CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science Paper 4 are part of CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science. Here we have given CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science Paper 4.
CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science Paper 4
|Sample Paper Set||Paper 4|
|Category||CBSE Sample Papers|
Students who are going to appear for CBSE Class 12 Examinations are advised to practice the CBSE sample papers given here which is designed as per the latest Syllabus and marking scheme as prescribed by the CBSE is given here. Paper 4 of Solved CBSE Sample Paper for Class 12 Political Science is given below with free PDF download solutions.
Time Allowed: 3 hours
Maximum Marks: 80
- All questions are compulsory.
- Questions nos. 1 to 5 are of 1 mark each. The answer to these questions should not exceed 20 words
- Questions nos. 6 to 10 are of 2 marks each. The answer to these questions should not exceed 40 words
- Questions nos. 11 to 16 are of 4 marks each. The answer to these questions should not exceed 100 words
- Questions nos. 17 to 21 are of 5 marks each. The answer to these questions should not exceed 150 words
- Questions no. 21 is map based question.
- Questions nos. 22 to 27 are of 6 marks each. The answer to these questions should not exceed 150 words.
How were the military alliances beneficial to smaller nations during the Cold War?
Who was the General Secretary of Communist Party of Soviet Union in 1985?
What does the term ‘hegemony’ imply?
Mention the main recommendation of the States Reorganisation Commission of 1953.
Which two objectives Jawaharlal Nehru wished to achieve through the strategy of Non¬alignment?
State any two ideologies of the Swatantra Party.
Which state was prone to food crisis in the early years of independence?
Mention any two steps taken by China to improve its economy.
Mention some other conflicts in South Asia except with that of India.
Match some of the principal organs and agencies of the UN with their functions:
|1. Economic and Social Council||(a) Resolves disputes between and among member countries|
|2. International Court of Justice||(b) Reservation of international peace and security|
|3. International Atomic Energy Agency||(c) Looks into the economic and social welfare of the member countries|
|4. Security Council||(d) Safety and peaceful use of nuclear technology|
Analyse India’s stand on environmental issues.
“India’s policy of non-alignment was criticised on a number of counts.” Explain.
What were the factors that forced Gorbachev to initiate the reforms in the USSR?
What would you consider as the main differences between Mexico and India under one party domination?
Why did Indira Gandhi government devalue the Indian rupee in 1967?
What are the choices available to a state when its security is threatened, according to traditional security perspective?
Mention the major problems of ecological issues.
All regional movements need not lead to separatist demands. Explain it by giving examples.
What are the differences between globalisation of the past and the present?
What are the reasons being used by Nehru for keeping India secular? Do you think these reasons were only ethical and sentimental?
were there some prudential reasons as well?
On an outline map of India, mark seven states referred to as ‘Seven Sister’. Identify them and write their names on the lines marked in the map.
NAM was considered a ‘third option’ by third world countries! How did this option benefit their growth during the peak of the Cold War?
Mention any three features that distinguish the Soviet economy from that of a capitalist country like the US.
Discuss some of the salient features of the coalition government.
Discuss the measures taken by the government of India to promote the Green Revolution.
Differentiate between the EU and the SAARC as an alternative centers of power.
What is globalisation? Highlight any three causes of globalisation. Explain its four consequences.
What forced the Union Government of India to set up the States Reorganisation Commission in 1953? Mention its two main recommendations. Name any four new states formed after 1956.
Assess the outcomes of the early phase of planned development in India.
What do you mean by foreign policy? Assess six principles of India’s foreign policy.
Describe any four major developments in the Indian politics since 1989.’
How did India’s first general elections of 1952 become a landmark in the history of democracy all over the world? How has the method of voting changed from the first general elections of 1952 to the general election of 2004?
Smaller nations got the promise of protection, weapons and economic aid against their local and regional rivals. A state was supposed to remain tied to its protective superpowers to unite influence of other superpower and its allies.
The word ‘hegemony’ implies the dominance of one state means world power in the form of military dominance, economic power, political clout and cultural superiority.
The main recommendation of the States Reorganisation Commission was to organise states on language basis and the boundaries of states could also reflect the linguistic aspects.
Pt. Nehru wanted peaceful co-existence to secure world peace. He wished to achieve these objectives through the strategy of non-alignment:
- preserving the hard earned sovereignty;
- protecting territorial integrity;
- promoting rapid economic development.
- The party believed that prosperity could come only through individual freedom.
- This party was against land ceilings in agriculture and opposed to cooperative farming.
Bihar was prone to food crisis in the early years of independence.
- It was due to a near famine situation.
- The food shortage was very much acute in all districts of Bihar.
- Food shortage led to acute and widespread malnutrition.
- The zoning policies of government prohibited trade of food across states, which reduced availability of food in Bihar.
- Special Economic Zones (SEZs) were created to invite foreign investors to set up their own enterprises.
- The privatisation of agriculture and industry in 1982 and 1998.
- Nepal and Bhutan as well as Bangladesh and Myanmar have disagreement over the migration of ethnic Nepalese into Bhutan and Rohingyas into Myanmar.
- Bangladesh and Nepal bear some differences over the future of Himalayan river water.
India plays a dominating role among the Asian countries on environmental issues:
- India signed and ratified the 1997 Kyoto Protocol in August 2002 which emphasised to follow the principle common but differentiated responsibility.
- India feels this convention is the very spirit of UNFCCC. Neither does it seem fair to impose restrictions on India when the country’s rise in per capita carbon emissions by 2030 is likely to still represent less than half the world average.
- The Indian government is also keen to launch a National Mission on Biodiesel which makes India to have one of the largest renewable energy programmes in the world.
- The Indian government is also participating in global efforts through a number of. programmes i.e. National Auto Fuel Policy, Electricity Act 2003, Energy Conservation
Act, 2001, etc.
A non-aligned posture also served India’s interests very directly as well as India intervened in world affairs to soften cold war rivalries by reducing differences between the alliances and from escalating into a full scale war. Though India’s policy of non-alignment was criticised on a number of counts:
- India’s non-alignment was said to be ‘unprincipled’ in the name of pursuing in national interest.
- India often refused to take firm stand on crucial international issues.
- Sometimes India took contradictory postures, having criticised others for joining alliances, Indian signed the Treaty of friendship in August 1971 with the USSR for 29 years.
- During Bangladesh crisis also India developed good relations even with the US in the name of diplomatic and military support.
Mikhail Gorbachev was the General Secretary of Communist Party of Soviet Union in 1985. He was forced to initiate the reforms in the USSR due to following reasons:
- To keep the USSR abreast of information and technological revolutions at par the West.
- To normalise the relations with that of the West.
- To democratise the Soviet System.
- To loosen the administrative system which exempted ordinary people from the privileges.
There was a difference between one party domination in India and Mexico as:
- In India, the Congress Party dominated on behalf of popular consensus but Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) (in Spanish) ruled on behalf of perfect dictatorship.
- In India, free and fair elections took place, where the losing of election was also fair but it Mexico, elections were based on malpractices, dominated by PRI.
Indira Gandhi government devalued Indian rupee to check economic crisis of 1967. Consequently, one US dollar could be purchased for less than after devaluation, it cost more than ?
- The economic situation triggered a price rise.
- People started protest against increase in prices of essential commodities and unemployment etc.
- The Communist and Socialist parties launched struggle to avail greater equality.
Traditional security perspective emphasises on compromises to limit the violence by giving following three choices to the state if its security is threatened:
- To surrender when actually confronted by war, but they will not advertise this as the policy of country.
- To prevent the other side from attacking by promising to raise the costs of war to an unacceptable level.
- To defend to protect itself when war actually breaks out so as to deny the attacking country its objectives and to turn back or to defeat the attacking forces altogether
- Hence, state’s security policy is to prevent war which is called deterrence and with limiting or heading war called defence.
- Common environmental agenda could not get common consensus due to vague scientific methods.
- Management of outer space is influenced by North-South inequalities.
- Technology and industrial development are also the issues over earth’s atmosphere and ocean floor.
- Ozone hole over Antarctic also revealed the opportunity as well as dangers inherent in thckling global environment problems.
- Regional aspirations are part of democratic politics.
- Expression of regional issues is not an abnormal phenomenon.
- Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland have regional aspirations in United Kingdom.
- Regional movements are responded through democratic negotiations rather than suppression.
- Its examples are in eighties, military erupted in Punjab, problems persisted in the North-East, students agitated in Assam and Kashmir valley was on the boil.
- The Government of India settled down some negotiations with these regional aspirations to reduce tensions in many regions.
- Mizoram is an example of political settlement to resolve the problem of separation effectively.
Globalisation of the Past :
- Earlier only finished products travelled all over the world.
- Only the eastern part of the world dominated the international trade.
- Finished products of the east were valued and dominated.
Globalisation of the Present :
- Today along with finished products, raw material, enhanced technology and people travel all over the world.
- Now the western part of the world dominated the international trade.
- Today, the products from the west are highly valued. Many companies produce products in developing countries and label them in developed countries and sell in the global market as the goods of the developed countries.
Reasons for keeping India secular:
- All the Muslims did not leave India during participation, some muslims stayed in India as a minority and Jawaharlal Nehru wanted to deal with them in a very civilised and dignified manner.
- He advocated security and democratic rights of Muslims as a citizen of India.
No, these reasons were not only ethical and sentimental, but there were some prudential reasons also as:
- India’s secular nature cherished its long term goals and principles like socialism, equality, liberty and fraternity.
- Secularism stops any single faith to become superior and inferior to those who practicised another religion. Hence, it considers all citizens equal irrespective of religious affiliation.
- Arunachal Pradesh
Non-alignment offered newly decolonised countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America, a third option-not to join either alliance. A majority of NAM members was categorised as the Least Development Countries (LDCs), to be developed more economically not to remain dependent on richer countries.
A New International Economic Order (NIEO) originated with this realisation. The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) brought out a report in 1972 entitled towards a New Trade Policy for Development which proposed a reform of global trading system:
- LDCs got control over their own natural resources which were being exploited by developed western countries.
- To make western market available for LDCs. It made trading more beneficial.
- To reduce cost of technology from western countries.
- To provide LDCs with a greater role in international economic institutions.
The three features that distinguish the Soviet economy from that of a capitalist country like the US, can be summed up as follows:
- Soviet economy experienced a complex communication network, vast energy resources and an efficient transport sector to connect its remotest areas.
- Soviet Union industries produced every domestic product from pin to cars, whose quality might not match with that of the west technology.
- Soviet Union ensured a minimum standard of living for all its citizens. Consequently government subsidised basic necessities including health, education, children and other welfare schemes.
- There was an absence of unemployment in Soviet Union.
- Land and productive assets were owned by the state only.
- The major objective of the coalition was to dislodge the Congress Party and to break its monopoly. Ram Manohar Lohia was a great follower of this strategy.
- Coalition governments were unstable governments since they had no inherent compatibility amongst constituent parties. They had their own internal contradictions which led to the break up not only of various fronts, but of governments as well.
- The coalitions were not formed on principles or on the basis of polarisation of political forces. There were widely heterogeneous elements like the CPI and Jana Sangh. It was just for the sake of capturing power that issues of ideological importance were either side-stepped or compromised and non-Congress coalition of a most heterogeneous variety came into power.
- One of the major factors in the formation of the coalition was political opportunism. Coalition government became a game of selfish, opportunist, power hungry and unscrupulous politicians who had to look after nothing but their personal interest.
- This coalition states proved to be dependent upon some defectors present in almost every Legislative Assembly. Defectors really became responsible to make and unmake of coalitions and for their defect in elections.
The UN pressurised India to change its economic policies. The government had taken a new strategy for agriculture in order to ensure food sufficiency. Instead of the earlier policy of giving more support to the areas and farmers that were lagging behind, now it was decided to put more resources into those areas which already had irrigation and those farmers who were already well-off. The argument was that those who already had the capacity could help grow production ghastly in the short time period, Therefore, the government offered high-yielding variety seeds, fertilizers, pesticides and better irrigation at highly subsidised prices. The government to buy the produce of the farmers at a given price. This was the beginning of the ‘Green Revolution’.
European Union: It was established in 1948 under the marshal plan to channel aid to the west European states. It become of form where these states started to co-operate on trade and economic issues. It was observed as support to capitalism against socialism. Member ’states to EU develop their own foreign relations which are often different from each other. EU is the world’s biggest economy and it has its own currency called Euro. Its economic power provides it influence over its nearest neighbours as well as in Asia and Africa. It also functions as a major bloc in international economic organisation such as World Trade Organisation (WTO).
SAARC: South Asian Association for Regional Co-operation (SAARC) is a regional initiative among South Asian states to evolve cooperation since 1985 onwards. It consists of seven member countries i.e., India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan and Maldives, China and USA’s under interference in the internal affairs of SAARC countries have created deadlocks. SAARC has initiated SAFTA (South Asian Free Trade Agreement) to free trade zones for whole South Asia for collective economic security. SAARC has projected an economic development of its member states to reduce their dependencies on the non-regional powers. It doesn’t have its own currency and has evolved into a regional block with some common cultural features and trade interests.
Globalisation is integration of an economy with other economies alongwith the free flow of trade and capital. Process of globalisation is the result of:
- Historical factors
- Role of International Organisations like IMF and WTO.
- Liberalisation and Privatisation
- Technological innovations.
Four consequences of globalization :
1. Economic consequences
- It has involved greater trade in commodities across the globe.
- The restrictions imposed by other countries on allowing imports have been reduced.
2. Cultural consequences .
- The rise of uniform culture called as cultural homogenisation.
- Global culture is the imposition of western culture on rest of the world.
3. Political Consequences
- In place of welfare state it is the market to become the prime determinant of economic and social priorities.
- The entry and increased role of MNCs all over the world leads to reduction in capacity of governments to take decisions on their own.
- The left wing protests against economic liberalisation.
- Indian social forum also raised voices against globalisation.
- The State Reorganisation Commission was set up in 1953 by the Central Government to rearrange the boundaries of states.
- Its main recommendations were to organise states on language basis as well as the boundaries of state could reflect the linguistic aspects also.
- The Madras province under British India created the following linguistic states:
- Andhra Pradesh (Telugu)
- Tamil Nadu (Tamil)
- Kerala (Malayalam)
- Karnataka (Kannad)
- The States Reorganisation Act was passed in 1956 which created 14 states and 6 union territories.
Agriculture, industry and land reforms were the three most significant objectives after Independence. As political power was in the hands of land-owning classes and capitalists, land reforms and poverty eradication were slow. No major steps were taken to implement these objectives as only economically dominant classes benefited from this policy.
There were three major outcomes:
- Economic Foundation: Planned development during the early phase of Independence laid foundations of India’s economic growth. India has borrowed the idea of Five Year Plans from USSR. The First Five Year Plan laid emphasis on the development of agriculture. The Second Five Year Plan focused on the development of key (heavy) industries and an building of mega dams. Mega-dams like Bhakra Nangal and Hirakud for irrigation, and power generation came up. Heavy industries in sectors of iron and steel, oil refinery, manufacturing units, defence, etc. were started. Gradually, transport and communication infrastructure were improved.
- Land Reforms: The most important development was in the field of land reforms. The colonial legacy of zamindari system was abolished. The two components of land reforms were much less successful which were as follows:
- Laws ever made to put an upper limit or ceiling on the amount of agricultural land that person could own but people with excess land violate the provision of ceiling.
- Laws were made to provide legal security against eviction of tenants who worked on someone else land.
- Green Revolution: The introduction of high-yielding varieties of seeds and the increased use of fertilizers and irrigation led to the Green Revolution. It provided the increase in production required to make India self-sufficient in food grains.
Foreign policy of a nation reflects systematic statements of national interests alongwith the interplay of domestic and external factors. India’s foreign policy is based on principles of Panchsheel, which is derived from two words ‘Panch’ means Five and ‘Sheel’ means a ‘Code of Conduct’ for peaceful co-existence. Principles:
- Non-alignment (NAM)
- Mutual benefits and equality
- Mutual non-aggression
- Non-intervention in each others international affairs
- To maintain international peace and understanding
In the midst of severe competition and many conflicts, a consensus appears to have emerged among most parties. This consensus consists of four elements:
- Agreement on new economic policies: While many groups are opposed to the new economic policies, most political parties are in support of the new economic policies. Most parties believe that these policies would lead the country to prosperity and a status of economic power in the world.
- Acceptance of political and social claims of the backward castes: Political parties have recognised the social and political claims of the backward castes need to be accepted. As a result, all political parties now support reservation of seats for the ‘backward classes’ in education and employment. Political parties are also willing to ensure that the OBCs get adequate share of power.
- Acceptance of the role of state level parties in governance of the country: The distinction between state level and national level parties is fast becoming less important. State level parties are showing power at the national level and have played a central role in the country’s politics of last twenty years or so.
- Emphasis on pragmatic considerations rather than ideological positions and political alliances without ideological agreement: Coalition politics has shifted the focus of political parties from ideological differences to power sharing arrangements. Thus, most parties of the NDA did not agree with the ‘Hindutva’ ideology of the BJP. Yet, they came together to form a government and remained in power for a full term.
- These elections were competitive among various parties.
- The participation of people was encouraging also.
- The results were declared in a very fair manner, even to be accepted by the losers in a fair manner.
- This experiment of India proved the critics wrong also.
Changing Method of Voting :
- In the first general election, a box was placed inside each polling booth for each candidate with the election symbol of the candidate. Each voter was given a blank ballot paper to drop into the box, they wanted to vote for.
- After first two elections, this method was changed. Now ballot paper carried the names and symbols of candidates and the voter stamped against the name of candidate to vote for.
- In 2004, Electronic Voting Machine were introduced to press the button according to choice of the voter containing the name of candidate and symbol of political party.
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