category of protected areas where the human population also forms a part of the system. They are large protected areas of usually more than 5000 sq. km. A biosphere reserve has 3 parts, a buffer, and a transition zone.
- The core zone is the inner zone; this is an undisturbed and legally protected area.
- The buffer zone lies between the core and the transition zone. Some research and educational activities are permitted here.
- The transition zone is the outermost part of biosphere reserves. Here cropping, forestry, recreation, fishery, and other activities are allowed.
The above three zones combined to form a zonation system of biosphere reserve. Each zone of this zonation system is discussed below.
(a) Core or Natural Zone:
It is the central zone where no human activity is allowed. This area is an undisturbed and legally protected ecosystem. It includes protected areas, as they act as reference points on the natural state of the ecosystems represented by the biosphere reserves.
(b) Buffer Zone:
This area surrounds the core area. Limited human activity is allowed like resource use strategies, research, and education. The buffer zone might be an area for experimental research or may involve ways to manage the quality of production while conserving natural processes and biodiversity. In many biosphere reserves, the buffer zone is regarded as an area in which human use is less intensive than what might be found in the transition zone.
(c) Transition Zone:
It is the outermost part of the biosphere reserve. In this area, active cooperation is present between reserve management and local people for activities like settlements, cropping, recreation, forestry, and other economic uses without disturbing ecology. The transition zone is further subdivided into forestry, agriculture, tourism, and restoration regions. This zone also termed an area of cooperation underscores the role of cooperation as the main tool to achieve the objectives of the biosphere reserve.
- Forestry zone: Replacement of older plant species by afforestation is performed.
- Agriculture zone: Agricultural activities for the local people are allowed.
- Tourism zone: Zone for education and; training to promote economic development, tourism is allowed.
- Restoration zone: This zone is usually a degraded area and is used for the recovery of its original natural form.
Biosphere Reserves in India:
Importance of Biosphere Reserves:
- Conservation: Biosphere reserves ensure the conservation of genetic resources, species, ecosystems, and landscapes.
- Development: They promote culturally, socially, and ecologically sustainable economic development.
- Education and Research: Biosphere reserves provide support for research monitoring, education, and information exchange related to local, national, and global issues of conservation and development. Biosphere reserves serve in some ways as ‘living laboratories’ for testing out and demonstrating integrated management of land, water, and biodiversity.
- Restoration: They help in the restoration of degraded ecosystems and habitats.
- Traditional Resource Use: They allow the tribals and other local people to utilize their traditional resources.
D. Sacred Groves
A sacred grove is any grove of trees that has a special religious importance to a particular culture. In India sacred groves are mainly distributed in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, West Bengal, Manipur, Meghalaya, Tamil Nadu, etc. Their ecological, biological, cultural, and historical values are invaluable. The sacred groves are important for floral and faunal diversity that have been sustainably conserved by local communities.
Advantages of In-situ Conservation
- The flora and fauna live in natural habitats without human interference.
- The life cycles of the organisms and their evolution progress in a natural way.
- In-situ conservation provides the required green cover and its associated benefits to our environment.
- It is less expensive and easy to manage.
Conservation of genetic resources or gene pool through artificial means, i.e., out of the natural conditions is known as ex-situ conservation. For example, endangered plants and animals can be brought and bred under partially or wholly controlled environments through ex-situ conservation, i.e., Zoo and botanical gardens.
Conservation of biodiversity in places away from their natural habitat is called ex-situ conservation. This includes offsite collection and gene banks and others like sacred plants, home gardens, etc. Ex-situ conservation is the preservation of components of biological diversity outside their natural habitats. This involves the conservation of genetic resources, as well as wild and cultivated species, and draws on a diverse body of techniques and facilities. Such strategies include the establishment of botanical gardens, zoos, conservation strands and gene, pollen seed, seedling, tissue culture, and DNA banks.
Botanical gardens and zoos are the most common places. All over the world, there are more than 1500 botanical gardens and arboreta which rear more than 80,000 species of plants. Arboreta are botanical gardens that have only specific trees and shrubs. All modern botanical gardens have seed banks, tissue culture facilities, and other ex-situ technologies for storing and growing germplasm. Similarly, there are more than 800 zoos around the world. They have about 3000 species of mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians. Most of them have facilities for captive breeding. As a result many animals which have become extinct in the wild, continue to be maintained in zoological parks.
1. Zoological Garden
A zoo or zoological garden represents a confined area where various types of animals including wildlife are kept within confined enclosures, having free movement, and the animals are reared in the captive sites with great care and with the supply of food and water. So that they can live comfortably and perform captive breeding. It helps us to maintain the ecological balance. It also provides aesthetic value and gives a boost to Indian art, culture, and literature.
Characteristics of Zoological Garden:
- The zoological gardens are maintained by the Government in most cases for ex-situ conservation of endangered wildlives.
- Through captive breeding the population of endangered and threatened animals may be increased, following which the new population may be re-introduced in the wild.
- Besides this zoological parks are also exposed to visitors and common people for general animal study and entertainment.
- The zoological garden also provides scope for research on rare wild animals.
- Example: Alipore Zoological Garden (In West Bengal, Kolkata) and Zoological Garden (In Delhi).
2. Botanical Garden
It is a garden dedicated to the collection, cultivation, and display of a wide range of plants labeled with their botanical names. A botanical garden is a controlled and staffed institution for the maintenance of a living collection of plants under scientific management for purposes of education and research, together with such libraries, herbaria, laboratories, and museums as are essential to its particular undertakings.
Characteristics of Botanical Garden:
- Here plants are cultured. It may contain specialist plant collections such as cacti and succulent plants, herb gardens, plants from particular parts of the world, and so on.
- Threatened plant species are taken under special care.
- Examples: Acharya Jagadish Chandra Bose Indian Botanical Garden, Shibpur (West Bengal) and Lloyd’s Botanical Garden (Darjeeling).
3. Gene Banks
They are institutions that maintain stocks of viable seeds (seed banks), live-growing plants (Orchards), tissue culture, frozen germplasm, and gene libraries (DNA banks). Genetic variability is also preserved by gene banks under normal growing conditions. These are cold storage where germplasm is kept under controlled temperature and humidity for storage; this is an important way of preserving genetic resources.
(a) Seed Gene Banks:
Seeds are of two types: Orthodox and recalcitrant. Orthodox seeds can tolerate low moisture content (upto 5%), anaerobic conditions, and low temperatures (even less than -20°C) for a long period, e.g., cereals, and legumes. Such seeds are allowed to germinate at an interval of a few years and form plants that produce fresh seeds for storage. Recalcitrant seeds can not tolerate partial desiccation, anaerobiosis, and low temperature. They are stored for a shorter duration after treatment with fungicides in rooms having humid conditions and sufficient oxygen, e.g., Tea, Cocoa, Litchi, etc. These are cold storage where seeds are kept under controlled temperature and humidity for storage and this is the easiest way to store the germplasm of plants at low temperature. Seeds preserved under controlled conditions remain viable for long durations of time.
Plants with recalcitrant seeds are grown and maintained in orchards, e.g., litchi, oil palm, rubber tree, etc.
Preservation at ultra-low temperatures (-90°C to -196°C) in liquid nitrogen is called Cryopreservation. It is useful for conserving seeds, vegetatively propagated parts, tissue culture, embryos, spermatozoa, etc. Germplasm can be stored for a long period of time through cryopreservation. It is a process where cells, whole tissues, or any other substances susceptible to damage caused by chemical reactivity or time are preserved by cooling to sub-zero temperatures.
(d) Tissue Culture:
The embryoid formation, pollen grain culture, and shoot tip culture can be performed and maintained successfully in tissue culture for seedless plants or plants with recalcitrant seeds. This technique is useful in maintaining a large number of genotypes in a small area, rapid multiplication of endangered species, and hybrid rescue. International exchange of germplasm in vegetatively propagated plants is possible through tissue culture. Cryopreservation of disease-free meristems is very helpful. A long-term culture of excised roots and shoots is maintained. Meristem culture is very popular in plant propagation as it is a virus and disease-free method of multiplication.
(e) Sacred Plants, Home Gardens:
A few endangered plant species have been declared sacred. They are grown in religious places, homes, and villages, e.g., Ocimum sanctum, Ficus religiosa. Many endangered plants are grown in home gardens, this will help to conserve them, e.g., Aloe barbadensis, and Murraya koenigii (curry leaf).
(f) Animal Translocation:
Release of animals in a new locality which come from anywhere else. Translocation is carried out in the following cases:
- When a species on which an animal is dependent becomes rare.
- When a species is endemic or restricted to a particular area.
- Due to habit destruction and unfavorable environmental conditions.
- Increase in population in an area.
4. Captive Breeding
Captive breeding is the process of breeding animals in controlled environments within well-defined settings, such as wildlife reserves, zoos, and other commercial and non-commercial conservation facilities. Sometimes the process includes the release of individual organisms to the wild, when there is sufficient natural habitat to support new individuals, or when the threat to the species in the wild is lessened. While captive breeding programs may save species from extinction, released programs have the potential to dilute genetic diversity and fitness. These programs arose out of the coincidence of two forces unplanned parenthood by zoo animals raised the issue of what to do with a surplus (zoos often had to destroy surplus animals) and concern for extinction in the wild.
Long-Term Captive Breeding:
The method involves capture, maintenance, and captive breeding on a long-term basis of individuals of the endangered species which have lost their habitat permanently or certain highly unfavorable conditions are present in their habitat.
5. Wildlife Safari
Wildlife safari is a safari park. It is home to hundreds of animals that wander freely over the 650-acre park which guests can drive through. The park also includes a walk-through, and exhibit displaying some of the park’s smaller animals. The safari has been a member of the Association of Zoos and Aquariums since, 1986. Atleast an animal rights organization endorses wildlife safari for its animal-focused conditions and care. The wildlife safari sites in India are the states of M.P. (Kanha, Pench) and Karnataka (Bandipur).
Differences between In-situ and Ex-situ Conservation:
|In-situ Conservation||Ex-situ Conservation|
|1. Species are conserved in their natural environment.||1. Species are conserved outside their natural habitat.|
|2. Here, the species are protected from predation.||2. Here, the species are protected from any kind of ecological disturbances.|
|3. The main methods for in-situ conservation are Bioreserve, national park, etc.||3. The different methods of ex-situ conservation are gene banks, zoo, etc.|
Advantages of Ex-situ Preservation:
- It is useful for the declining population of species.
- Endangered animals on the verge of extinction are successfully bred.
- Threatened species are bred in captivity and then released in their natural habitats.
- Ex-situ centers offer the possibility of observing wild animals, which is otherwise not possible.
- It is extremely useful for conducting research and scientific work on different species.