CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science Paper 6 are part of CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science. Here we have given CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science Paper 6.
CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science Paper 6
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Students who are going to appear for CBSE Class 12 Examinations are advised to practice the CBSE sample papers given here which is designed as per the latest Syllabus and marking scheme, as prescribed by the CBSE, is given here. Paper 6 of Solved CBSE Sample Paper for Class 12 Political Science is given below with free PDF download solutions.
Time Allowed: 3 hours
Maximum Marks: 80
- All questions are compulsory.
- Questions nos. 1 to 5 are of 1 mark each. The answer to these questions should not exceed 20 words
- Questions nos. 6 to 10 are of 2 marks each. The answer to these questions should not exceed 40 words
- Questions nos. 11 to 16 are of 4 marks each. The answer to these questions should not exceed 100 words
- Questions nos. 17 to 21 are of 5 marks each. The answer to these questions should not exceed 150 words
- Questions no. 21 is map based question.
- Questions nos. 22 to 27 are of 6 marks each. The answer to these questions should not exceed 150 words.
What was the main objective of New International Economic Order?
Mention any two core values of a county?
What was the immediate outcome of the two nation theory?
Which period of Indian politics has been referred to as dangerous decade’?
Was the anti-arrack movement a woman’s movement? Give one argument to support your answer.
Why do we need international organisations?
What two challenges are the newly independent countries of Asia and Africa facing?
Suggest any two measures to have good relations with Pakistan.
“The leaders of the newly independent India did not see politics as a problem; they saw it as a way of solving the problems.” How far do you agree with the statement?
How was the reorganization of North-East India completed and by when?
While the Chinese economy has improved dramatically, why has every Chinese not received the benefits of the reforms? Give any four reasons.
What is Amnesty International? State its main functions.
Can the UN serve as a balance against the US dominance?
Explain any two reasons for the popularity of Indira Gandhi during 1971 elections.
Suppose you are an important leader of the Farmers’ agitation. The government authorities ask you to present any three demands on behalf of the farmers. On priority basis, which three demands will you make? Support your demands with appropriate arguments.
Trace the emergence of BJP as a significant force in post-Emergency politics.
Read the following passage carefully and answer the following questions:
Above all, the linguistic states underlined the acceptance of the principle of diversity. When w’e say that India adopted democracy, it does not simply mean that India embraced a democratic constitution, nor does it merely mean that India adopted the format of elections. The choice was larger than that. It was a choice in favour of recognising and accepting the existence of differences which could at times be oppositional. Democracy, in other words, was associated with plurality of ideas and ways of life.
(i) What do you by ‘linguistic states’?
(ii) Why were linguistic states come into existence in India? Explain some of the reasons.
(Hi) How is democracy in India related to plurality of ideas and ways of life?
Read the passage and answer the questions below:
Party politics in India has confronted numerous challenges. Not only has the Congress system destroyed itself, but the fragmentation of the Congress coalition has triggered a new emphasis on self-representation which raises questions about the party system and its capacity to accommodate diverse interest, …. An important test facing the polity is to evolve a party system or political parties that can effectively articulate and aggregate a variety of interests. —Zoya Hasan
(i) Write a short note on what the author calls challenges of the party system in the light of what you have read in this chapter.
(ii) Give an example from this chapter of the lack of accommodation and aggregation mentioned in this passage.
(iii) Why is it necessary for parties to accommodate and aggregate variety of interests?
Study the pictures and answer the following questions.
(i) What is being shown by these cartoons?
(ii) What is being depicted in the first cartoon?
(iii) What is the subject matter of the second cartoon?
Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow:
When India conducted its first nuclear test, it was termed as peaceful explosion. India argued that it was committed to the policy of using nuclear power only for peaceful purposes. The period when the nuclear test was conducted was a difficult period in domestic politics. Following the Arab-Israel War of 1873, the entire was affected by the Oil Shock due to the massive hike in the oil prices by the nations. It led to economic turmoil in India resulting in high inflation.
(i) When did India conduct its first nuclear test and why?
(ii) Why during the period, when the nuclear test was conducted in India, considered to be a difficult period in domestic politics?
(iii) Which international event of 1979s was responsible for high inflation in India?
On a political outline map of India, locate and label the following and symbolise them as indicated:
(a) Place associated with Chipko movements.
(b) Place associated with Anti-Arrack movement.
(c) Birth place of A.K Gopalan.
(d) Place associated with Laldenga.
(e) The first state to hold an election based on universal adult franchise.
The external powers Influence bilateral relations in South Asia. How?
What is security? Discuss any components of Indian security strategy.
What does global commons mean? Give examples of global commons.
What is the impact of globalisation on state’s sovereignty?
How long will hegemony last? How do we get beg and hegemony?
In the pre-independence era, the Socialist Party traces its roots back to the mass movement stage of the INC. Elaborate the statement.
Define planning. Discuss the First Five Year Plan.
Discuss the role of Pt. Nehru in India’s foreign policy and Afro-Asian Unity.
Discuss the 1971 election and restoration of the Congress party.
Discuss the origin, growth and activities of Dalit panthers and Bharatya Kisan union.
What is meant by Shock Therapy? Write its major consequences.
The main objective of New International Economic Order was to develop more to least (economic) developed countries of NAM and to lift them out of poverty by their sustainable development.
- Territorial independence
India was partitioned into two nation states i.e., India and Pakistan.
The anti-arrack movement was the woman’s movement, as it focused on issues like dowry, domestic violence, etc.
- International organizations help in finding peaceful solutions of a dispute between nations.
- They give their cooperation in tackling issues like disease, global warming, etc. for which everyone needs to work together.
- Military conflict with neighbouring countries.
- Internal military conflicts for e.g., Separatist movements.
- Kashmir is the main burning issue of disagreement between India and Pakistan. Hence, this issue should be put away at least for a decade.
- Cultural delegates from both the countries should visit each other quite frequently.
- Both the countries should improve trade and commerce relations.
- Visa-restrictions should be relaxed.
- The leaders of the_ newly independent India supported the positive and structural form of politics.
- These leaders saw politics as a way of solving the problems. On the basis of this concept they tried to face the challenges along with their appropriate solutions.
- In 1972, an important reorganization of states took place in the north east. Meghalaya, Manipur and Tripura become separate states.
- The states of Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram came into existence in 1987. Nagaland became a state in 1 Dec. 1963.
- The improved Chinese economy failed to create opportunities of employment. This situation has created unemployment in China and as a result, nearly 100 million people become jobless.
- On the other hand, female unemployment and conditions of work are as poor as in Europe of the 18th and 19th centuries.
- Environmental degradation and corruption are on the increase.
- Besides a rise in economic in equality between rural and urban residents and coastal and in land provinces.
Amnesty International is an Non-Government Organisation (NGO) Campaigns for the protection of human rights all over the world.
Following are the main functions of the Amnesty International:
- Territorial disputes should not escalate into armed confrontations.
- To accelerate economic growth through social progress and cultural development.
- To promote regional peace and stability based on the rule of law and the principles of the United Nations Charter.
- To establish dispute settlement mechanism to resolve economic disputes.
- To create Free Trade Areas for investments, labour and services.
No, the UN can not serve against the US dominance in a comfort zone because:
- The US has been the only superpower after 1991 and may ignore international organisations economically and militarily.
- Its veto power can stop any move damaging its interests.
- The US enjoys a considerable degree of say in the selection of the UN Secretary General.
Besides the above mentioned grounds, the UN is playing an effective role to argument against the US attitudes and policies and makes compromises and concessions even or the part of the US.
The EU performs as an important bloc in International Economic Organisations such as WTO but SAARC has initiated SAFTA only to cooperate economically among its member states.
- Indira Gandhi campaigned to implement land reforms legislations and land ceiling legislation during elections.
- She ended her dependence on other political parties by strengthening her party’s ;
position and recommended the dissolution of Lok Sabha in December 1970.
- The crisis in East Pakistan and Indo-Pak war to establish Bangladesh as an independent one, also enhanced the popularity of Indira Gandhi.
Farmers agitation is not new in India. It has been in existence time to time for particular goals. The Indian farmers have been the worst sufferers in the country. They are the backbone of the country in development, yet they are not given much attention. Governments come and go, but the tragedy of our farmers remain the same. Being the
leader of the farmers’ agitation I have several demands in my mind for the benefit of the ‘ poor farmers but here I would mention only three demands on their behalf:
- Proper banking facilities so that farmers should not depend on the village moneylenders who give them money at a very high rate. Most of the time the poor farmers fall into debt trap which make their life a hell.
- Proper irrigation facilities in case there is poor/weak monsoon.
- Insurance of crops will save farmers from committing suicide. The unexpected rain in the months of March and April this year devastated the standing crops in the field. The nature’s fury aggravated the miseries of the farmers, some of whom could not bear and committed suicide.
The major trends in the electoral performance of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) since 1989 can be traced as follows:
- In the elections of 1989, the National front under V.P. Singh came to power supported by left front and BJP from outside because they wanted to keep the Congress out of power. Due to Mandal Commission Report and implementation of its recommendations forced BJP to reconsider its support and finally withdrew it. Thus, in November 1990, the rule of National Front came to an end.
- In 1996, BJP minority government was formed for a short period. In June 1996 BJP failed to get majority support in the vote of confidence and thus collapsed.
- From March 1998 to October 1999, BJP and others formed alliances NDA (National
Democratic Alliance) under the leadership of Atal Bihari Vajpayee. The regional parties demanded more share in the government to extend their support.
- The political competition during nineties and divided between the coalition led by BJP and coalition led by Congress. •
- Linguistic states mean that the states are divided on the basis of language. Various languages are spoken in India. So regions are divided on the basis of language for better administration. The most spoken language of that state becomes the official language of that particular state.
- In the beginning, India was divided into administrative units to A, B and C categories. This was found unsatisfactory and hence another category ‘D’ was added. But people believed that this division negative the principle of equal rights guaranteed to all citizens by the Constitution. The Indian government was compelled by the public opinion for division of states on linguistic basis. The people of various linguistics demanded separate state for them. Hence, in order to meet the demands of public, states were reorganised on the basis of language.
- In India, democracy is a way of life. Here, the defining principle has been and will always be ‘unity in diversity’. This includes the idea of India. The core of democracy is choice. Democracy is incompatible to any form of idea. It entertains plurality of ideas and arrive at an agreed line of action by comparing them.
- The author calls challenges to coalition government as well as coalition in Congress party itself to trigger a new emphasis on self-representation.
- To unsolve a party system to accommodate diverse interests but the political parties formed under the leadership of Kanshi Ram for Dalits only.
- It is necessary for parties to accommodate and aggregate variety of interests to maintain the culture of India ‘Unity in Diversity’ so that there should be no space for separatist movements in India.
- These cartoons show Indian view on Cold War.
- The first cartoon was drawn when the US came to a secret understanding with China keeping the USSR in dark. The cartoon also expresses changing the international political scenario as after a long time. China made overtures to the USA.
- The second cartoon shows the American misadventure in Vietnam. It also depicts that the US President Johnson, was in more troubles over Vietnam.
- India conducted its first nuclear detonation on 18 May 1974. India was committed to the policy of using nuclear weepons only for purposes.
- Following the Arab-Israel war of 1973, there was massive hike in the oil prices by the Arab countries.
- There was economic and political turmoil in India. Many agitations were running in the country. There was also a nationwide railway strike.
- The Arab-Israel war of 1973 created the oil shock throughout the entire world. The prices of oil went through the roof. In India, this situation was responsible for high inflation.
(b) Andhra Pradesh
The external powers influence bilateral relations in South Asia because no region exists in the vacuum. It is influenced by outside powers and events no matter how much it may try to insulate itself from non-regional powers:
- China and the US remain key players in South Asian politics.
- Sino-Indian relations have improved significantly in the last ten years, but China’s strategic partnership with Pakistan remains a major irritant.
- The demands of development and globalisation have brought the two Asian giants closer and their economic ties have multiplied rapidly since 1991.
- The US enjoys good relations with both India and Pakistan and works as a moderator in Indo-Pak relations.
- Economic reforms and liberal economic policies in both the countries have increased the depth of American participation.
- The large South Asian economy remains in the US and the huge size of population and markets of the region give America an added stake in the future of regional security and peace.
At its most basic, security implies freedom from threats. Human existence and the life of a country are full of threats. We generally say that only those things that threaten ‘core values’ should be regarded as being of interest in discussions of security. Thus, security relates only to extremely dangerous threats—threats that could so endanger core values that those values would be damaged beyond repair if we did not do something to deal with the situation.
India’s security strategy has four broad components which have been used in a varying combination from time to time:
- The first component was strengthening its military capabilities because India has been involved in conflicts with its neighbours—Pakistan in 1947-48, 1965, 1971 and 1999 and China in 1962. Since it is surrounded by nuclear-armed countries in the South Asian region, India’s decision to conduct nuclear tests in 1998 was justified by the Indian government in terms of safeguarding national security.
- The second component of India’s security strategy has been to strengthen international norms and international institutions to protect its security interests.
- The third component of Indian security strategy is geared towards meeting security challenges within the country. Several militant groups from areas such as Nagaland, Mizoram, the Punjab and Kashmir among others have from time to time sought to break away from India. India has tried to preserve national unity by adopting a democratic political system.
- There has been an attempt in India to develop its economy in a way that the vast mass of citizens are lifted out of poverty and misery and huge economic inequalities are not allowed to exist.
The areas or regions located outside the jurisdiction of any one state and region, common governance by international community are Global Commons i.e. Earth atmosphere, Antarctic Ocean floor and outer space. They are exploited and polluted due to:
- Vague scientific evidences, their lack of consensus on common environmental issues.
- North-South inequalities and their exploitative activities and competition lack proper management area out space.
- Technological and Industrial development have also affected the earth’s atmosphere and ocean floor.
The impact of changing role of state in the developing countries in the light of globalisation can be summed up as follows:
- Globalisation reduces the state capacity i.e. the ability of governments to do what they do.
- Market becomes the prime concern to set down economic and social priorities.
- Multinational companies effect on the decisions taken by government because their own interest fulfillment also depends on government policies.
- The old welfare state is now giving way to more minimalist state to perform certain core functions as maintenance of law and order and the security.
- State also withdraws from many of its welfare functions taken place at the level of economic and social well-being.
- To some extent developing countries have received a boost as a result of globalisation and became more strong and powerful due to emergence of new technology.
- The US hegemony has been symbolised as the global village and other countries as its neighbours.
- If the headman of global village becomes intolerable, neighbours do not have any choice of leaving it, but develop a resistant.
- Though there are some rules and norms called laws of war that restrict but do not prohibit war.
- No single power can challenge the US militarily.
Still, to overcome the US hegemony, the following strategies have been found out:
- Bandwagon strategy emphasises not to oppose hegemonic power, instead take advantage of opportunities that hegemon creates i.e. increased trade and technology transfer and investments to extract benefits by operating within hegemonic system.
- To hide strategy implies to stay as far removed from the dominant power as possible as China, Russia and the European Union. This strategy is applicable to small states but states may not be able to hide for substantial length of time.
- Non-state actors as writers, artists and intellectuals have no boundaries to work with. They can reach beyond the limits of the states to mould the minds of people through their expressions.
The Socialist Party traces its roots back to the mass movement stage of the Indian National Congress in the pre-independence era. The Congress Party (CSP) was established within the Congress in 1934 by a group of young leaders who wanted a more radical and egalitarian Congress. In 1948, the Congress amended its constitution to prevent its members from having a dual party membership. This forced the Socialists to form a separate Socialists leaders Party in 1948. The leaders of the Socialist Party believed in the ideology of democratic socialism which distinguished them both from the Congress as well as from the Communists. They criticised the Congress Party for favouring capitalists and landlords and for ignoring the workers and the peasants. But the Socialist party faced a dilemma when in 1955 the Congress declared its goal to be the socialist pattern of society. Thus, it became difficult for the socialists to present themselves as an effective alternative to the Congress. Some of them, led by Rammanohar Lohia, criticised the Congress Party.
The Socialist Party went through many splits and reunions leading to the formation of many socialist parties. These included the Kisan Mazdoor Praja Party, Jayaprakash Narayan, Achyut Patwardhan, Asoka Mehta, Acharya Narendra Dev, Rammanohar Lohia and S.M. Joshi were among the leaders of the socialist parties. Many parties in contemporary India, like the Samajwadi Party, the Rashtriya Janata Dal, Janata Dal (United) and the Janata Dal (Secular) trace their origins to the Socialist Party.
Planning is a systematic regulation of purposeful to achieve national goals. The idea of planning as a process of rebuilding economy earned a good deal of public support in the 1940s and 1950s all over the world.
The First Five Year Plan (1951-1956) sought to get the country’s economy out of the cycle of poverty.
- Kakkadan Nandanath Raj, popularly known as K.N. Raj, played a significant role in India’s planned development. He drafted section of the First Five Year Plan.
- Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of India, presented the First Five Year Plan to the Parliament of India.
- The Plan addressed, mainly, the agrarian sector including investment in dams and irrigation. The agricultural sector was hit hardest by partition and required urgent attention.
- The Plan identified the pattern of land distribution in the country as the principal obstacle in the way of agricultural growth. It focused on land reforms as the key to the country’s development.
Jawaharlal Nehru envisaged an important role for India in world affairs and especially in Asian affairs. His era established the contacts between India and States in Asia and Africa by convening conferences on Asian Relations (March 1947), Indonesia’s Freedom Struggle (1949), decolonization process, and engaged herself in Bandung Conference in 1955 with the newly independent Asian and African nations.
The Bandung Conference later led to the establishment of the NAM. The First Summit of the NAM was held in Belgrade in September 1961. Nehru was a co-founder of the NAM.
In the beginning of 1971, the government made conscious attempts to project its socialist the results of Lok Sabha elections of 1971, were as dramatic as was the decision to hold these elections.
- Indira Gandhi’s Congress (R) – won 352 seats with about 44 per cent of the popular votes on its own. Contrast this with the performance of the Congress (O), the party with so many stalwarts could get less than one-fourth of the votes secured by Indira Gandhi’s party and won merely 16 seats.
- The Congress party led by Indira Gandhi established its claim to being the ‘real’ Congress and restored to it the dominant position in Indian politics. The Grand Alliance of the opposition proved a grand failure.
Dalit Panthers :
- Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar fought for the rights of the Dalits. He started the movement in which Dalits struggled to fulfill their rights and demands.
- Dalit Panthers was a militant organization of Dalit Youth to be formed in 1972 in Maharashtra. They addressed the issues to fight against caste-based inequalities, demanded effective implementation of reservations and social justice by restoring a mass action in various states.
- In the post-independence period, Dalits were mainly fighting against the perpetual caste-based inequalities and material injustices that the Dalits faced in spite of constitutional guarantees of equality and justice. Effective implementation of reservations and other such policies of social justice was one of their prominent demands.
- Activities of Dalit Panthers mostly centered around fighting increasing atrocities on Dalits in various parts of the state. As a result of sustained agitations on the part of Dalit Panthers along with other like-minded organizations over the issue of atrocities against Dalits, the government passed a comprehensive law in 1989 that provided for rigorous punishment for such acts.
- The larger ideological agenda of the Dalit Panthers was to destroy the caste system and to build an organistation of all oppressed sections like the landless poor peasants and urban industrial works along with Dalits.
- The movement provided a platform for Dalit educated youth to use their creativity as a protest activity.
Bharatiya Kisan Union :
- The social discontent in Indian society since the 1970s was manifold.
- Agrarian struggles of the 1980s is one such example where better off farmers protested against the policies of the state.
- Bharatiya Kisan Union (BKU) was one of leading farmers’ movements in the form of agrarian struggle of farmers against process of liberalisation of Indian Economy. The BKU demanded higher government floor prices, abolition of restrictions, guaranteed supply of electricity and the provision of a government pension to farmers.
- Activities conducted by the BKU to pressurise the state for accepting its demands included rallies, demonstrations, sit-ins, and jail bharo (courting imprisonment) agitations.
- The organisation used traditional caste panchayats of these communities to bring them together over economic issues.
- Until the early years of 1990, the BKU distanced itself from all political parties. It operated as a pressure group in politics with its strength of sheer numbers. The organisation, along with the other farmers’ organisations across States, did manage to get some of their economic demands accepted. The farmers movement became one of the most successful social movements of the eighties in this respect.
Shock Therapy : The ‘Shock Therapy’ was the state of affairs which signifies the collapse of communism followed by a painful process of transition from an authoritarian socialist system to a democratic capitalist system.
In other words, Shock Therapy was the transitional form from authoritarian socialist system to a democratic capitalist system in Russia, Central Asia and East Europe under the influence of the World Bank and IMF.
Consequences : The Shock Therapy administered in 1990 not to lead the people into the promised utopia of mass consumption.
- In Russia about 90% of the industries of the states controlled industrial complex and were put up for the sale for the private individuals and companies. The restructuring was carried out by market forces and not by government directed industrial polices. Hence, this led to the virtual disappearance of all industries.
This was known as ‘the Largest garage Sale in history’, as valuable industries were undervalued and sold away at through way prices.
To participate in sales, most of the citizens were given vouchers in order to get more money. Some of them sold these vouchers in Black Market.
- The value of Ruble, the Russian currency declined.
- Inflation rose at a very high rate and it lost all savings of people.
- The GDP of Russia also declined between 1989 to 1999.
- Lack of productivity and technology created shortage of food which increased food imports every year without food security people were leaving country.
- The old system of social welfare was destroyed systematically.
- The government subsidies were withdrawn and this led to impoverishing of large sections of the people.
- The middle classes were pushed to the periphery of the society.
- Intellectual and academic manpower disintegrated or migrated.
- Mafia emerged in most of the countries controlling many economic activities.
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