CBSE Notes for Class 10 Foundation of Information Technology – Internet Services
he diversity of the sendees available on the Internet, makes it very popular. Out of these services, Web services have expanded to become more popular. A Web service is a method of communication between two electronic devices over a network.
With its help, you can retrieve or search the desired information, E-mail your friends, do video conferencing, store or retrieve files, participate in a discussion forum etc. Providers of Web senders are generally known as application service providers.
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It is the process of accessing information that is stored on the Internet. The process of exploring and retrieving the information from the Internet is known as net surfing. When your PC is connected to the Internet, you are ready to retrieve information from it. You need a particular software called Web browser to retrieve information.
When you type the URL of a particular Website in the address bar of the Web browser and press Enter key, the browser retrieves the Web page from the Internet and stores its content.
Some useful sites to visit are as follows:
- http://www.netscape.com It contains useful information including the latest versions of Web browser Netscape Navigator, list of Internet directories etc.
- http://www.ftinbrain.com It contains many educational games, math problems etc., for children. It also provides helpful stuff for teachers and parents.
- http://www.britannica.com It refers to the world famous encyclopedia that is now available online.
- http://www.enwikipedia.org It refers to free encyclopedia using wiki software.
- http://www.crayola.com It contains creativity tips for students, parents and educators.
Connecting your PC to Internet
To set-up an Internet connection, do the following steps:
Step 1 – Connect the necessary hardware like modem, ethernet cable etc and run necessary softwares such as LAN driver.
Step 2 – Make a preliminary connection using ethernet cable or a wireless connection.
Step 3 – Go to the router’s default IP address, e.g. 192.168.0.1.
Step 4 – Set-up the Internet connection using login name and password, which is provided by the ISP.
Step 5 – Save your settings.
It is a Website that provides the required data on specific topics. It turn the Web into a ppwerful tool for finding information on any topic. Search engine allows users to enter keywords (queries or terms) related to particular topics and retrieve information about the Websites containing these keywords. It is a program designed to search for information on the Web through a database of Web pages queries or keywords.
When search query is submitted in the search engine by user, the software used for search algorithm scans the index to find Web pages over the Internet.
Some of the most popular search engines are as follows:
Working of a Search Engine
Search engine works with three elements, which are as follows:
- Web Crawler It is a software that browse the Internet in a systematic manner. It retrieves the information, which follows every link on the site that are stored by Web search engines. It is also known as spider, ant, automatic indexer or Web scutter.
- Indexing Software It is a software that receives the list of Web documents and addresses collected by Web crawler. Some search engines provide proximity search which allows users to define the distance keywords.
- Search Algorithm It is a concept based searching, where the research involves using statistical analysis on pages containing the words or phrases you are searching for.
Locating Sites using Search Engines
A search engine is an information retrieval system designed to find information stored on the WWW.
For searching any particular information, following steps are to be taken:
Step 1 – Go to the home page of the search engine.
Step 2 – On the home page, a textbox will appear somewhere.
Step 3 – In that textbox, type a keyword that you want to search.
Step 4 – After that, there will be a button that looks like an image and has the word (such as Google Search, Web Search etc.) search written on it. Clicking on that button, search will start and will bring up a new Web page with a list of Websites related to that topic.
Step 5 – Clicking on one of the links in the list will access that Website.
Many search engines also have directories or lists of topics that are organised into categories. A list of Websites that contains the information are known as hits. The words typed in search box are called keywords. Browsing these directories is also a very efficient way to find information on a given topic. To effectively search for desired information, you must learn the art of framing search queries.
The following table provides a number of operators for doing advanced searches on most search engines:
|What it does
|Indicates a series of words that must appear next to each other.
|“Good day sunshine” returns pages with this exact phrase.
|Indicates that all the words must appear in the Web page.
|Computer + architecture will return pages that include both words computer and architecture.
|Searches for pages that include first term but, not the second.
|Computer -architecture will return pages with word computer but not with an architecture.
|Use the wildcard (*) to search for plurals or variations of words.
|sing * will return pages that include a string starting with sing. Such as singing and sings.
|AND, OR and NOT
|Can be used in some search engines to specify your search.
|Sports AND hockey, ‘baseball OR basketball.
FILE TRANSFER PROTOCOL (FTP)
It is a set of rules that enable a users to transfer files between those computers that have Internet connection. It is a protocol through which Internet users can upload files from their computer to a Website or download files from a Website to their PC.
FTP is the easiest way to transfer files between computers via Internet and utilities TCP (Transmission Control Protocol)/IP (Internet Protocol) systems to perform uploading and downloading tasks.
Objectives of FTP are as follows:
- To promote sharing of files (computer programs and/or data).
- To encourage indirect or implicit (via programs) use of remote computers.
- To shield a user from variations in file storage systems among hosts.
- To transfer data reliably and efficiently.
Some freely available FTP softwares are FileZilla, Kasablanca, gFTP, konqueror etc.
Working of FTP
FTP works on the principle of a client/server model. A FTP client program enables the user to interact with a FTP server program in order to access information and services on the server computer. To access FTP server program, users must be able to connect to the Internet or interact with FTP client program.
FTP based communication makes use of the following two channels:
- Control channel (A channel for commands) Remains open for the entire session between the client and the server.
- Data channel (A channel for data) Open and close only when data has to be transferred between the client and the server.
Advantages of FTP
- FTP is the fast and efficient way of transferring bulk of data across the Internet.
- It has an automatic backup. Whenever you edit your files in your local system you can update the same by copying it to the host system in your site.
- FTP gives you control over transfer. The data can be transferred either in text files or in the binary form.
- You can work with the directories on the remote systems, delete or rename the remote files while transferring data between two hosts.
- While using FTP, tools like macros can also be used to make your work more efficient and easier.
Disadvantages of FTP
- FTP was not designed to be a secure protocol.
- Encryption of data can’t be done in FTP.
- FTP causes spoof attacks during the transfer of data.
- Filtering active FTP connections is difficult.
- What are the providers of Web services known as?
- Which software is needed to retrieve information?
- What are the operator used for advanced searches on the search engine?
- State whether the statement is True or False.
FTP is used for uploading and downloading files.
DOWNLOADING AND UPLOADING FILES FROM/TO REMOTE SITES
Downloading is the transmission of a file from server or remote computer system to user’s computer. From the Internet-user’s point-of-view, downloading a file means request for a file from server computer and to receive it. Downloading images, articles and applications from the Internet has become a snap with text (like Download, Click Here etc.) links on Web pages.
The only thing is that, users must know how to find the downloaded files in the computer. If the downloaded file is an application, it must be installed, which can be an automatic operation or require the user to take one more step for running the installed program.
Uploading is the transmission of a file from local system to a server or remote computer. From an Internet-user’s point-of-view, uploading is sending a file to a computer that is set-up to receive it. The most common type of uploading is when a user uploads a digital image to an Internet site.
The uploaded files are stored on the Website’s servers and can be seen by anyone who has the Internet connection and it is necessary to use the right software for viewing it.
It is the online textual or multimedia conversation. It is a real-time communication between two users via computer. It is widely interactive text-based communication process that takes place over the Internet.
Chatting is a virtual means of communication that involves the sending and receiving of messages, share audios and videos between users located in any part of the world.
In chatting, you type a message in your chat box, which is immediately received by the recipient, then the recipient types a message in response to your message, which is instantly received by you.
In addition, there are many browser based services that do not require downloaded chat program, e.g. Facebook has a built-in chat feature and gmail allows you to chat with your contacts whenever you are logged into your gmail account.
There are two basic modes for chatting on the Internet as follows:
- Text-based chat Enables communication through sending and receiving text messages.
- Multimedia chat Enables communication through audio and video transmission.
A chat room is the hub of Internet chatting. Chat rooms (virtual room) are actually chat servers that allow several users to login to them simultaneously. After joining a room, you can read the messages of other users and send your own messages to them or to anyone else.
Advantages of Chat
- Photos can be sent using an instant messaging.
- Emotions can be expressed easily when communicating with a person.
- It is almost same as talking to someone face-to-face.
- You can also chat in a group.
- It makes it possible for user to keep in contact and chat to each other even if, they are in different countries without having to pay a lot of money.
Disadvantages of Chat
- Viruses can be easily spread via texting.
- Children tend to spend more time in chatting with friends instead of bonding with their family and studies.
It is an electronic version of sending and receiving letters. The E-mail is transmitted between computer systems, which exchange messages or pass them onto other sites according to certain Internet protocols or rules for exchanging E-mail. You can send E-mail from your computer at anytime to any address around the world and your electronic letter or E-mail will arrive at its destination in seconds after you send it, even if the receiver is not online.
For sending and receiving an E-mail, you must have an E-mail account, which is either a Web based online E-mail account or an E-mail account on your ISP server.
Web based online E-mail account can be created through many sites like Gmail, Yahoo mail, Rediffmail etc.
Elements of E-mail Account
Some important elements or folders that are used to organise your E-mail messages are as follows:
Inbox It contains all incoming messages.
Outbox The message is stored in the outbox until, it is successfully sent to the recipient.
Sent mail It contains all sent messages.
Draft It contains the draft messages, which are ready to be sent.
Trash It contains deleted messages.
Spam It contains junk E-mails.
Formats of an E-mail Message
There are two formats of an E-mail message, which are as follows:
- Plain text (txt) E-mail It can be read by anyone type of E-mail application. It does not support text formatting options Such as bold, italic, colored fonts etc. It can have attached pictures or graphics, but they can not be inserted.
- Rich text (rtf) E-mail It cannot be read by any type of E-mail application. It supports text formatting options such as bold, italic, colored fonts etc. Pictures or graphics can be inserted.
Structure of an E-mail Message
The general structure of an E-mail message has the following components:
|This field contains the E-mail address of recipient.
|Cc stands for Carbon copy. This contains the address of recipients to whom you want to send a copy of an E-mail message. .
|Bcc stands for Blind carbon copy. This field also contains the list of recipients. Bcc recipients can see the To and Cc addresses but Bcc recipients name is not visible to others.
|This field contains the title of a message.
|It includes text of an E-mail message.
|You can attach any document with E-mail message.
|Using the formatting tab, you can edit the message.
|Other options like emoticons, bold, italic, hyperlinks etc, are used to make message more interactive.
|You have to click the send button to send the mail.
An example of the structure of an E-mail is given below:
Emoticons or smileys are elements that help you to express your emotions or feelings in your E-mails and text messages. They provide a direct and funny way to express yourself in addition to the words in your messages.
Some commonly used smileys are as follows:
|Meaning Emoticon symbol
Apart from emoticons -and symbols, you can also use acronyms and abbreviations for most frequently used words. Some of the most widely used acronyms are as follows:
|as a matter of fact
|be back later
|be right back
|by the way
|see you later
|frequently asked questions
|for your information
Advantages of an E-mail
- E-mail speeds up the workflow process, documents can be sent for comments, corrections can be made quickly.
- E-mailing saves papers and printing costs.
- Multiple copies of a message can be sent to a group of people.
- Messages can be prepared in advance and save until you are ready to send them.
- File and images can be attached to an E-mail.
Disadvantages of an E-mail
- E-mail attachments can carry viruses.
- Limited size of data file can be sent.
- Hasty medium to convey emotions.
- No guarantee that the mail will be read until the user logs on and check E-mail.
It is a communication technology that integrates videos and audios to connect users anywhere in the world, as if they are in the same room. This term usually refers two way communication between two or more users who are in at least two different locations, rather than one-to-one communication and it often includes multiple people at each location.
Each user or group of users who are participating in a video conference typically must have a computer, a camera, a microphone, a video screen and a sound system.
Basically, this is a system that allows you to conduct meetings or trainings in different places simultaneously. So, this technology is most popular in the field of business because it allows meetings or conferences to be held without the need for all the participants to travel to a single location and thus, it saves time and money. Many people can hear and see each other, share whiteboard and other applications through video conferencing.
Advantages of Video Conferencing
- It reduces your travel costs by working remotely and also increases productivity through collaborative working.
- Many people can share their videos with each other at the same time.
- PowerPoint and other visual displays can be shared with everyone attending the conference at the same time.
- Virtual whiteboard allows people from different locations to add their own thoughts or ideas into one collaborative space.
- With more advanced services, a document can be changed and typed directly from other computers connected to the conference.
Disadvantages of Video Conferencing
- In the middle of an important meeting, you may be disconnected at any time and have to wait to be reconnected.
- There is no substitute for a face-to-face meeting in getting to know someone.
- For a long time, video conferencing equipment have been expensive and out of the reach of smaller businesses.
- Senders and receivers must be online at the same time.
- Write the elements of E-mail account.
- State whether the statement is True or False.
Two modes for chatting on the Internet are available.
- What are meant by emoticons : D and : P?
E-LEARNING (ELECTRONIC LEARNING)
It refers to an electronic mode of delivering learning, training or educational programs to users.
E-learning is the mode of acquiring knowledge by means of Internet and computer based training programs. E-learning can be done anywhere and at anytime.
The modules of E-learning are designed to provide not only adequate and relevant information but also make learning highly engaging and interactive using multimedia.
Broadly, E-learning is synonymous with Computer Based Instruction (CBI), Computer Based Training (CBT), Internet Based Training (IBT), Web Based” Training (WBT) and online education. E-learning applications and processes include Web based learning, computer based learning, virtual classrooms and digital collaboration.
E-learning can be divided into the following categories:
- Synchronous – It means “at the same time,” interaction of participants with an instructor via the Web in a real-time.
- Asynchronous – It means “not at the same time.” It allows the participants to complete the Web based training at their own place, without live interaction with an instructor.
Advantages of an E-Learning
- Class work can be scheduled around office and family.
- Reduces travel time and travel costs for off-campus students.
- Self-paced learning modules allow students to work at their own pace.
- Learning can accommodate, different learning styles and facilitate learning through a variety of activities.
- Develops knowledge of an Internet and computers skills that will help learners throughout their lives and careers.
- Successfully completed online or computer based courses build self-knowledge and self-confidence and encourages students to take responsibility for their learning.
Disadvantages of an E-Learning
- Without the routine structures of a traditional class, students may get lost or confused about course activities and deadlines.
- Students may feel isolated from an instructor and classmates.
- Instructor may not always be available when students are studying or need help.
- Slow Internet connections or older computers may make accessing course materials frustrating.
- Hands-on or lab work is difficult to simulate in a virtual classroom.
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E-BANKING (ELECTRONIC BANKING)
It is defined as the automated delivery of new and traditional banking products and services directly to the customers through an electronic and interactive communication channels. E-banking is also known as Internet Banking, Online Banking or PC Banking.
In Internet banking system, the bank has a centralised database, i.e. is Web enabled. All the services that the bank has permitted on the Internet are displayed in menu. Any service can be selected and further interaction is dictated by the nature of service. It allows customers to access account specific information and possibly conduct transactions from a remote location such as at home or at workplace.
Customers can access E-banking services using an intelligent electronic devices, such as a Personal Computer (PC), Personal Digital Assistant (PDA), Automated Teller Machine (ATM), kiosk or touch tone telephone.
E-banking can be broadly classified into the two categories, which are as follows:
- Transactional It involves performing financial transactions. Transactional activities are as follows:
- Electronic fund transfer
- Bill payments
- Loan application and repayments
- Buying investment products
- Non-Transactional It involves viewing bank statements. Non-transactional activities are as follows:
- Account balance viewing
- Bank statement downloading
- Cheque book ordering
- Provision of account/bank statement
Advantages of an E-Banking
- There are no geographical barriers and the services that can be offered at a minimum cost.
- Through Internet banking, you can check your transactions at any time and as many times as you want to.
- If the fund transfer has to be made outstation, where the bank does not have a branch, the bank would demand outstation charges, whereas with the help of online banking, it will be absolutely free for you.
- Internet banking deploys the Internet as a medium for financial transaction.
e.g. a customer login to his or her bank account by accessing the bank Website.
Disadvantages of an E-Banking
- Understanding the usage of Internet banking might be difficult for a beginner at the first time.
- You can not have access to Internet banking, if you don’t have an Internet connection.
- Security of transactions is a big issue. Your account information might get hacked by unauthorized people over the Internet.
It is a way for the customer to perform E-banking actions on his/her cell phones or other mobile device, it is a quite popular method of banking. It might also be referred to as M-banking or SMS banking.
Services of M-banking are as follows:
- Account information
- Investments SMS service
E-SHOPPING (ELECTRONIC SHOPPING)
E-shopping or Online Shopping is the process of buying goods and services from merchants who sell their products on Internet.
Consumers buy a variety of items from online stores. In fact, people can purchase just about anything from companies that provide their products online.
Books, clothing, household appliances, toys, hardware, software and health insurance are just some of the hundreds of products, consumers can buy from an online store.
The main components of E-shopping are as follows:
- Accessibility to people
- Mode of payment
- Selling place
- Delivery mechanism
- Placement of orders
Some E-shopping sites are Naaptol, Flipkart, Yebhi, HomeShopl8, Amazon.com
Advantages of E-Shopping
- Finding a product online is much more easier than looking for it in the local store.
- Now-a-days online shopping is very reliable.
- Most of the stores provide money back guarantee.
- You have infinite options to choose a product.
- If you do not find any product within your country then you can shop online from an international store.
Disadvantages of E-Shopping
- The customer might be worried as to the similarity of the product being ordered and the product being received.
- You have to wait for delivery.
- You may be a victim of online fraud.
- You may have to pay for shipping, while returning.
- You can not really see/feel the items, you purchase.
E-RESERVATION (ELECTRONIC RESERVATION)
It means making a reservation for a service via Internet. You need not personally go to an office or a counter to book/reserve railways, airways tickets, hotel rooms, tourist packages etc.
Examples of E-reservation sites are as follows:
Advantages of an E-Reservation
- Real-time process (if you book a seat, it will automatically be updated so, no one else can take that seat. If you used an agent that did not use computers, they would need to call other agents saying ‘Seat X had been taken’).
- Can access more information and find other details online about your reservation.
- Websites can compare different flight prices and details.
Disadvantages of an E-Reservation
- Need an Internet and PC experience.
- Might need a credit card or some other form of payment.
- Viruses/Torjans may steal your information.
- If the Websire is not working properly then, due to some server issue, reservation can’t be done.
E-GROUPS (ELECTRONIC GROUPS)
An E-group or online clubbing is a group of persons or individuals who come together over the Internet for a specific or common purpose using the best Internet communication tools to share ideas, different opinions, experiences and to learn from each other. E-groups are Internet based discussion groups. A message posted in discussion is known as post. All the posts are visible to all the group members.
Advantages of an E-Groups
- It helps to create and maintain social relationship.
- It facilitates communication among members.
- It facilitates research as members assist one another.
- It facilitates learning.
- Less time and cost is used.
- It keeps members abreast with new development and knowledge.
Disadvantages of an E-Groups
- There is no privacy, if intimate issues are discussed.
- Every wrong information has a negative impact on each other.
- It is hard to follow the logical sequence of discussion.
It is the grouping of individuals into specific groups, like small rural communities or a neighbourhood sub-division.
This service is an online service, platform or site that focuses on facilitating the building of social networks or social relations among people.
e.g. who share interests, activities, backgrounds or real life connections. When it comes to online networking, social networking Websites are commonly used. These Websites are known as social networking sites.
Finding People on the Net
There are numerous sites on an Internet and search engines that can be used to help for finding people on Internet.
- Search on social networking sites such as Facebook, MySpace, BlackPlanet etc. for the person.
- Perform an online search for the person by name.
Sites such as Bing, Yahoo search etc.
Search online directories such as WhitePages, SuperPages for the person.
The directories sometimes include directory information for a person, who is not listed in your local phone book.
Some of the different sites with their description of locating someone online are as follows:
|Name of Social Networking Sites
|Website with their Description
Today, Facebook is one of the largest online social networks with over 500 million people.
It is used for finding basic information about people in the United States.
SuperPages is a online directory to find the information about people.
Bing is a search engine, which provides a standard Web search as well as specialised searches for images, videos, shopping, news, maps and other categories.
Yahoo search is the search engine that helps you to find exactly what you are looking for.
MySpace is a social networking service, where people come to discover, share and connect with videos, music, images etc.
It is the world’s largest free African, American online community where Black women and Black men meet to chat and discuss the matters.
These Websites provide simple tools to create a custom profile with text and pictures. Advanced profiles may include videos, photo albums, online applications (in Facebook) or custom layouts (in MySpace). After creating a profile, users can add friends, send messages to other users and leave comments directly on friends profiles. These features provide the building blocks for creating online communities.
Advantages of Social Networking
- Social networking sites help us to find our long-lost and childhood friends and relatives.
- No software or setting changes necessary to PC/phone.
- It is an easy and cost effective way to reach your consumers and people in your network.
- For business purposes, connecting with your customers on a personal and professional level will make them loyal to your company and brand.
- It helps in building credibility amongst the customers.
Disadvantages of Social Networking
- Lack of anonymity.
- Social networking usually requires you to input your name, location, age, gender and many other types of personal information.
- Scams and harassment.
- Being online you are at risk of facing cases of cyber stalking and theft identity.
- Time consuming.
- If you are new to social networking, learning process can be time consuming.
- Google offers 100 MB space for each user group for uploading files.
- AltaVista is used for searching an available Internet connection.
- Telnet is a protocol that enables one computer to connect to another computer. This process is also called remote login/remote access.
- Internet service was launched in India on 15 August, 1995 by Videsh Sanchar Limited.
- Web browser uses URLs to retrieve and download Web Pages.
- What are the categories in which E-banking is divided?
- IBT, CBT services are provided by..
- What are the services of Mobile Banking?
- What are the components of E-shopping?
- What is telnet?