CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science Paper 2 are part of CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science. Here we have given CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science Paper 2.
CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science Paper 2
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Students who are going to appear for CBSE Class 12 Examinations are advised to practice the CBSE sample papers given here which is designed as per the latest Syllabus and marking scheme as prescribed by the CBSE is given here. Paper 2 of Solved CBSE Sample Paper for Class 12 Political Science is given below with free PDF download solutions.
Time Allowed: 3 hours
Maximum Marks: 80
- All questions are compulsory.
- Questions nos. 1 to 5 are of 1 mark each. The answer to these questions should not exceed 20 words
- Questions nos. 6 to 10 are of 2 marks each. The answer to these questions should not exceed 40 words
- Questions nos. 11 to 16 are of 4 marks each. The answer to these questions should not exceed 100 words
- Questions nos. 17 to 21 are of 5 marks each. The answer to these questions should not exceed 150 words
- Questions no. 21 is map based question.
- Questions nos. 22 to 27 are of 6 marks each. The answer to these questions should not exceed 150 words.
Which four common symbols make the European Union look like a nation state?
Whose mediation resolved the Indus River water dispute between India and Pakistan?
Name an international Non-Governmental Organisation (NGO) that campaigns for the protection of Human Rights.
Mention the main recommendation of the States Reorganisation Commission of 1953.
In which year was the Election Commission of India set up and who was the first Chief Election Commissioner of India?
Define security. What is the greatest danger to a security as per traditional notion of security?
What are the objectives of planning?
What was Afro-Asian unity?
How did the Congress face challenge of political succession second time?
Which major factor was responsible for the dramatic victory of Indira Gandhi in 1971 elections?
What was Soviet system? Assess any four features of Soviet system.
What do you know about 25th ASEAN Summit?
Explain the areas of operation of non-traditional notion of security.
Explain three challenges which independent India faced during the process of nation building.
Write a short note on non-Congressism.
What do you think about the statement that NAM has become irrelevant today? Give reasons to support your opinion.
What is the relevance of non-aligned movement (NAM) after the end of Cold War?
Read the passage given below carefully and answer the questions that follow:
In April 1961… the Soviet Union were worried that the United States of America would invade communist ruled Cuba and overthrow the Cuban President Fidel Castro…. Nikita Khrushchev, the leader of Soviet Union, decided to convert Cuba into a Russian base. In 1962, placed nuclear missiles… Three weeks after the Soviet Union had placed the nuclear weapons in Cuba, the Americans became aware of it. They became reluctant to do anything that might lead to full scale war between the two countries… A clash seemed imminent in what came to be known as “Cuban Missile Crisis”. The prospects of this clash made the whole world nervous.
(i) Why was the Soviet Union worried about America invading Cuba?
(ii) In response to the action taken by America, what did Nikita Khrushchev do?
(iii) Why were the two Superpowers reluctant to start nuclear war?
Read the passage and answer the following questions:
“Broadly, non-alignment means not tying yourself off with military blocs… It means trying to view things, as far as possible, not from the military point of view, though that has to come in sometimes, but independently, and trying to maintain friendly relations with all countries”. —Jawaharlal Nehru
(a) Why does Nehru want to keep off military blocs?
(b) Do you think that the Indo-Soviet friendship treaty violated the principle of non-alignment? Give reasons for your answer,
(c) If there were no military blocs, do you think non-alignment would have been unnecessary?
Study the picture given below and answer the questions that follow:
(i) Who is addressing the people in the Cartoon?
(ii) What does the people symbolise in it?
(iii) On which plan the Cartoon is highlighting?
Read the passage given below carefully and answer the questions:
We have a Muslim minority who are so large in numbers that they cannot, even if they want, go anywhere else. That is a basic fact about which there can be no argument. Whatever the provocation from Pakistan and whatever the indignities and horrors inflicted on non-Muslims there, we have got to deal with this minority in a civilised manner. We must give them security and the rights of citizens in a democratic state. If we fail to do so, we shall have a festering sore which will eventually poison the whole body politic and probably destroy it. —Jawaharlal Nehru
(i) Why did Jawaharlal Nehru want to deal with the Muslim minority in a civilised way?
(ii) Why this minority should be given the security and rights on the same footing as 20 all others in a democratic system?
(iii) If this minority was not provided security and rights what kind of scenario is envisaged?
On an outline map of India, five states are marked as A, B, C, D and E where National Democratic alliance (NDA) came to power after the Lok Sabha elections 2004. Identify the states and write their names.
Explain the strategies which may be performed by India to maintain Indo-US relations.
Mention two areas each of cooperation and disagreement between India and Bangladesh.
Though the UN has failed in preventing wars and related miseries, nations prefer its continuation. What makes the UN an indispensable organisation?
Explain some major components of India’s security strategy.
Explain the functioning of the Congress Party as an ideological and social coalition.
“Indian policy makers made a mistake by emphasising the role of state in the economy. India could have developed much better if private sector was allowed a free play right from the beginning.” Give arguments for or against this proposition.
Does India’s foreign policy reflect her desire to be a major regional power? Justify the statement with an example.
Describe the contribution of two active leaders of the South—
(a) C. Natarajan Annadurai and
(b) K. Kamaraj.
The 1977 elections for the first time saw the opposition coming to power at the centre. Examine any six reason for this change.
What do you know about ‘National Fish Workers’ Forum?
Throw some light on the internal dimension of the problem of Jammu and Kashmir.
In 2014 elections, people have voted for a stable government at the Centre. Do you think that the era of coalition has ended? Support your answer with suitable arguments.
The European Union has its own flag, anthem, founding date and currency.
The World Bank.
The main recommendation of the States Reorganisation Commission was to organise states on language basis and the boundaries of states could also reflect the linguistic aspects.
25 January 1950, Sukumar Sen.
Security is an essence for existence of human life to protect from threats either external or internal. It is from military threats which lies in another country to endanger the core values of sovereignty, independence and territorial integration of a country.
- To make economy self reliant and self-generating through planned strategies.
- To activate distributive justice among various sectors of economy.
Bandung Conference was held in 1955 in Indonesia as an Afro-Asian conference to lead an establishment of NAM. It was held to mark the engagement of India with African and Asian nations known as Afro-Asian unity.
The Congress party faced the challenge of succession for second time in 1966 after the death of Lai Bahadur Shastri:
- This challenge started with an intense competition between Morarji Desai and Indira Gandhi to be resolved through a secret ballot.
- Indira Gandhi defeated Morarji Desai by securing support of more than two-third of the party’s MPs.
- Thus, a peaceful transition of power despite intense competition for leadership was seen as a sign of maturity of India’s democracy.
Although the Congress’s position was very weak in the electoral contest of 1971, it had something that its big opponents lacked-it had an issue, an agenda and a positive slogan: Garibi Hatao in contrast to opposition’s Indira Hatao. This proved to be a major factor responsible for the dramatic victory of Indira Gandhi.
Soviet system was introduced after Socialist Revolution in Russia in 1917. It was based on the principle of egalitarian society and planned economy controlled by the state. Its four features can be summed up in the following ways:
- The Soviet state ensured a minimum standard of living for all citizens and the government subsidised basic necessities including health, education, childcare and other welfare schemes.
- It had a complex communications network, vast energy resources including oil, iron and steel, machinery production and a transport sector that connected its remotest areas with efficiency.
- It had a domestic consumer industry that produced everything though their quality did not match that of the western capitalist countries.
- There was no unemployment, state ownership was the dominant factor owned and controlled by the Soviet state.
- The 25th ASEAN (Association of South East Asian Nations) Summit was held in Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar on 12-13 Nov. 2014 between the bloc and partner countries.
- It emphasised on the principles stated in the Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the East Sea (DOC), the statement on ASEAN’S six point principles on the East Sea, the joint statement of the 15th ASEAN-China Summit on the 10th Anniversary of the DOC and the bloc’s relevant statements approved at the 24th Summit.
- The ASEAN—25 chairman’s statement welcomed encouraging results attained in the consultation on the implementation of the DOC and the agreement on joint efforts to finalise a Code of conduct of Parties in the East Sea (DOC) earliest.
- At the closing ceremony, Myanmar, ASEAN chair for 2014, transferred the chairmanship for 2015 to Malaysia, whose Prime Minister Najib Razzak said his country will continue working with other ASEAN members to speed up the realisation of the bloc’s targets, particularly progressing for the formation of an ASEAN community in December 2015.
Non-traditional concept of security includes human and global security covering a wide range of threats affecting human existence:
- It does not cover only the states but also the individuals and communities also.
- It emphasises on security on nature of threat and right approach to deal with the threat.
Its sources can be identified as follows:
- Terrorism refers to political violence to target civilians deliberately and discriminatingly to use it as a weapon against national government.
- Human Rights refer to basic conditions which an individual is supposed to enjoy as a human being as political rights, freedom of speech and expression, economic rights, social and civil rights to lead an honorable and dignified life.
- Global Poverty refers to low economic growth, low national income and low standard of living of developing or least developed countries.
- Health Epidemics is a very serious threat to country’s security because severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (ARS), HIV-AIDS, bird flue diseases spread across countries through migration, business, tourism and military operations.
India had to face many challenges immediately after getting independence which can be summed up as follows:
- Challenge to shape a nation: India was divided among various states at the time of independence. Hence, a great challenge arose to unity and integrate country into one.bond Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel took upon himself to integrate these states either wilfully or diplomatically to be completed into different stages.
- To establish democratic set up: India constituted representative democracy based on parliamentary form of government and it was a great challenge to develop these democratic practices in the nation.
- To ensure development and well being of the society: Indian polity made herself to achieve welfare goods with the environment of effective economic policies and eradication of poverty and unemployment.
Non-Congressism referred to the non-Congress parties along with their different programmes and ideologies together to form anti-Congress fronts.
After the fourth general elections in 1967, opposition parties were in forefront of organising public protests and pressuring the government. Parties opposed to the Congress realised that the division of their votes kept the Congress in power. Thus, parties that were entirely different and disparate in their programmes and ideology got together to form anti-Congress fronts in some states and entered into electoral adjustments of sharing seats in others. They felt that the inexperience of Indira Gandhi and the internal factionalism within the Congress provided them an opportunity to topple the Congress. The socialist leader Ram Manohar Lohia gave this strategy, the name of ‘non-Congressism’. He also produced a theoretical argument in its defense: Congress rule was undemocratic and opposed to the interests of ordinary poor people; therefore, the coming together of the non-Congress parties was necessary to reclaim democracy for the people.
By the mid-1970s, NAM had become an economic pressure group and by late 1980s, the NIEO initiative had faded due to stiff competition from developed countries who acted as a united group while non-aligned countries struggled to maintain their unity in face of this opposition. Non-alignment both as an international movement and as a core of India’s foreign policy lost some of its earlier relevance. Though non-alignment contained some core values and enduring ideas. It was based on a recognition that decolonised states shared a historical affiliation and can become a powerful force if they, come together, as very small and poor countries need not become follower of any big powers instead they could pursue an independent foreign policy also.
In nutshell, it can be concluded that NAM has not lost its relevance. It has stood test of adverse circumstances. It has served an important purpose of protecting and preserving interests of third world countries.
- The Soviet Union was worried about America invading Cuba that the US would overthrew Cuban President Fidel Castro to capture power in Cuba.
- They became reluctant to do anything that might lead to full scale war between the two countries.
- The two superpowers became reluctant because both of them knew that it might lead to only a massive destruction and will not justify any gain for them.
- Nehru wanted to keep off military blocs to maintain friendly and peaceful relation with all nations of world as well as to maintain India’s uniqueness at international stage.
- No, the Indo-Soviet friendship treaty did not violate non-alignment because it was not to maintain military relations but to maintain diplomatic friendly relations.
- NAM emphasises on disarmament, decolonisation and terrorism except staying away from military blocs.
- Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru is addressing the people in the Cartoon.
- The people sitting in the Cartoon are starved people who symbolise the poverty of India.
- The Cartoon is highlighting the Third Five Year Plan. The main aim of this plan was to make balance between agriculture and industry for achieving take off position.
- Because India adopted democracy which commit equal rights and opportunities to each and every human being in place of dividing them.
- It was argued by^Jawaharlal Nehru not only for ethical and sentimental reasons but prudential reasons also to realise long cherished goals and principles as socialism, equality, and fraternity.
- If this minority was not provided security and rights it may effect:
- Basic nature of democratic system.
- It is against secular nature of India.
- It may effect India’s foreign policy also.
- It may be a threat to other minorities also.
- Most important it may lead to disintegration of the nation.
In today’s scenario, India is supposed to decide what type of relations to have with the US. Moreover, the three strategies have been debated by Indian analysts:
- Indian analysts observed military nature of US hegemony and suggested that India should maintain its aloofness from Washington and focus upon increasing its own comprehensive national power.
- The analysts secondly suggest that India should take advantage of the US hegemony and the mutual convergences to establish the best possible options for itself in future perspective.
- The third strategy is suggested that India should lead in establishing a coalition from the developing countries to become powerful and work out in weaning the hegemon away from its dominating ways.
Moreover, it cannot be concluded that India may opt for one strategy to maintain Indo-US relations, but it needs a mix of strategies to maintain its own identity.
- Differences over the sharing of the Ganga and Brahmaputra river waters.
- Illegal immigration to India.
- Refusal to allow Indian troops to move through its territory.
- Not to export natural gas to India.
- Economic relations have been improved considerably within last ten years.
- Bangladesh is the part of India’s ‘Look East’ policy to link up with Southeast Asia via Myanmar.
- Cooperated on the issues of disaster management and environment.
- Cooperation on identifying common threats and being more sensitive to each other’s needs.
- Interdependence and globalisation is not possible without the international organisations such as the UN.
- To enforce cooperation on the issues of poverty, unemployment, environmental degradation, crime rate etc.
- To provide financial assistance to developing countries to stabilise economy all over the world, the UN and its specialised agencies are always required.
- The UN works as a forum to solve any international dispute among nations and sort out the best possible way.
- Hence, though the UN has failed in preventing related wars and miseries, despite the nations require its continuation due to above mentioned reasons to promote international peace and understanding.
India has faced traditional (military) and non-traditional threats to its security that have emerged from within as well as outside its borders. Its security strategy has four broad components i.e. :
1. To strengthen its military capabilities :
- India has been involved in conflict with its neighbours as Pakistan in 1947-48, 1965, 1971 and 1999 and China in 1962.
- In South Asian Region, India is surrounded by nuclear armed countries. Hence, India’s decision to conduct nuclear test in 1998 was justified to safeguard national security.
- India first tested nuclear device in 1974.
2. To strengthen international norms and international institutions :
- India’s first Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru supported Asian solidarity, disarmament, decolonisation and the UN as a forum to settle down international conflict.
- India took initiatives to bring about a universal and non-discriminatory non¬proliferation regime to enjoy some rights and obligations with respect to weapons of mass destruction.
- It used non-alignment to help to carve out an area of peace outside the blocs.
- India signed Kyoto Protocol in 1997 to be a part of roadmap for reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases to check global warming.
3. To meet security challenges within the country :
- Several militant groups from areas such as Nagaland, Mizoram, Punjab, Kashmir have sought to break away from India.
- India makes efforts to preserve national unity by adopting a democratic political system by providing freedom of speech and expression alongwith the right to vote.
4. To develop its economy :
- India develops the way to lift vast mass of citizens out of poverty, misery and huge economic inequalities.
- A democratically elected government is supposed to combine economic growth with human development without any demarcation between the rich and the poor.
After independence, the congress was transferred into social coalition broadly:
- By the time of independence, the Congress was transferred into social coalition broadly representing India’s diversity in terms of classes and castes, religions and languages and various interests. Many of these groups merged than identify within the Congress.
- The Congress Party became a social and ideological coalition for it merged different social groups alongwith their identity holding different beliefs.
- The Congress was already a very well-organised party and by the time the other parties could even think of a strategy, the Congress had already began its campaign. In fact, many parties were formed only around independence or after that. Hence, the Congress had the first off the blocks advantage.
- In pre-independence days, many organisations and parties with their own constitutions and organisational structures were allowed to exist within the Congress.
- The Congress evolved as a pressure group in the beginning, but with the Civil Disobedience Movement, it launched to widened its social based and thus, it became a social coalition.
- The party provided enough space to all sections of people like peasants and industrialists, urban dwellers and villagers, owners and workers, upper, middle and lower classes.
- It also defined the area of leadership beyond the upper caste and upper class professionals to agriculture-based leaders with a rural orientation.
- Congress became a platform for numerous groups, interacts and even political parties to take part in the national movement.
No, the above statement is not perfectly true because state’s intervention was mandatory to regulate country’s economy after independence immediately. India did not follow either capitalist model of development or socialist model completely. Instead she adopted the model of‘mixed economy’ to be criticised from the right and the left:
- Private sector lacked enough space and stimulus to grow.
- Licensing and permits for investment in private sector created hurdles for private capital accumulation.
- The state control beyond the limits led to inefficiency and corruption.
State control was emphasized :
- State helped the private sector to make profits by intervening only in those areas where the private sector was not prepared to go.
- Instead of helping the poor, the states intervention ended up creating a new class that enjoyed the privileges of higher salaries without much accountability.
Yes, India’s foreign policy reflects its desire to be a major regional power which was revealed during the Bangladeshi war of 1971. Bangladesh War of 1971:
- In 1970, Pakistan faced its biggest crisis in the way for a split verdict i.e. Zulfikar Ali Bhutto’s Party emerged as winner in West Pakistan while Awami league led by Sheikh Mujibur Rehman swept through East Pakistan.
- The Bengali population of East Pakistan had voted to protest against discriminatory attitude of West Pakistan, which was not acceptable to West Pakistan rulers.
- In 1971, Pakistani army arrested Sheikh Mujib and unleashed a region of terror on East Pakistan. This started people’s struggle to liberate Bangladesh from Pakistan.
- India had to bear 80 lakh refugees who fled from East Pakistan to take shelter. Hence, India had to extend moral and material support to the freedom struggle in Bangladesh.
- A full scale war between India and Pakistan in December 1971 broke out, when Pakistan attacked on Punjab and Rajasthan to be retaliated an attack from India.
- Within ten days the Indian army surrounded Dhaka and Pakistan had to surrender with Bangladesh as a free country, India declared a unilateral ceasefire and Shimla Agreement was signed between India and Pakistan in 1972.
- Most people in India saw this moment as a glory of India and a clear sign of India’s growing military powers.
1. C. Natarajan Annadurai :
- He was born in 1909.
- He became the Chief Minister of Madras (Tamil Nadu) in 1967.
- He was a journalist, popular writer and orator.
- He was initially associated with the Justice Party in Madras province.
- He later joined Dravid Kazagham (1934).
- He formed DMK as a political party in 1949.
- He was a proponent of Dravid culture.
- He was opposed to imposition of Hindi and led the anti-Hindi agitations.
- He was supporter of greater autonomy to States.
- He passed away in 1969.
2. K. Kamaraj
- He was born in 1903.
- He wa a great freedom fighter, Congress President and the Chief Minister of Madras (Tamil Nadu).
- He made efforts to spread education in Madras province.
- He introduced mid-day meal scheme for school children.
- In 1963, he proposed that all senior Congressmen should resign from office to make way for younger party workers—this proposal is famous as the ‘Kamaraj plan’.
- He passed away in 1975.
The 1977 elections were evolved as a shock to everyone as Congress Party was defeated for the very first time and opposition party came into power:
- The opposition adopted the slogan ‘save democracy’ against imposition of Emergency earlier.
- The opposition campaigned non-democratic character of rule which provided various excesses.
- The opposition party highlighted the preventive detention and press censorship to favour public opinion.
- Janata Party also ensured not to divide non-Congress votes.
- Middle section of North India was moving away from Congress for whom Janata Party became a platform.
- Hence, elections of 1977 emerged many other factors instead about Emergency only.
Indian fishers constitute one of the largest fishing population in the world. Fish worker’s lives were threatened in a major way when the government permitted entry to mechanised trawlers and technologies like bottom trawling for large-scale harvest of fish in the Indian seas. Throughout seventies and eighties, local fish workers’ organisations fought with the State governments over the issues of their livelihood. Fisheries being a State subject, the fish workers were mostly mobilised at the regional level.
With the coming of policies of economic liberalisation in and around the mid eighties, these organisations were compelled to come together on a national level platform-the National Fishworkers’ Forum (NFF).
Throughout the nineties, the NFF fought various legal and public battles with the government. It worked to protect the interests of those who rely on fishing for subsistence rather than those who invest in the sector for profit. In July 2002, NFF called for a nationwide strike to oppose the move of the government to issue licenses to foreign trawlers. The NFF joined hands with organisations all over the world to protect ecology and lives of the fish workers.
The internal dimension of the problem of J&K revolved around Article 370 of the Constitution of India. Article 370 gives greater autonomy to J&K compared to other states of India. The state has its own Constitution. All provisions of the Indian Constitution are not applicable to J&K. This special status has provoked two opposite reactions. There is a section of people outside of J&K that believes that the special status of the State conferred by Article 370 does not allow full integration of the State with India. This section feels that Article 370 should therefore be revoked and J&K should be like any other State in India.
Another section, mosfly Kashmiris, believe that the autonomy conferred by Article 370 is not enough. A section of Kashmiris have expressed at least three major grievances. First, the promise that Accession would be referred to the people of the State after the situation created by tribal invasion was normalised, has not been fulfilled. This has generated the demand for a ‘Plebiscite’.
Secondly, there is a feeling that the special federal status guaranteed by Article 370, has been eroded in practice. This has led to the demand for restoration of autonomy or ‘Greater State Autonomy’.
Thirdly, it is felt that democracy which is practiced in the rest of India has not been similarly institutionalised in the State of Jammu and Kashmir.
After Independence, Congress party came in power. It ruled over the country as a democratic government till 1977. One after the other the government was represented by the Congress Prime Ministers like Jawaharlal Nehru, Lai Bahadur Shastri and then Indira Gandhi. It was due to some political upheaval; a State Emergency was declared in 1975. During Emergency all the opposition leaders were jailed and their constitutional powers were seized. It made all the opposition leaders unite and form first united party in the name of Janata Party which came in power in 1977. The general election held soon after the Emergency. Though it couldn’t last long, but it started a new concept of rule in India. One after the other, India saw many governments ruled by alliance group, except a few single-party-led government. But with the elections of 1989, a long phase of coalition politics began in India. Since then there have been nine governments at the centre all of which have either been coalition government or minority government supported by other parties which did not join the government. The National Front government in 1989, the United Front government in 1996 and 1997, the NDA government in 1997, 1998 and 1999 and then UPA government in 2004 and 2009 and again BJP-led NDA government in 2014 have been the coalition governments in India. In none of these governments any one single party had the number enough to form the government at its own. But in 2014, there was a change in the pattern. BJP could gain 284 seats in the Lok Sabha election which was sufficient to form the government at its own which required to only 272. But as the election was fought with a pre-poll alliance by NDA led by BJP. So the present government was formed with Narendra Modi, the leader of BJP.
This election shows that people are again turning to the single party government at the centre which may be stable. People have experienced the lack of stability, lack of policy decision and lack of proper development in the government ruled by the coalition group.
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