CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science Paper 6 are part of CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science. Here we have given CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science Paper 6.
CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science Paper 5
|Sample Paper Set||Paper 5|
|Category||CBSE Sample Papers|
Students who are going to appear for CBSE Class 12 Examinations are advised to practice the CBSE sample papers given here which is designed as per the latest Syllabus and marking scheme, as prescribed by the CBSE, is given here. Paper 5 of Solved CBSE Sample Paper for Class 12 Political Science is given below with free PDF download solutions.
Time Allowed: 3 hours
Maximum Marks: 80
- All questions are compulsory.
- Questions nos. 1 to 5 are of 1 mark each. The answer to these questions should not exceed 20 words
- Questions nos. 6 to 10 are of 2 marks each. The answer to these questions should not exceed 40 words
- Questions nos. 11 to 16 are of 4 marks each. The answer to these questions should not exceed 100 words
- Questions nos. 17 to 21 are of 5 marks each. The answer to these questions should not exceed 150 words
- Questions no. 21 is map based question.
- Questions nos. 22 to 27 are of 6 marks each. The answer to these questions should not exceed 150 words.
Mention any two constraints operated in the US hegemony.
In which four ways did the new economic policy of China benefit its economy?
What was the former name of Sri Lanka?
When and by whom PRI was founded?
Mention the primary responsibilities of India immediately after independence.
What is meant by ‘Hegemony’?
What led to the evolution of the EU from an economic union to an increasingly political one?
Match some of the principal organs and agencies of the UN with their functions.
|(i) World Trade Organisation||(a) Administration and coordination of UN affairs|
|(ii) International Monetary Fund||(b) Facilitates free trade among member nations|
|(Hi) General Assembly||(c) Oversees the global financial system|
|(iv) Secretariat||(d) Debates and discusses global issues|
Assess the role played by Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel in nation-building.
In which year was the Election Commission of India set up and who was the first Chief Election Commissioner of India?
Discuss the resolution adopted by General Assembly in 1992 over the reform of the UN Security Council.
What is the Kyoto Protocol?
Define indigenous po*pulation. Highlight any two problems of such people.
Explain any two positives and two negative effects of globalization.
How did the dominance of the Congress Party in the first three general elections help in establishing a democratic set up in India?
Why did Indira Gandhi government devalue the Indian rupee in 1967?
Read the passage given below carefully and answer the following questions:
The socialists believed in the ideology of democratic socialism which distinguished them both from the Congress as well as from the Communists. They criticized the Congress for favoring capitalists and landlords and for ignoring the workers and the peasants. But the socialists faced a dilemma when in 1955 the Congress declared its goal to be the socialist pattern of society. Thus it became difficult for the socialists to present themselves as an effective alternative to the Congress. Some of them, led by Rammanohar Lohia, increased their distance from and criticism of the Congress party. Some others like Asoka Mehta advocated a limited cooperation with the Congress.
(i) Mention the ideology of Socialists.
(ii) Name some leaders of the Socialist Party.
(iii) Why did it become difficult for socialists to present themselves as an effective alternative to the Congress?
Read the passage given below carefully and answer the questions:
The Assam Movement from 1979 to 1985 is the best example of such movements against ‘outsiders’. The Assamese suspected that there was a huge number of illegal Bengali Muslim settlers from Bangladesh. They felt that unless these foreign nationals are detected and deported they would reduce the indigenous Assamese into a minority. There were other economic issues too. There were widespread poverty and unemployment in Assam despite the existence of natural resources like oil, tea, and coal. It was felt that these were drained out of the State without any commensurate benefit to the people.
(i) Name the group that led a movement against outsiders in 1979.
(ii) Why did Assamese seek the detection and deportation of outsiders?
(iii) What were the economic issues taken up as a part of movement?
Study the picture given below and answer the questions that follow:
(i) How long do you think the US will stay on the superpower stage?
(ii) Except China, who can be shown as waiting in the wings?
(Hi) What is being represented in the cartoon?
(iv) Why has China been represented as waiting in the wings?
Read the following passage:
“Patel, the organisational man of the Congress, wanted to purge the Congress of other political groups and sought to make of it a cohesive and disciplined political party. He … sought to take the Congress away from its all-embracing character and turn it into a close-knit party of disciplined cadres. Being a ‘realist’ he looked more for discipline than for comprehension, While Gandhi took too romantic a view of “carrying on the movement,” Patel’s idea of transforming the Congress into strictly political party with a single ideology and tight discipline showed an equal lack of understanding of the eclectic role that the Congress, as a government, was to be called upon to perform in the decades to follow.” —Rajni Kothari
(i) Why does the author think that Congress should not have been a cohesive and disciplined party?
(ii) Give some examples of the eclectic role of the Congress Party in the early years.
(iii) Why does the author say that Gandhi’s view about Congress future was romantic?
On a political outline map of the world, locate and label the following and symbolise them as indicated:
(a) Two countries of First World
(b) Two countries of Second World
(c) Two countries of Third World
Name the countries included in South Asia. How can peace and cooperation be enhanced in this region?
Explain the role of Environmental Movements to meet challenge of environmental degradation.
Mention any four political consequences of globalisation.
What problems were involved at the integration of Princely States during nation building?
What was Shah Commission of Inquiry? How did the government react to it?
What does the term ‘syndicate’ mean in the context of the Congress party of the sixties? What role did the Syndicate play in the Congress party?
What military actions were taken by Clinton government despite their lack of interest were different from military power?
The peace and prosperity of countries lay in the establishment and strengthening of regional economic organisations. Justify this statement.
Explain some lessons learnt from popular movements.
Describe any six advantages of popular movements.
What was Goa problem? How was Goa liberated and how did it become part of Indian Union?
In spite of the decline of Congress dominance the Congress Party continues to influence politics in the country. Do you agree? Give reasons.
Two constraints operated in the US hegemony are institutional architecture of American state (division of power) and open nature of American society.
- Break from stagnation
- Privatisation of agriculture.
- New trading laws and creation of special economic zones. (SEZ)
- High personal savings in the rural economy led to an exponential growth.
The Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) was founded in 1929 by Plutareo Elias Calles in Mexico which represented the legacy of Mexican Revolution.
- Development of agriculture
- Poverty alleviation of rural and urban level both.
- Social and economic redistribution.
The term ‘Hegemony’ stands for an international system which is dominated by a sole superpower. The collapse of the Soviet Union left the world with only one single power, the United States of America.
The European Union has now started to act more as a nation state because-
- European Union has its own flag, anthem, founding date and common currency.
- European Union bears common foreign and security policy.
- The EU has made efforts to expand areas of cooperation while acquiring new members especially from Soviet bloc.
Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel became India’s Deputy Prime Minister and Home Minister during integration of Princely States.
He played a historic role in negotiating the rulers of Princely States and diplomatically brought most of them in Indian Union. It was very complicated which required skilful persuasion i.e. there were 26 small states in today’s Odisha (previous Orissa), Saurashtra region of Gujarat had 14 states with 119 small states etc.
25 January 1950, Sukumar Sen.
In 1992, the UN General Assembly adopted a resolution, which reflected three main complaints:
- The UN Security Council no longer represents contemporary political realities.
- Its decisions reflect only western values and interests and are dominated by a few powers.
- It lacks equitable representation.
Considering above mentioned demands for restructuring of the UN on 01 January 1997, the UN Secretary General Kofi Annan initiated an enquiry into how the UN should be reformed.
- Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement signed on 11 December, 1997 in Kyoto, Japan for setting targets for industrialised countries to cut their greenhouse gas emissions.
- Under this agreement, certain gases like Carbon dioxide, Methane, Hydro-fluoro Carbons, etc. are considered as responsible for global warming.
- This global warming may rise the global temperature to have catastrophic consequences for life on earth.
Indigenous people are the people who help to bring the issues of environment, resources and politics together. The UN defines indigenous population as comprising the descendants of people who inhabited the present territory of a country at the time when persons of a different culture or ethnic origin arrived there from other parts of the world and overcame them. The following problems are faced by such people:
- They lost their lands which belonged to them only for a long time.
- The loss of land refers to a loss of an economic resource base.
- Issues related to the rights of the indigenous communities have also been neglected in domestic and international politics for long.
1. Positive effects (Any two).
- Increase in the volume of trade in goods and services.
- It attracts private foreign capital investment.
- It creates new job opportunities.
- It raises standard of living.
- It increases production efficiency and healthy competition.
- It attracts Foreign Direct Investment also.
2. Negative effects :
- It has widened income disparities by making the rich richer and the poor more poorer.
- Gradually, globalisation is also a reason for depletion of flora and fauna in country.
The first general election was the first big test of democracy in a poor and illiterate country. Till then democracy had existed only in the prosperous countries. By that time many countries in Europe had not given voting rights to all women. In this context, India’s experiment with universal adult franchise appeared very bold and risky. India’s general election of 1952 became a landmark in the history of democracy all over the world. It was no longer possible to argue that domocratic elections could not be held on conditions of poverty or lack of education. It proved that democracy could be practised anywhere in the world. The next two general elections strengthened democratic set-up in India.
Indira Gandhi government devalued Indian rupee to check economic crisis of 1967. Consequently, one US dollar could be purchased for less than ? 5 after devaluation, it cost more than ?
- The economic situation triggered a price rise.
- People started protest against increase in prices of essential commodities and unemployment etc.
- The Communist and Socialist parties launched struggle to avail greater equality.
- Socialists believed in the ideology of democratic socialism to be distinguished from Congress as well as from Communists.
- Ram Manohar Lohia, Ashok Mehta and Acharya Narendra Dev, Jayaprakash Narayan, etc.
- Because in 1955, the Congress declared its goal to be the socialist pattern of society.
- All Assam Students’ Union (AASU)
- Because they feared that they would reduce the indigenous Assamese into a minority.
- There was widespread poverty and unemployment in Assam despite existence of natural resources like oil, tea and coal.
- It was also felt these were drained out of state without any commensurate benefit to people.
- The US will stay on the superpower stage till the rest of the world is resistant with the US and the mega states like China, Russia, India and EU follow the strategy ‘to hide’.
- Either Russia or India or EU.
- The well established US hegemony or unipolar world and other countries may be next in the wings.
- China is a mega-state who can stand at par US hegemony if it accommodates its full potential for the same.
- Because she wanted to take the Congress away from its all embracing character and turn it into a close knit party of disciplined caders.
- These examples are in the form of social and ideological coalition of Congress:
- It provided a platform for numerous groups, interests and even political parties to participate in national movement.
- Congress Party represented a rainbow like social coalition representing diversity of India including various castes, religions and languages.
- Because Gandhiji believed in hand-in-hand characteristic of national movement led by the Congress which attracted various sections, groups and society to form a social and ideological coalition in the Congress.
Countries included in South Asia are India, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Maldives. South Asian countries are diverse in every sense, still constitute one geo-political space by enhancing peace and cooperation in the following ways-
- People in all these countries share an aspiration of fair democracy.
- Soufh Asian members recognise the importance of cooperation and friendly relations among themselves.
- SAARC is the regional initiative to evolve cooperation among member states.
- SAARC members have signed South Asia Free Trade Agreement (SAFTA) to free trade for the whole of south Asia.
At the international level, the governments have reacted to the challenge of environmental degradation. But some of the most important responses to this challenge have come from groups of environmentally conscious volunteers working in different parts of the world. The environmental movements are the most vibrant diverse and powerful social movements all over the world, for example.
- The forest movements of the south, in Mexico, Chile, Brazil, Malaysia, Indonesia, Continental Africa, and India are facing immense pressure. The process of forest clearing on at an alarming rate.
- In the Philippines, a large network of groups and organizations campaigned against the western mining corporation. Vehement opposition to the company in its own country, Australia is based on anti-nuclear sentiments and support for the basic rights of Australian indigenous peoples.
- Another group of movements is involved in struggles against mega-dams. Almost in each country where mega dams are being built, the environmental movements present the projects. Basically, anti-dam movements are pro-river movements for more sustainable and equitable management of river systems, the ‘Narmada Bachao Andolan’ is one of the best known of these movements.
Political consequences are positive and positive both as:
Negative aspects :
- Globalization results in an erosion of state capacity, that is the ability of government to do what they do.
- The old welfare state is now giving way to more minimalist state that performs certain core functions such as maintenance of law and order and the security of its citizens.
- Sometimes state withdraws from many of its earlier welfare functions directed at an economic and social well being.
- The market becomes prime determinant to settle down social and economic priorities in place of welfare.
Positive aspects :
- The primary status remains the unchallenged basis of political community.
- To some extent developing countries have received a boost to become more powerful and strong.
Integration of Princely States possessed many difficulties in front of nation builders:
- British announced to a lapse of British Paramountcy over princely states with the end of their rule over India.
- British government took the view that all these states were free to join either India or Pakistan or remain independent wilfully. It became a hindrance for unity of nation.
- Ruler of Travancore declared the states an independent one.
- Nizam of Hyderabad and Bhopal also followed Travancore.
- These responses created a possibility of division of country in place of unity and democracy.
Syndicate was a group of powerful and influential leaders from within the Congress:
- Syndicate was led by K. Kamaraj, former Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu and the then president of Congress party. It also includes some powerful leaders like S.K. Patil, S. Nijalingappa, N. Sanjeeva Reddy and Atulya Ghosh.
- In the sixties, Syndicate played a decisive role by installing both Lai Bahadur Shastri and Indira Gandhi as a Prime Minister.
- Syndicate played decisive say in Indira Gandhi’s first Council of Ministers and formation and implementation of policies.
- After a split, two groups in Congress were created i.e. Congress (O), led by Syndicate and Congress (R), led by Indira Gandhi.
- Congress (R) won popularity after 1971 and Syndicate lost power and prestige.
The Shah Commission was appointed in May 1977 by Janata Party government which was headed by J.C. Shah, retired Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of India to look into the matters of:
- Allegations of abuse of authority,
- Excesses and malpractices
- Actions taken in the name of emergency proclaimed on 25 June 1975.
The Commission performed to examine various evidences to give testimonies even including Indira Gandhi to appear before Commission, but she refused to answer any questions.
Findings of Shah Commission :
- It found many ‘excesses’ committed during Emergency.
- Under preventive detention laws nearly one lakh eleven thousand people were arrested.
- Press censorship took place without any proper legal sanctions.
- Even general manager of Delhi Power Supply Corporation received verbal orders from the officers of the Lt. Governor of Delhi to cut electricity to all newspapers press at 2 a.m. on 26 June 1975.
The Government of India accepted the findings, observation and recommendations contained the two interim reports and their final report of the Shah Commission. The reports were also tabled in the two houses of Parliament.
The US President William Jefferson Bill Clinton believed in the policy of soft issues like democracy promotion, climate change and the world trade in place of military dominance. But the US revealed its military dominance even during the Clinton era wherever it was required by the US in the following manner:
- In 1999, the US responded to Yugoslavian action against the predominant Albanian population in the province of Kosovo. The NATO air force countries under the US leadership bombarded targets around Yugoslavia for two months forcing the downfall of the government of Slobodan Milosevic and the stationary of NATO force in Kosovo.
- In 1998, the US launched an ‘Operation Infinite Reach’, a series of cruise missile strikes on Al-Qaeda terrorist targets in Sudan and Afghanistan in response to the bombings on US embassies in Nairobi, Kenya, Dar-es-Salaam and Tanzania.
This statement represents the ASEAN Regional Forum and the European Union, where ASEAN Regional Forum is based on the notion not to escalate territorial disputes into armed confrontation:
- The ASEAN is rapidly growing as a regional organisation with the Vision 2020 including an outward looking role in international community and to encourage negotiations over conflicts in the region.
- ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) maintains coordination of security and foreign policy.
- The EU has also been funded on the ground of common foreign and security policy, cooperation on justice and home affairs.
- The European Union has also extended cooperation while acquiring new members especially from Soviet bloc.
- Popular movements helps us to understand better the nature of democratic politics. These movements came up to rectify some problems in the functioning of party politics and should be seen as integral part of our democratic politics. They represented new social groups whose economic and social grievances were not redressed in the realm of electoral politics.
- They ensured effective representation of diverse groups and their demands. This reduced the possibility of deep social conflict and disaffection of these groups from democracy.
- They suggested new forms of active participation and thus broadened the idea of participation in Indian democracy.
- Critics of these movements often argue that collective actions like strikes, sit-ins and rallies disrupt the functioning of the government, delay decision-making and destabilise the routines of democracy.
- The frequency and the methods used by the movements suggest that the routine functioning of democracy did not have enough space for the voices of these social groups. That is perhaps why these groups turned to mass actions and mobilisations outside the electoral arena.
- Movements are not only about collective assertions or only about rallies and protests. They involve a gradual process of coming together of people with similar problems, similar demands and similar expectations.
- The real life impact of these movements on the nature of public policies seems to be very limited. This is partly because most of the contemporary movements focus on a single issue and represent the interest of only one section of society.
- Democratic politics requires a broad alliance of various disadvantaged social groups. Such an alliance does not seem to be shaping under the leadership of these movements. Political parties are required to bring together different sectional interests, but they also seem to be unable to do so.
- The relationship between popular movements and political parties have grown weaker over the years, creating a vacuum in politics.
The history of popular movements helps to understand the nature of democratic politics. These movements are neither sporadic nor a problem.
- Popular movements ensured effective representation of diverse groups and their demands. It has reduced the possibility of deep social conflict and dissatisfaction of such a group with democracy.
- These movements suggested new forms of participation which has broadened the idea of participation in democracy.
- Mostly the groups mobilised by these movements are poor, socially and economically backward sections of society. The frequency and methods used by these groups mention the fact that democratic method of India does not have enough space for voices of these social groups. It is due to the marginalisation that these groups have resorted to mass action and mobilisations outside the country.
- Movements are not only about collective assertions or rallies and protests, these are a gradual coming together of people with similar demands, problems and expectations.
- These movements even make the people aware about their rights and the expectations j they can have from the democratic institutions.
- Social movements in India have been educative which has helped in expansion of democracy, rather than its distortion, e.g. the Right to Information (RTI), 2005.
- Goa was under Portuguese along with Daman and Diu since 16th century.
- We expected freedom in 1947 but Portugal refused to withdraw but the people of Goa wanted to merge with motherland.
- People of Goa suppressed from religious conversions and civil rights known as ‘Goa Problem’.
- In 1961, within two days Goa, Daman and Diu were liberated from Portugal rule under ‘Operation Vijay’ by Government of India.
- Goa became part of India and in 1987, it attained the status of‘State Position’.
In the late sixties, the dominance of the Congress Party was challenged, but the Congress under the leadership of Indira Gandhi, managed to re-establish its predominant position in politics. The defeat of Congress Party in 1989 marked an end of Congress dominance over Indian Party System. But Congress continued to influence politics in country.
- The nineties saw yet another challenge to the predominant position of the Congress. It improved performance and came back to power after mid-term elections in 1991.
- It also supported United Front government.
- In 1996, the left continued to support the non-Congress government but this time Congress supported it as both Congress and Left wanted to keep BJP out of power.
- Thus, Congress remained an important party and ruled country more than any other party even during the period since 1989. But it lost the kind of centrality it earlier enjoyed in the party system.
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