These Sample papers are part of CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Geography. Here we have given CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Geography Paper 1
CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Geography Paper 1
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Students who are going to appear for CBSE Class 12 Examinations are advised to practice the CBSE sample papers given here which is designed as per the latest Syllabus and marking scheme as prescribed by the CBSE is given here. Paper 1 of Solved CBSE Sample Paper for Class 12 Geography is given below with free PDF download solutions.
Time: 3 Hours
Maximum Marks: 70
- There are 22 questions in all.
- All questions are compulsory.
- Question numbers 1-7 are very short answer questions carrying 1 mark each. Answer to each of these questions should not exceed 40 words.
- Question numbers 8-13 are short answer questions carrying 3 marks each. Out of which one question is a value based question. Answer to each of these questions should not exceed 80-100 words.
- Question numbers 14-20 are long answer questions carrying 5 marks each. Answer to each of these questions should not exceed 150 words.
- Question numbers 21 and 22 are related to identification or locating and labelling of geographical features on maps carrying 5 marks each.
- Outline maps of the World and India provided to you must be attached within your answer book.
- Use of templates or stencils for drawing outline maps is allowed.
Who are the red collar workers?
Which is a vital factor for the industry to be located closer to the raw material?
Name the ocean linked by the Panama canal.
What is meant by barter system?
What type of person is known as marginal worker?
According to the opinion of Mahatma Gandhi, what are the key to obtain higher goals in the life of an individual as well as that of a nation.
Mention any two environmental problem that emerged due to intensive irrigation in Indira Gandhi Canal Command Area.
Mention the six subfields of economic geography.
Describe the three characteristics of pipeline transportation in the world.
Explain any three problems faced by slum dwellers in India.
How is land use in a region to a large extent influenced by the nature of economic activities carried out in that region? Explain with three examples.
How are small farm size and fragmented landholdings uneconomic in India? Explain with example.
In broad sense, watershed management includes conservation, regeneration and judicious use of all resources-natural and human with a watershed. Explain the human values that may help in the success of watershed development.
How do the economic, social and cultural factors influence the population distribution in the world?
Mention the types of mining. Write the main features of each type. Why are developed economies retreating from mining sector?
“Dairy farming is the most advanced and efficient type of rearing of milch animals in the world.” Analyse the statement with examples.
Compare the features of rural and urban marketing centres of the world in the five points.
Explain the major objectives of the new industrial policy of India which was announced in 1991.
How are Indian Railways contributing to the growth of national economy? Explain with example.
The partition of the country snatched away two very important ports: Karachi and Chittagong.
Despite this major setback, Indian ports continued to grow after the independence. Justify the statement with example.
Identify the five geographical features shown on the given political outline map of the world as A, B, C, D and E and write their correct names on the lines marked near them with the help of the following information.
(A) An area of nomadic herding
(B) A large country of the continent in terms of area
(C) Areas of Diary farming
(D) A major seaport
(E) A major airport
Locate and label the following five features with appropriate symbols on the given political outline map of India.
(i) A State having high urban population percentage
(ii) A State having highest gender ratio
(iii) An oil refinery situated in Bihar
(iv) A headquarter city of East Coast Railways
(v) A centre of textile industries situated in West Bengal
People engaged in primary activities are called red collar workers due to the outdoor nature of their work.
Perishability is a vital factor affecting location of industries close to raw material.
Atlantic, ocean and pacific ocean are connected by Panama Canal.
Barter system is practised in primitive society where direct exchange of goods take place.
Marginal worker is a person who works for less than 183 days in a year.
Austerity for individual trusteeship of social wealth and non-violence are the key to attain higher goals in the life of an individual as well as that of a nation.
(i) Water logging
(ii) soil salinity
(i) Geography of Resources
(ii) Geography of Agriculture
(iii) Geography of Industries
(iv) Geography of marketing
(v) Geography of tourism
(vi) Geography of International trade
(i) Pipelines arc used extensively to transport liquids and gases such as water, petroleum and natural gas for uninterrupted flow.
(ii) Cooking gas or LPG is supplied through pipelines in many parts of the world. In New Zealand, milk is being supplied through pipelines from farms to factories.
(iii) It can be taken through any terrain. The initial cost is high but maintenance cost is low. It is eco-friendly as it requires no fuel. Its operation is not affected by unwanted human intervention.
(i) Slums are residential areas of the least choice, dilapidated houses, poor hygienic conditions, poor ventilation, lack of basic amenities like drinking water, light and toilet facilities etc.
(ii) Slums are overcrowded having narrow street pattern, prone to serious hazards from fire. Most of the slum population works in low paid, high risk prone unorganised sectors of the urban economy.
(iii) People are undernourished and prone to different types of diseases and illness and can ill afford to give proper education to their children. The poverty makes them vulnerable to drug abuse, alcoholisrti, crime, vandalism, escapism, apathy and social exclusion.
While economic resources change over time, land, like any other natural resources, is fixed in terms of its area. One needs to appreciate three types of changes that an economy undergoes.
(i) The size of the economy grows overtime as a result of increasing population, change in income levels, available technology and associated factors. As a result, the pressure on land will increase with time and marginal lands would come under use.
(ii) The composition of the economy would undergo a change overtime. The secondary and tertiary sectors usually grow much faster than the primary sector, specially the agriculture sector. Such type of change is common in developing countries, like India. This process would result in a gradual shift of land from agricultural uses to non-agricultural uses.
(iii) Though the contribution of the agricultural activities reduces overtime, the pressure on land for agricultural activities does not decline. Reasons for pressure on agricultural land are
(a) the share of population dependent on agriculture declines more slowly compared to the decline in the sector’s share in GDR
(b) The number of people that the agricultural sector has to feed is increasing day by day.
(i) A large number of marginal and small farmers are in the country. More than 60 percent of the ownership holdings have a size smaller than one hectare. About 40% of the farmers have operational holding size smaller than 0.5 hectare.
(ii) The average size of land holding is shrinking under increasing population pressure. In India, the land holdings are mostly fragmented. There are some states where consolidation of holding has not been carried out once. Second, consolidation is required as land holdings have fragmented again in the process of division of land among the next generation.
(iii) The small size fragmented landholdings are uneconomic because, machanised farming is not possible there. A complete dependency would not be possible or it could not complete the demands of livelihood. No financial support being given to such farmers from organised sector/banking sector.
(i) Community participation.
(ii) Cooperation, and guidance the people.
(iii) To generate awareness regarding benefits of watershed management and development among the people.
(iv) To follow sustainable development concept.
The population of the world is unevenly distributed. Population distribution help us to understand the demographic characteristics of any area. Population distribution is influenced by many factors, economic and social and cultural are some of them.
(A) Economic Factors:
(i) Minerals: Areas with mineral deposits attract industries. Mining and industrial activities generate employment. Therefore, skilled and semi-skilled workers move to these areas make them densely populated. Katanga in Africa is one such good example.
(ii) Urbanisation: (a) Cities offer better employment opportunities, educational and medical facilities, better means of transport and communication. Good civic amenities and the attraction of city life draw people to the cities.
(b) It leads to rural to urban migration and cities grow in size. Mega cities of the world continue to attract large number of migrants every year.
(iii) Industralisation: (a) Industrial belts provide job opportunities and attract a large number of people. These include not just factory workers but also transport operators, shopkeepers, actors, teachers and other service provides. The Kobe-Osaka region of Japan is thickly populated because of the presence of a number of industries.
(B) Social and Cultural Factors:
(i) Some places attracts more people as they have religious or cultural importance. In the same way, people tend to move away from places where there is a social and political unrest.
(ii) Many a times governments offer incentives to people to live in sparsely populated areas or move away from overcrowded places.
The actual development of mining began with the industrial revolution and its importance is continuously increasing.
(A) Types of Mining
(i) It depends on the mode of occurrence and the nature of the ore. Mining is of two types: surface and underground mining.
(ii) The surface mining is known as open-cast mining which is an easiest and the cheapest way of mining minerals that occur close to the surface. Whereas overhead costs such as safety precautions and equipment is relatively low in this method.
(iii) When the ore lies deep below the surface then shaft method has to be used. In this method, vertical shafts have to be sunk from where underground galleries radiate to reach the minerals. These minerals are extracted and transported to the surface through these passages. It requires designed lifts, drills, have large vehicles, ventilation system for safety and efficient movement of people and material. It is a risky method. Poisonous gases, fires, floods and caving-in lead to fatal accidents.
(B) The developed economies are retreating from mining, processing and refining stage of production due to high labour costs.
(C) The developing countries with large labour force and striving for higher standard of living are becoming more important in mining. Several countries of Africa and few of South America and Asia have over 50% of the earnings from minerals alone.
(i) Dairy is the most advanced and efficient type of rearing of milch animals. It is highly
(ii) Animal sheds, storage facilities for fodder, feeding and milking machines add to the cost of dairy farming.
(iii) Special emphasis is laid on cattle breeding, health care and veterinary services regularly.
(iv) A highly labour-intensive farming as it involves rigorous care in feeding and milking.
(v) No manual work takes place. In this farming each and every work is mechanised. Big size of farms are there for natural grazing.
(A) Rural Marketing Centres:
(i) They cater to nearby settlements, also known as quasi-urban centres and serve as trading centres of the most rudimentary type.
(ii) Personal and professional services are not well developed. These form local collecting and distributing centres. Most of these have mandis and retailing areas
(iii) They are not urban centres per se but are significant centres for making available goods and services frequently demanded by rural folk.
(iv) Periodic markets are organised at time intervals where there are no regular markets. These may be weekly, bi-weekly markets from where people from surrounding areas meet their temporally accumulated demand.
(v) Such markets are held on specified dates and move from one place to another. Shopkeepers remain busy on all the days.
(B) Urban marketing centres:
(i) They are widely specialised urban services. They provide ordinary goods and services as well as many of the specialised goods and services required by people.
(ii) Urban centres offer manufactured goods as well as many specialised markets develop.
(iii) Such markets are known as markets for labour, housing, semi, or finished products.
(iv) Services of educational institutions and professionals such as teachers, lawyers; consultants, physicians, dentists etc.
(iv) Urban markets are available on daily basis. There will be one weekly off. Mostly shopkeepers remain on weekly holiday.
The new industrial pplicy was announced in 1991. The major objectives of this policy were to build on the gains already made, correct the distortions that have crept in, maintain a sustained growth in productivity and gainful employment and attain international competitiveness. Their details are as follows:
(i) Abolition of industrial licensing
(ii) Free entry to foreign technology
(iii) Foreign investment policy
(iv) Access to capital market
(v) open trade
(vi) Abolition of phased manufacturing programme
(vi) Liberalised industrial location programme (Explain any five)
This policy has three main dimensions-liberalisation, privatisation and globalisation.
(i) Indian Railways facilitates the movement of both freight and passengers and contributes to the growth of economy.
(ii) The major bulk commodities transported by railways are coal, food grain, fertilizers and cement.
(iii) The haulage of food grains increased four times since 1970-71 to 2004-05 and reached upto 44.07 million tonnes from 15.1 million tonnes. It shows production has substantially increased.
(iv) The transport of fertilisers has increased many times from 4.7 million tonnes in 1970-71 to 23.7 million tonnes in 2004-05, it shows improvement in the agricultural sector as it provides the base for agricultural development.
(v) The transport of coal has increased from 47.9 million tonnes in 1970-71 to 251.7 million tonnes in 2004-05. It shows the expansion of railways.
The partition of the country snatched away two very important ports i.e. Karachi port went to
Pakistan and Chittagong to Bangladesh, erst while East-Pakistan.
(i) To compensate the loses many new ports in India like Kandla, Diamond Harbour, etc. were built. Kandla in the West and Diamond Harbour in the east.
(ii) As India surrounded by sea from three sides and is bestowed with a long coastline. Water provides a smooth surface for very cheap transport provided there is no turbulence.
(iii) Indians ports continued to grow. Today, Indian ports are handling large volumes of domestic as well as overseas trades. Most of the ports are equipped with modem infrastructure.
(iv) Previously, the development and modernisation was the responsibility of the government agencies, but considering the increase in function and need to bring these ports at par with international ports, private entrepreneur have been invited for the modernisation of ports in India.
(v) The capacity of Indian ports increased from 20 million tonnes of cargo handing in 1951 to more than 506 million tonnes in 2008-09. At present, India has 12 major ports and 185 minor or intermediate ports. Major ports handled about 71 per cent of the country’s oceanic traffic in 2008-09. Central government decides the policy and plays regulatory functions. Whereas minor ports are regulated by state governments.
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