CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science Paper 1 are part of CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science. Here we have given CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science Paper 1.
CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science Paper 1
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Students who are going to appear for CBSE Class 12 Examinations are advised to practice the CBSE sample papers given here which is designed as per the latest Syllabus and marking scheme as prescribed by the CBSE is given here. Paper 1 of Solved CBSE Sample Paper for Class 12 Political Science is given below with free PDF download solutions.
Time Allowed: 3 hours
Maximum Marks: 80
- All questions are compulsory.
- Questions nos. 1 to 5 are of 1 mark each. The answer to these questions should not exceed 20 words
- Questions nos. 6 to 10 are of 2 marks each. The answer to these questions should not exceed 40 words
- Questions nos. 11 to 16 are of 4 marks each. The answer to these questions should not exceed 100 words
- Questions nos. 17 to 21 are of 5 marks each. The answer to these questions should not exceed 150 words
- Questions no. 21 is map based question.
- Questions nos. 22 to 27 are of 6 marks each. The answer to these questions should not exceed 150 words.
How did the superpowers maintain arms-control?
When did the Berlin Wall fall?
What are Global Public Goods?
What is meant by Two-Nation Theory?
Name the founder President of the Congress Socialist Party. What name was given to this party after 1948? 1
What is meant by ASEAN WAY?
How did LTTE emerge?
What is the composition of security council?
Highlight the two areas on which the First Five Year Plan focused.
How did the Sino-Indian conflict affect the opposition also?
Mention any three features that distinguish the Soviet economy from that of a capitalist country like the US.
What does the term ‘syndicate’ mean in the context of the Congress party of the sixties? What role did the Syndicate play in the Congress party?
Explain the reasons for students movement of 1974 in Bihar and the role played by Jayaprakash Narayan in this movement.
What criteria have been proposed for new permanent and non-permanent members of the Security Council?
Identify and explain any four new sources of threats to security.
Explain any three environmental concerns in global politics.
Read the passage-carefully and answer the following questions.
The growing focus on environmental issues within the arena of global politics was firmly consolidated at the United nations Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in June 1992. This was also called the Earth Summit. The summit was attended by 170 states, thousands of NGOs and many multinational corporation. Five years earlier, the 1987 Brundtland Report, Our Common Future, had warned that traditional patterns of economic growth were not sustainable in the long term, especially in view of the demands of the South for further industrial development. What was obvious at the Rio Summit was that the rich and developed countries of the First World, generally referred to as the ‘global Broth’ were pursuing a different environmental agenda than the poor and developing counties of the Third World, called the ‘global South’. Whereas the Northern states were concerned with ozone depletion and global warming, the Southern states were anxious to address the relationship between economic development and environmental management.
(i) What was the Earth Summit?
(ii) How did the first general election become a major landmark in the history of democrary all over the world?
(iii) Give one problem that the Election Commission faced while holding the first general elections in the country. 5
Read the passage given below carefully and answer the questions:
We should begin to work in that spirit and in course of time all these angularities of the majority and minority communities, the Hindu community and the Muslim community-because even as regards Muslims you have Pathans, Punjabis, Shias, Sunnis and so on and among the Hindus you have Brahmins, Vaishnavas, Khatris, also Bengalees, Madrasis, and so on-will vanish…. You are free; you are free to go to your temples, you are free to go to your mosques or to any other place of worship in this State of Pakistan. You may belong to any religion or caste or creed – that has nothing to do with the business of the State. Mohammad Mi Jinnah
(i) Do you think that Jinnah’s statement contradicts the theory which was the basis of creation of Pakistan? Justify your answer.
(ii) What is the essence of Jinnah’s statement in this passage?
(iii) To what extent did Pakistan live up to Jinnah’s expectations in this passage? 5
Study the picture given below and answer the questions that follow:
(i) What does the cartoon represent?
(ii) What type of crisis does the cartoon show?
(iii) What message does the cartoon convey?
Read the passage given below carefully and answer the questions that follow:
The Western alliance was formalised into an organisation, the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), which came into existence in April 1949. It was an association of twelve states which declared that armed attack on any one of them would be regarded as an attack on all of them. Each of these states would be obliged to help each other. The eastern alliance known as the Warsaw Pact was led by Soviet Union, created in 1955 and its principal function was to counter NATO’s forces in Europe.
(i) What does NATO stand for?
(ii) What was NATO’s policy?
(iii) What was Warsaw Pact?
(iv) Mention the main function of Warsaw Pact.
On a political outline map of India, locate and label the following and symbolise them as indicated:
(i) The state prone to food crisis during independence days.
(ii) The state adopted decentralisation.
(iii) The state where people protested against POSCO plants.
(iv) The state where White Revolution took place.
(v) A mega-dam
Evaluate any thfree major factors responsible for making the European Union a political force from being an economic force.
How far did the UN perform its role successfully in maintaining peace in the world? Explain.
What was the ‘Earth Summit’? How far did the summit prove to be useful? Explain.
How does globalisation affect traditional conceptions of state sovereignty?
Examine the three main reasons responsible for the split in Congress during 1969.
Describe the various aspects of the presidential elections of 1969.
Describe the journey of the movement for Right to Information which ultimately culminated into an Act i.e. RTI Act.
Explain any four lessons learnt from regional aspirations of democratic politics.
Discuss the effects of globalisation on India.
Identify any two aspects of India’s foreign policy that you would like to retain and two that you would like to change, if you were to become a decision maker. Give reasons to support your position.
Define the various treaties to control arms.
Mention the causes of Soviet disintegration.
Superpowers maintained arms control by signing significant agreements within a decade as Limited Test Ban Treaty, Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty and hold several rounds of arms limitation talks.
Goods that can be consumed by people without reducing the amount of available goods for others are known as the global public goods.
Examples : Fresh air, roads, sea-lanes of communications (SLOCs).
Two-Nation Theory was propounded by Muhammad Ali Jinnah to create separate state for Muslims.
The founder President of the Congress Socialist Party was Acharya Narendra Dev and after 1955 it came to be known as Socialist Party.
‘ASEAN WAY’ is an interaction that is informal, confrontationist and cooperative to promote supemational structures in the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN).
LTTE emerged 1983 onwards on the negligence of Tamil interest by Sri Lanka government. Hence, ‘Liberation Tigers of Tamil Elam’ (LTTE) took birth demanding a seperate state for Tamil in Sri Lanka.
The Security Council consists of fifteen members—Ten non-permanent who are elected by General Assembly for two year term and five permanent members with veto rights to stop a decision.
- It focused on land reforms for the development in rural areas.
- To invest in dams and irrigation to improve agricultural sector with the urgent attention.
The Sino-Indian conflicts affected the opposition as well. This and the growing rift between China and the Soviet Union created irreconcilable differences within the Communist Party of India (CPI). The pro-USSR faction remained within the CPI and moved towards closer ties with the Congress. The other faction was for sometime closer to China and was against any ties with the Congress. The party split in 1964 and the leaders of the later faction formed the Communist Party of India (Marxist) (CPI-M). In the wake of the China War, many leaders of CPI(M) were arrested for being pro-China.
The three features that distinguish the Soviet economy from that of a capitalist country like the .US, can be summed up as follows:
- Soviet economy experienced a complex communication network, vast energy resources and an efficient transport sector to connect its remotest areas.
- Soviet Union industries produced every domestic product from pin to cars, whose quality might not match with that of the west technology.
- Soviet Uniori ensured a minimum standard of living for all its citizens. Consequently government subsidised basic necessities including health, education, children and other welfare schemes.
- There was an absence of unemployment in Soviet Union.
- Land and productive assets were owned by the state only.
Syndicate was a group of powerful and influential leaders from within the Congress:
- Syndicate was led by K. Kamaraj, former Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu and the then president of Congress party. It also includes some powerful leaders like S.K. Patil, S. Nijalingappa, N. Sanjeeva Reddy and Atulya Ghosh.
- In the sixties, Syndicate played a decisive role by installing both Lai Bahadur Shastri and Indira Gandhi as a Prime Minister.
- Syndicate played decisive say in Indira Gandhi’s first Council of Ministers and formation and implementation of policies.
- After a split, two groups in Congress were created i.e. Congress (0), led by Syndicate and Congress (R), led by Indira Gandhi.
- Congress (R) won popularity after 1971 and Syndicate lost power and prestige.
Reasons for Student’s Movement of 1974:
Students organized a movement against :
(i) Rising prices of food grains, cooking oil and other essential commodities.
(ii) Corruption in high places.
Assess Role played by Jayaprakash Narayan :
Satyagraha was organised by Jayaprakash Narayan for Indira Gandhi’s resignation, he appealed to people not to obey illegal and immoral orders by a massive demonstration on 25 June 1975. All these changed the political mood of the country against Congress.
After the resolution of 1992, following criteria have been proposed for a new member. It should be:
- A major economic power
- A major military power
- A substantial contributor to UN budget.
- A big nation in terms of its population.
- A nation that respects democracy and human rights.
- A country that would make council more representative of world’s diversity in terms of geography, economic systems and culture.
Four new sources of threats to security can be identified as follows:
- Terrorism is a war against democracy and a crime against humanity. It refers to political violence that targets civilians deliberately and discriminately to use it as a weapon against national government. It has become a global phenomena because even superpower is not free from terrorist attacks.
- Human rights are those basic conditions which an individual is supposed to enjoy as a human being. These rights include political rights, freedom of speech and expression, economic rights, social and civil rights and rights of indigenous people to lead as honourable and dignified life.
- Global poverty refers to low economic growth, low national income and low standard of living of developing or least developed countries.
- Health epidemics is a very serious threat to a country’s security because severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), HIV-AIDS, bird flue etc. diseases spread across countries through migration business, tourism and military operations.
Some environmental issues have been considered as the global issues:
- Natural resources are being depleted i.e. cultivable area has not been sustained any more, agricultural land lost fertility and grass lands have been overgrazed.
- Water bodies have suffered a depletion and pollution both.
- A steady decline in ozone layer also poses a threat to ecosystem and human health.
- Natural forests stabilize the climate, moderate water supply and habitat various species also which are also being lost creating destruction to biodiversity through industrial pollution etc.
- Due to land based activities, coastal pollution is also increasing which affects fisheries.
- The Earth summit was a conference on environment and development held in Rio de Janerio, Brazil in June 1992. The increasing focus of this conference was stated of the global environment and the relationship between electronics, science and the environment in the political context.
- The first general election of 1952 was also the first big test of democracy in a poor country. At that time the democracy was existed only in the prosperous countries now, it was proved that democratic elections on the basis of Universal Adult Franchise can be held in the condition of lack of education or conditions of poverty.
- It was essential drawing the boundaries of the electoral constituencies before holding the election.
- Jinnah’s statement does not contradict the ‘Two-Nation Theory’ as he aimed at the creation of separate state for Muslims without any interference in other communities like Pathans, Punjabis, Shias and Sunnis.
- The essence of Jinnah’s statement in this passage is his secular outlook regarding the protection and promotion of every community by giving freedom to practices one’s own beliefs (religiously).
- Pakistan did not live up to Jinnah’s expectations because Pakistan became an orthodox Muslim country that did not respect interests of another communities after independence.
- A humanitarian crisis in Darfur, Sudan.
- Starvation, genocide, horror, etc.
- ‘A Big Helping of Words’ only because during these crises, the international organisations performed debates, speeches on these but no actual aid or support was reached to peoples.
- NATO stands for North Atlantic Treaty Organisation.
- NATO was an association of twelve states which declared that armed attack on any one of them would be regarded as an attack on all of them and each of them would be obliged to help each other.
- Warsaw Pact was eastern alliance, led by Soviet Union, created in 1955.
- Main function of Warsaw Pact was to counter NATO’s forces in Europe.
- Orissa (Odisha)
- Bhakra Nangal
The European Union has evolved over time from an economic union to an increasingly political one. The EU has began to act more as a nation state. While the attempts to have a Constitution for the EU have failed, it has its own flag, anthem, foundation date (1 Nov. 1993), and currency (Euro). It also has some form of a common foreign and security policy in its dealings with other nations. The European Union has tried to expand areas of cooperation while acquiring new members, especially from the erstwhile Soviet bloc. The process has not proved easy, for people in many countries are not very enthusiastic in giving the EU powers that were exercised by the government of their country. There are also reservations about including some new countries within the EU.
The EU has economic, political and diplomatic, and military influence. The EU is the world’s biggest economy with a GDP of more than $12 trillion in 2005. It was more than $16 trillion in 2016. Its currency can pose a threat to the dominance of the US dollar. Its share of world trade is three times larger than that of the US allowing it to be more assertive in trade disputes with the US and China. Its economic power gives it influence over its nearest neighbours as well as in Asia and Africa.
- Interdependence and globalisation is not possible without the international organisations such as the UN.
- To enhance cooperation on the issues of poverty, unemployment, environmental degradation, crime rate etc.
- To provide financial assistance to developing countries to stabilise economy all over the world, the UN and its specialized agencies are always required.
- The UN works as a forum to solve any international dispute among nations and sort out the best possible.
- Hence, though the UN has failed in preventing any related wars and miseries, despite the nations require its continuation due to above mentioned reasons to promote international peace and understanding.
The ‘Earth Summit’ was a conference on environment and development held in Rio de Janerio, Brazil in June 1992. The increasing focus of this conference was stated of the global environment and the relationship between economics, science and the environment in the political context.
It proves to be useful through the following steps :
- The Rio Summit produced conventions dealing with climate change, biodiversity, forestry and recommended a list of development practices called ‘Agenda 21.’
- The implementation of‘Agenda 21’ was intended to involve action at international, national, regional and local levels.
- There was a unanimity on combining economic growth with ecological responsibility. This approach to development is commonly known as ‘sustainable development’. However, some critics indicated that ‘Agenda 21’ was biased in favour of economic growth rather than ensuring ecological conservation.
- Forest Principles is an informal name given to the Non-legally Binding Authoritative Statement of Principles for a Global Consensus on the Management, Conservation and Sustainable
- Development of all type of forests. It is a non-legally binding document that makes several recommendations for conservation and sustainable development forestry. In 1994, the Montreal Process was began as a result of the Forest Principles.
The impact of globalisation on the traditional conceptions of state sovereignty is discussed at three levels.
1. Erosion of State Capacity: Simply, globalisation is seen as resulting in an erosion of state capacity, that is, the ability of government to do what they do. The concept of the old ‘welfare state’ is being replaced by the idea of a more minimalist state. Such state performs certain basic function like maintenance of law and order and security of its citizens. This means that it does not perform its welfare functions as directed
at economic and social well-being. In place of the welfare state, the market becomes the prime determinant of economic and social priorities. The role of governments has been restrained because of increasing role of MNCs across the countries.
2. Primacy of the State: Globalisation does not always reduce state capacity. The primacy of the state continues to be the unchallenged basis of political community. The old jealousies and rivalries between countries no longer matter in world politics. It provides the ample scope to continue its essential functions of law and national security. At the same time, the state can withdraw certain domains from which it wishes to.
3. Boost to State’s Capacity: At the third level, state capacity has got a boost as a consequence of globalisation, with enhanced technologies available at the disposal of the state to collect information about its citizens. This information enables the state to rule better. Hence, states become more powerful than they were earlier.
The formal split in Congress took place in 1969 on the issue of nomination of the candidate during presidential elections:
- Despite, Indira Gandhi’s representatives, the syndicate nominated Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy, as the official Congress candidate for ensuring the presidential election.
- Indira Gandhi retaliated the situation by encouraging V.V. Giri, the then Vice President, to be nominated as an independent candidate.
- During election, the then Congress President S. Nijalingappa issued a ‘Whip’ asking all Congress MPs, MLAs to vote for N. Sanjeeva Reddy.
- On the other hand, after silently supporting V.V. Giri, the Prime Minister Indira Gandhi openly called for a conscience to vote the way they want.
- Elections went in favour of V.V. Giri due to this diplomatic effort and N. Sanjeeva Reddy was defeated.
- The defeat of N. Sanjeeva Reddy, the formal Congress candidate, formalised the split of party into two:
- Congress (O) i.e. organisation led by Syndicate, known as Old Congress.
- Congress (R) i.e. requisitionists led by Indira Gandhi, known as New Congress.
- The movement Right to Information (RTI) is one of the important movements that did succeed in getting the state to accept its major and important demand.
- The movement started in 1990, when the Mazdoor Kishan Shakti Sanghatan (MKSS) in Rajasthan adopted the initiative in asking for records of famine relief work along with accounts of labourers.
- For the first time the demand was raised in Bhim Tehsil in a very backward area of Rajasthan. The villagers asked for copies of bills and vouchers and names of persons on the muster rolls who have been paid wages for various public construction works. On paper each development project was complete. However, there was gross misappropriation of funds.
- In 1994 and 1996, the MKSS organised public meetings. The administration was asked to explain its stand in public. The movement got a little success caused an amendment in the Rajasthan Panchayati Raj Act to allow the public to get certified copies of documents held by the Panchayats.
- In 1’996, the MKSS established a national council in Delhi for people’s right to information.
- In 2002, a weak freedom of Right to Information Act (RTI) was legislated. However, it was never implemented. In 2004, RTI Bill was tabled and got Presidential assent in June 2005. Right to Inforntation Act was passed in June 2005 by the Government of India and it came into force in October 2005.
1. First and the most elementary lesson is that regional aspirations are very much as part of democratic politics. Expression of regional issues is not an aberration or an abnormal phenomenon. Even in United Kingdom there are regional aspirations in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. Spain faces secessionist movement from the Basques and so does Sri Lanka from the Tamils. A large and diverse democracy like India must deal with regional aspirations on a regular basis.
2. The second lesson is that the best way to respond to regional aspirations is through democratic negotiations rather than through suppression. In 1980s, militancy had erupted in Punjab, problems were persisting in the North-East, students in Assam were agitating, Kashmir valley was on the boil. Instead of treating these as simple law and order problems, the Government of India reached negotiated settlement with regional movements. This produced a reconciliation which reduced the tensions existing in many regions. The example of Mizoram shows how political settlement can resolve the problem of separatism effectively.
3. The third lesson is about the importance of power sharing. It is not sufficient to have a formal democratic structure. Besides that, groups and parties from the region need to be given share in power at the State level. Similarly, it is not sufficient to say that the states or the regions have autonomy in their matters. The regions together form the nation. So, the regions must have a share in deciding the destiny of the nations. If regions are not given a share in the national level decision making, the feeling of injustice and alienation can spread.
4. The fourth lesson is that regional imbalance in economic development contributes to the feeling of regional discrimination. Regional imbalance is a fact of India’s development experience. Naturally, the backward states or backward regions in some states feel that their backwardness should be addressed on priority basis and that the polices of the Indian government have caused this imbalance. If some states remain poor and others develop rapidly, it leads to regional imbalances and inter-regional migrations.
Effects of globalization on India :
- More new jobs have been created in the MNCs like cell phones, fast food, etc.
- There is a fear that Indian agriculture and industries would suffer in a long run.
- India is plying an important role among developing countries in trade and commerce by making some companies multinational themselves i.e. Tata Motors, Rangbaxy, etc.
- Globalisation facilitates fusion of thinking process efficiently and maximises use of resources through the interaction of cross-cultural management techniques.
- Appropriate international measures have to be taken for agricultural subsidies, agricultural exports and intellectual property rights, so that we become self-reliant in every sphere.
- Direct Foreign investment have also been increased. It has invited inflow of private foreign capital and export-oriented activities.
- Globalisation offers the great opportunity of a competition of compatible responses. Th’is may lead to development in infrastructure facilities and bring institutional changes in India.
- Globalisation facilitates fusion of thinking process efficiently and maximises use of resources through the interaction of cross-cultural management techniques.
- Due to globalis&tion in India, liberalisation and privatisation are coming together.
Two aspects to be supported :
- India always maintained her dignity and image of a peace loving country by taking initiatives to bring about equality and understanding among the nations i.e. India supported to end Korean War in 1953, French rule in China, US role in Vietnam.
- India’s initiatives for Non-alignment are also appreciable for the maintenance of mutual understanding and security.
During post cold war era also, NAM had become an effective tool to make the Security Council more effective and democratic.
Two aspects to be changed:
- In the course of decade of 1962-72, India faced three wars and its peaceful image played a very limited role.
- Conflict with neighbouring countries like China and Pakistan derailed India’s concept of regional co-operation under SAARC.
Hence, India must adopt diplomatic and defensive postures in its foreign policy to maintain its independent entity.
- Limited Test Ban Treaty: Banned nuclear weapon tests in the atmosphere, in outer space and underwater signed by the US, UK and USSR in Moscow on 5 August 1963 came into force on 10 October, 1963.
- Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty: It allows only the nuclear weapon states to have nuclear weapons and stops others from acquiring them. A nuclear weapon state is one which had manufactured and exploded nuclear explosive device prior to 1 January, 1967. So there are five nuclear weapon states: US,’USSR, Britain, France and China.
- Strategic Arms Limitation Talks I and II (Salt I and II): The first round began in November 1969. The Soviet Union leader Leonid Brezhnev and the US President Richard Nixon signed the following in Moscow on 26 May 1972 –
- Anti Ballistic Missile System Treaty.
- Interim Agreement on limitation of strategic offensive arms. It came into force on 3 October, 1972.The second round started in November 1972. The US President Jimmy Carter and the Soviet leader Brezhnev signed Treaty on limiting strategic offensive arms in Vienna on 18 June, 1979.
- Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty I and II (START I and II): Treaty I signed by the USSR president Mikhail Gorbachev and the US president George Bush (Senior) on the reduction and limitation of strategic offensive arms in Moscow on 31 July 1991.
Treaty II was signed for same purpose in Moscow on 3 January, 1993 between Russian President Boris Yeltsin and the US President George Bush (Senior).
The causes of Soviet disintegration can be summed up as follows:
- Economic Stagnancy :
(a) Economic institutions experienced internal weaknesses to meet the aspirations of people.
(b) Economic stagnation for many years to severe consumer shortages.
- Political and Administrative Causes :
(a) Thq only ruling Communist Party was not accountable despite its rule of 70 years.
(b) The ordinary people were abstained from taking participation in political riots, hence the system became incapable of correcting its mistakes.
(c) The ordinary citizens were exempted from gaining the privileges.
(d) Due to non-participation of people, the government lost popular support from all sides.
- Gorbachev’s Reffirm Polici Reaffirm:
- Gorbachev’s reforms aimed at keeping the USSR abreast of information and technological revolutions taking place in the west.
- Gorbachev focused to normalise relations with the west.
- Gorbachev worked to democratise the Soviet System.
- But Society was divided into two sections towards Gorbacheve’s reforms and both of them had contradictory views towards him.
- The rise of Nationalism and Desire for Sovereignty :
- The rise of nationalism in various republics of Soviet Union proved to be immediate cause of revolutions in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Ukraine and Georgia.
- The nationalist dissatisfaction with the Soviet Union was strongest in European and prosperous part in Russia and the Baltic areas as well as Ukraine and Georgia.
- Ordinary people felt alienated from Central Asia.
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