Exploring Biology Topics can reveal the incredible complexity and interconnectedness of living systems.
Levels of Biodiversity – Importance, Threats and Conservation
Biodiversity is an umbrella term, for the huge variety of species of plants, animals, and microorganisms and includes the varied ecosystems and ecological processes there of. Such diverse life forms are also the basis of Nature’s stability and proper functioning. Biologists most often define biodiversity as the ‘totality of genes, species and ecosystem of a region’.
Scientists Norse and Mcmanus first described biodiversity in 1980. According to them, biodiversity can be of two types: Genetic diversity i.e., all the genetic variations occurring in a species, and Ecological diversity i.e., various species present in an ecosystem. The term biodiversity was first coined by Walter Rosen in 1985 in the National Research Council. Biodiversity relates to different species of organisms with the whole range of their biotypes and their interactions.
The great variety of life on earth has provided for man’s needs over thousands of years. This diversity of living creatures forms a support system that has been used by each civilization for its growth and development. Biodiversity is the inspiration of ecosystem offerings to which human well-being is intimately connected. No function of Earth is more complex, dynamic and varied than the layer of living organisms that occupy its surfaces and its seas and no feature is experiencing greater dramatic exchange at the fingers of humans than this exceptional, singularly specific function of Earth.
This residue of residing organisms in the biosphere through the collective metabolic activities of its innumerable flora, animals, and microbes bodily and chemically unites the ecosystem, geosphere, and hydrosphere into one environmental system within which millions of species, inclusive of humans, have thrived. Breathable air, potable water, fertile soils, effective lands, bountiful seas, the equitable climate of Earth’s latest history, and other ecosystem offerings are manifestations of the workings of life. It follows that huge-scale human effects on this biota have tremendous impacts on human well-being. It also follows that the nature of those impacts, appropriate or awful, is in the power of human beings to steer.
Biodiversity is that part of nature that includes the differences in genes among the individuals of a species, the variety and richness of all the plant and animal species at different scales in space, locally in a region, in the country and the world, and various types of ecosys¬tems, both terrestrial and aquatic, within a defined area. Biodiversity deals with the degree of nature’s variety in the biosphere.
Biodiversity shows the variety of life on earth with their natural pattern. The diversity is understood in terms of the wide variety of plants, animals, and microorganisms. Biodiversity also includes the genetic differences within each species. Another aspect of biodiversity is the variety of ecosystems such as those that occur in deserts, forests, wetlands, mountains, lakes, rivers, and agricultural landscapes. Biodiversity provides a large number of goods and services that sustain our lives. The biodiversity we see today is the fruit of billions of years of evolution, shaped by natural processes and increasingly by the influence of humans.
Biodiversity is described as “the variability among dwelling organisms from all sources such as interalia, terrestrial, marine and different aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are element; this consists of diversity inside species, between species and of the ecosystem.” The importance of this definition is that it draws attention to the many dimensions of biodiversity. It explicitly acknowledges that each biota may be characterised by its taxonomic, ecological, and genetic diversity and that the manner those dimensions of diversity range over space and time is a key characteristic of biodiversity.
Biodiversity deals with the different types of nature’s variety in the biosphere. This variety can be observed at three levels; the genetic variability within a species, the variety of species within a community, and the organization of species in an area into distinctive plant and animal communities constitutes ecosystem diversity. Biodiversity includes all ecosystems managed or unmanaged. Now and again biodiversity is presumed to be a relevant characteristic of most effective unmanaged ecosystems, including wild lands, nature preserves, or national parks. This is incorrect, controlled systems be they plantations, farms, croplands, aquaculture websites, rangelands or even city parks and urban ecosystems have their very own biodiversity. For the reason that cultivated structures alone now account for more than 24% of Earth’s terrestrial surface, it’s miles essential that any selection concerning biodiversity or environment services address the protection of biodiversity in these in large part anthropogenic systems.
Concept of Biodiversity
The variety of plant and animal life in the world or in a particular habitat, but in broad sense it includes genetic diversity, community and ecosystem diversity of an area, a high level of which is usually considered to be important and desirable. The term Biodiversity was first coined by Walter Rosen (1985). The variety of living organisms is enormous and shows extreme diversity. Presently, the known and described number of species of all organisms on the earth is between 1.7 and 1.8 million, which is fewer than 15% of the actual number. It is predicted that the number of total species varies from 5 to 50 million. The majority of them are thought to occur in the unexplored tropical rain forests and underwater coral reefs of tropical seas.
The most exciting question of biodiversity is that more than 70% of all species are animals while plants account for only 22%. Amongst animals, insects are the most numerous (about 70%) with a previous estimate of 7 out of 10 and a present estimate of 8 out of 10 animals. Further, the knowledge about protists, archaea, bacteria, and viruses is quite fragmentary. Destruction of tropical unexplored forests and coral reefs may make many species extinct before coming to light. Besides, there are fragmentary reports of past organisms as fossils in the rocks. It is assumed that the extinct species may exceed the living ones by 50 – 100 times. Such a large number of living and extinct organisms can not be studied without a proper universal system of nomenclature, identification, and classification.
In an ecosystem the variations observed among the members of species, the differences between the different species in the co-existing organisms of a habitat, and even the differences between the ecosystems are considered as biodiversity. The dimension of the biodiversity of a habitat extends from the inner molecular features to unit organisms to even population, community, ecosystem, and biosphere. In the conference of Rio-De-zanerio under the title biological diversity a definition of biodiversity was proposed. According to this definition, biodiversity represents the variations among the organisms with respect to species, community, or ecosystem as expressed in all types of ecosystems either aquatic or terrestrial.
The variation observed among the organisms in a habitat or in different ecosystems is known as biodiversity. Biodiversity has been estimated that more than 50 million species of plants, animals, and microorganisms exist in the world. Out of these, about 1.4 million species have been identified so far. Each species is adapted to live in a specific environment, from mountain peaks to the depth of seas, from polar ice caps to tropical rain forests and deserts. All this diversity of life is confined to only about one km thick layer of the lithosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere which form the biosphere. The concept of biodiversity refers to the variabilities among the species of plants, animals, and microorganisms; the ecosystem includes the terrestrial, aerial, marine, and other aquatic systems and ecological complexes of which they are part. In simpler terms, biodiversity is the assemblage of different life forms.
It reflects the number of different organisms and their relative frequencies in an ecological system. It includes the organisation of organisms at many levels ranging from complete ecosystems to the chemical components that form the molecular basis of heredity. Thus biodiversity is the sum of all the genes, varieties, species, and populations in different ecosystems, and their relative abundance.
In an ecosystem the variations observed among the members of species, the differences between the different species in the co-existing organisms of a habitat and even the differences between the ecosystems are considered as biodiversity. The dimensions of the biodiversity of a habitat extend from the inner molecular features to unit organisms to even population, community, ecosystem, and biosphere. In the conference of Rio-De-Janeiro under the title biological diversity a definition of biodiversity was proposed. According to this definition, biodiversity represents the variations among the organisms with respect to species, community, or ecosystem as expressed in all types of ecosystems either aquatic or terrestrial.
Examples of biodiversity in different aspects may be shown in the following:
- The variations observed between the members of a species belonging to an ecosystem with respect to their morphology and structure.
- The different methods adapted by organisms for their reproduction.
- The flowers of different colours in a garden.
- The various corals in a coral island.
- Different plants in a forest etc.
Levels of Biodiversity (or) Types of Biodiversity
Considering the wide dimension of the definition of biodiversity, it may be classified in different angles. In consideration of the structural properties of the organisms, biodiversity may be classified into three types as
- Genetic Diversity
- Species Diversity
- Ecosystem Diversity
1. Genetic Diversity
The variation of genes within species i.e., the genes and their alleles present in a particular organism is called genetic diversity. The origin of new species depends on genetic variation. So genetic variation helps species diversity.
Every organism has a genetic basis for the characteristic feature, therefore the variations between organisms or variations among species are based on the genetic makeup of the entities under consideration. Such variations in the genetic makeup are known as genetic diversity. Each member of any animal or plant species differs widely from other individuals in its genetic makeup because of the large number of combinations possible in the genes that give every individual specific characteristics. Thus, for example, each human being is very different from all others.
This genetic variability is essential for a healthy breeding population of a species. If the number of breeding individuals is reduced, the dissimilarity of genetic makeup is reduced and in-breeding occurs. The diversity in wild species forms the ‘gene pool’ from which our crops and domestic animals have been developed over thousands of years. ‘Genetic diversity pertains to the range of diversity in the genetic resources of the organisms’. Every individual member of a plant or animal species differs from other individuals in its genetic constitution. Each individual has specific characteristics, which is due to the genetic makeup or code. The genes present in the organisms can form an infinite number of combinations that cause genetic variability.
Thus, we find that each human, who is representative of the same species, i.e., Homo sapiens, is distinct from another. Similarly, there are many varieties within the same species such as rice, wheat, apples, mangoes, etc., that differ from one another in shape, size, colour of flowers, and taste of fruits and seeds due to the variations at the genetic level. The term ‘gene pool’ has been used to indicate the genetic diversity in the different species. This also includes the diversity in the wild species, which through intermixing in nature over millions of years have given rise to newer varieties. The domesticated varieties of agricultural crops and animals have also evolved from the wild gene pool.
Genetic variability is essential for a healthy breeding population, the reduction in genetic variability among breeding individuals leads to inbreeding which in turn can lead to the extinction of species. In recent decades, a new science named ‘biotechnology’ has emerged. It manipulates the genetic materials of different species through various genetic recombinations to evolve better varieties of crops and domestic animals.
2. Species Diversity
The variety of species living in a geographical are a known as species diversity. The number of species per unit area is known as species richness. Greater the species richness, greater is the spcies diversity.
In a particular area, the different species present come under species diversity. In any ecosystem, the types of inhabiting species together constitute a community. Through interaction among the species, stability is developed in the ecosystem. Considering this it may be said that in an ecosystem a species is a unit of living entities and all the species in the ecosystem constitute species diversity. Species is a basic unit of classification and is defined as a group of similar organisms that mate and produce offspring with one another and thus, share a common lineage. The number of species of plants and animals that are present in a region constitutes its species diversity. This diversity is seen both in natural ecosystems and in agricultural ecosystems. Some areas are richer in species than others. Natural undisturbed tropical forests have much greater species richness than plantations.
According to Biological Species Concepts (BSC), species is a basic unit of classification and is defined as a group of similar organisms that interbreed with one another produce offspring, and share a common lineage. Species diversity refers to biodiversity at the most basic level and is the ‘variety and abundance of different types of individuals of a species in a given area’. It includes all the species on earth, ranging from plants such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, algae, bryophytes, pteridophytes, gymnosperms, angiosperms, and all the species of animals including unicellular protozoans to mammals. A natural forest ecosystem provides a large number of non-wood products that local people depend on such as fruit, fuel wood, fodder, fiber, gum, resin, and medicines. At present conservation scientists have been able to identify and categorize about 1.75 million species on earth. However, many new species are being identified, especially in flowering plants and insects. Areas that are rich in species diversity are called ‘hotspots’ of diversity. India is among the world’s 15 nations that are exceptionally rich in species diversity.
3. Ecosystem Diversity
Different types of living entities and various abiotic components together constitute the features of an ecosystem. As without an organism, an ecosystem is impossible, the variations among the ecosystem are also important. Because of this reason, ecosystem diversity also becomes the measure of biodiversity. In consideration of communities in the ecosystem, one ecosystem becomes different from the other. Therefore different ecosystems represent the portrait of biodiversity. Hajwood and Baste proposed the classification of the main types of biodiversity of ecosystems as Biome, Bioregion, Landscape, Ecosystem, Habitat, Niche, and Population. Similarly, genetic diversity may be of different types as population, individual, chromosome, gene, and nucleotide. Species diversity may also be classified similarly as kingdom, Phylum, class, order, Family, Genus, Species, Sub¬species, Population, and individual.
Different types of living entities and various abiotic components together constitute the features of an ecosystem. As without an organism, an ecosystem is impossible, the variations among the ecosystem are also important. Because of this reason, ecosystem diversity also becomes an important criterion for measuring biodiversity. In consideration of communities in the ecosystem, one ecosystem becomes different from the other. Therefore, different ecosystems represent the portrait of biodiversity. Hajwood and Baste proposed the classification of the main types of biodiversity of ecosystems as Biome, Bioregion, Landscape, Ecosystem, Habitat, Niche, and Population. Similarly, genetic diversity may be of different types as population, individual, chromosome, gene, and nucleotide. Species diversity may also be classified similarly as Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species, Subspecies, Population, and Individual.
There are a large variety of different ecosystems on earth, which have their own complement of distinctive interlinked species based on the differences in the habitat. Ecosystem diversity can be described for a specific geographical region, or a political entity such as a country, a stage, or a taluka. Distinctive ecosystems include landscapes such as forests, grasslands, deserts, mountains, etc., as well as aquatic ecosystems such as rivers, lakes, and the sea. Ecosystems are most natural in wilderness areas. If natural ecosystems are overused or misused their productivity eventually decreases and they are then said to be degraded. India is exceptionally rich in ecosystem diversity.
Each ecosystem consists of organisms from many different species, living together in a region connected by the flow of energy and nutrients. The sun is the ultimate source of energy for all ecosystems. The Sun’s radiant energy is converted to chemical energy by plants. This energy flows through the different systems when animals eat the plants and then are eaten, in turn, by other animals. Fungi and bacteria derive energy from the decomposing dead organisms, releasing nutrients back into the soil as they do so.
An ecosystem, therefore, is a collection of living components, like microbes, plants, animals, fungi, etc., and non-living components, like climate, matter, and energy that are connected by energy flow. Ecological diversity refers to the ‘variability among the species of plants and animals living together and connected by the flow of energy and cycling of nutrients in different ecosystems or ecological complexes’. It also includes variability within the same species and variability among the different species of plants, animals, and microorganisms of an ecosystem. Thus, it pertains to the richness of flora, fauna, and microorganisms within an ecosystem or biotic community.
The richness of the biosphere in terms of varied life forms is due to the variations in the ecosystems. The earth has a number of ecosystems like grasslands, forests, semi-arid deserts, marine, freshwater, wetlands, swamps, marshlands, etc., each one having its distinct floral, faunal, and microbial assemblages. Ecological diversity represents an intricate network of different species present in local ecosystems and the dynamic interaction among them. Ecological diversity is of great significance and has developed and evolved over millions of years through interactions among the various species within an ecosystem. Ecological diversity includes Alpha diversity, Beta diversity, and Gamma diversity.
(a) Alpha Diversity:
Alpha (α) diversity is represented by the number of species in a specified area. The diversity shows within the community and depends on the species richness and evenness. A lot of competition and interactions are observed among members of the same community. The species diversity of a given community comprises the Alpha (α) diversity. It depends on the species richness and evenness. A lot of competition and interactions are observed among members of the same community. It is the biodiversity within a particular area, community or ecosystem. It is usually expressed by the number of species in that ecosystem. This can be measured by counting the number of taxa within the ecosystem.
(b) Beta Diversity:
The change in habitat due to the presence of different microhabitats, niches, and environmental conditions, the biodiversity that appears in a range of communities due to the replacement of species is called Beta (β) diversity (diversity between communities). It comprises different microhabitats, niches, and variations in environmental conditions which leads to diversity at the community level. Therefore, can be termed as “between community diversity.” The less is the number of common species among the two communities, the greater is the (β) diversity.
It can be depicted as β diversity = (S1 – C) + (S2 – C)
Where, S1 & S2 = No. of species in two communities/ecosystems
C = No. of common species between the communities.
It is a measure of biodiversity that works by comparing the species diversity between the ecosystems or along the environmental gradients. This involves comparing the number of taxa that are unique to each of the ecosystems. It is the rate of change in species composition across the habitats or among the communities. It gives a quantitative measure of the diversity of communities that experience changing environments.
(c) Gamma Diversity:
Gamma (γ) diversity is represented by the varieties of habitats of the organisms in a large geographical area. It is the total diversity including (α) and (β) diversity. It is the diversity at the ecosystem level or habitat level over a large geographical area. It is the total diversity including α and β diversity.
γ diversity = S1 + S2 + S3 – (C1 + C2 + C3)
Where, S1, S2, and S3 = The no. of species in three different communities.
C1, C2, C3 = The common species found in the ecosystems.
It refers to the total species richness over a large area or region. It is a measure of the overall diversity of the different ecosystems within a region. It is the product of a diversity of component ecosystems.
Differences among Alpha, Beta, and Gamma diversity:
|Alpha diversity||Beta diversity||Gamma diversity|
|1. Species diversity in a given community.||1. Diversity among different communities i.e., within 2 alpha diversities.||1. Total diversity including α and β diversity over a large geographical area.|
|2. The smallest unit of biodiversity.||2. Diversity between communities.||2. The largest unit of biodiversity.|
|3. It is depicted as S, i.e., the number of different species in the given community.||3. Beta diversity is (S1 – C) + (S2 – C).||3. Gamma diversity is (S1 + S2 + S3) – (C1 + C2 + C3).|
An Account on Global Biodiversity
All the animal and plant species present over the earth give an account of the biodiversity in nature. Until now it is known to us that in the animal world of the earth, there are about 25-30 million organisms. Out of them, only 1.5 million species have been identified to date. However, among these known species 3 lakh species belong to insects and 40 thousand species come under vertebrates. According to the analysis of scientists, there is an uneven distribution of biodiversity on the earth. Only in favorable and appropriate environments, do animal and plant species show a crowding condition. It is found that the warm and wet habitats on the two sides of the equator are rich in biodiversity with plants and animals. The rich countries with biodiversity on the two sides of the equator are known as mega-diversity countries. Brazil, Mexico, Indonesia, Malaysia, India, Madagascar, Peru, Australia, and Columbia come under megadiversity country.
Extinction and speciation affect global biodiversity. Biodiversity has grown and shrunk in Earth’s past due to abiotic factors like different extinction events caused by the geologically rapid changes in climate. The changes in climate may cause rainforest collapse and a great loss of diversity. However, the current rate and magnitude of extinctions are much higher than the background estimates. This mass extinction is a result of human impacts on the environment.
Analysis of Global Biodiversity:
|Alpha Diversity||Beta Diversity|
|1. Higher Plants||2,70,000|
Biodiversity in India
India is present at the northern side of the equator between 8°N to 30°N. On the other hand, it is present on the eastern side between 60°E and 97°E. Different regions of the country with different seasonal variations have promoted the development of diverse habitats. Starting from snow-laden cold Himalayan regions of the north to warm humid Deccan regions of the South. The biodiversity of the country has been expressed in multiple patterns. Therefore, different ecoregions appear with diverse communities. With its totality, India has become a diverse country. From India about 1 lakh 15 thousand plant and animal species have been demarcated and in total there are about 45 thousand plant species in India. Among these 15000 species belong to phanerogams. In consideration of animal species, India is also very rich. There are about 75000 animal species, among which 80% represent the insects.
India has some of the world’s most biodiverse regions. The political boundaries of India encompass a wide range of ecozones – desert, high mountains, high lands, tropical and temperate forests, grasslands, areas surrounding rivers, etc. India is home to several well-known large mammals including the Asian Elephant, Bengal Tiger, Asiatic Lion, and Indian Rhinoceros. Some of these animals are ingrained in the culture, often being associated with deities. These large mammals are important for wildlife tourism in India and several national parks and wildlife sanctuaries cater to their needs. The popularity of these charismatic animals has helped greatly in conservation efforts in India. Alongwith the mammals the avifauna of India includes around 1314 species of which 42 are endemic, 1 has been introduced by humans and 25 are rare or accidental. Two species have been extirpated in India and 82 species are globally threatened.
Analysis of Indian Biodiversity:
An account of Indian animal diversity may be shown in the following table:
|Animal/Class||Number of Species||Analysis of Whole World (%)|
India is a mega diverse region, housing around 10% of the world’s species. India also has a rich cultural heritage going back 1000 years. Much of the Indian biodiversity is incredibly related to the socio-cultural practices of the land. However due to the explosion of population, rapid changes in climate, and huge implementation of environmental policies, several species face the threat of extinction. In India, biodiversity is measured by the number of plants and vertebrate species and is greatest in the Western Ghats and the Northeast. This is because of the presence of tropical rainforests that are typically the highest for species diversity.
India figured with four major hotspots the Western Ghats, Eastern Himalayas Indo Burma, and Sundaland in the identification of 25 of the world’s biologically richest and most threatened ecosystems. The most important part of India is the marine environment. Indian coral reefs have a wide range of resources that are of massive commercial value. Coral reefs occur along only a few sections of the mainland, Gulf of Kutch, Southern mainland coast, and around a number of islands opposite Srilanka. Other notable marine areas are seagrass beds, which although not directly exploited are valuable as habitats for commercially harvested species, particularly prawns and mangrove stands.
Number of Species in India:
|Organism/Class||Number of Species|
|18. Other Invertebrates||8,329|
Common Plants of India:
In India, different types of trees, herbs, shrubs, climbers and creepers are found. Among them some are medicinal plants, some are ornamental plants, etc. Some common plants are listed below:
|Common Name||Scientific Name|
|1. Mango||Mangifera indica|
|2. Black berry||Syzygium cumini|
|3. Jack fruit||Artocarpus integrifolia|
|4. Coconut||Cocos nucifera|
|5. Banyan||Ficus benghalensis|
|6. Fig||Ficus religiosa|
|7. Rubber||Ficus elastica|
|8. Neem||Azadirachta indica|
|9. Tamarind||Tarmarindus indica|
|10. Siris||Albizia procera|
|11. Lotus||Nelumbium speciosum|
|12. Sunflower||Helianthus annus|
|13. Champa||Michelia champaca|
|14. Cotton||Bombax ceiba|
|15. Kadam||Neolamarckia cadamba|
|16. Pine||Pinus roxburghii|
|17. Cycas||Cycas revoiuta|
|18. Jute||Corchorus capsularis|
|19. Paddy||Oryza sativa|
|20. Wheat||Triticum aestivum|
|21. Maize||Zea mays|
|22. Ginger||Zingiber Officinalis|
|23. China rose||Hibiscus rosa-sinensis|
|24. Tea||Camellia sinensis|
|25. Sal||Shorea robusta|
|26. Snakeroot||Rauvolfia serpentine|
|27. Basil||Ocimum sanctum|
|28. Aloe||Aloe vera|
|29. Beet||Beta vulgaris|
|30. Gram seed||Cicer arietinum|
|31. Banana||Musa paradisiaca|
|32. Onion||Allium cepa|
|33. Teak||Tectona grandis|
|34. Centilla/Pennyarot||Centella asiatica|
|35. Turmeric||Curcuma ionga|
|36. Carrot||Daucus carota|
|37. Orange||Citrus reticulate|
|38. Papaya||Carica papaya|
|39. Coriander||Coriandrum sativum|
|40. Pomelo||Citrus maxima|
|41. Gum Arabic||Acacia Arabica|
|42. Kydia||Kydia caiycina|
|43. Peacock flower||Caesalpinia pulcherrima|
|44. Elephant grass||Typha elephantine|
|45. Spiderwisp||Cleome gynandra|
|46. Betel nut||Areca catechu|
|47. Sapodilla||Achras zapota|
|48. Tuberose||Polianthes tuberosa|
|49. Bael||Aegle marmelos|
Common Animals of India:
Some vertebrate and invertebrate animals of India are listed below:
|Common Name||Scientific Name|
|1. Tiger||Panthera tigris|
|2. Lion||Panthera leo persica|
|3. Cow||Bos indicus|
|4. Buffalo||Bubalus bubalis|
|5. Sheep||Ovis aries|
|6. Goat||Capra aegagrus hircus|
|7. Monkey||Macaca fascicularis|
|8. Langur||Semnopithecus entellus|
|9. Whale||Balaenoptera musculus|
|10. Dolphin||Tursiops truncatus|
|Common Name||Scientific Name|
|1. Pigeon||Columba livia|
|2. Crow||Corvus splendens|
|3. Bulbul||Pycnonotus cafer|
|4. Parrot||Psittacula krameri|
|5. Pelican||Pelicanus sp.|
|6. Goose||Anser anser|
|Common Name||Scientific Name|
|1. Crocodile||Crocodylus porosus|
|2. Tortoise||Trionyx gangeticus|
|3. Phython||Phython molurus|
|4. Cobra||Naja naja|
|5. Garden lizard||Calotes versicolor|
|6. Gharial||Gavialis gangeticus|
|7. Lizard||Hemidactylus flaviviridis|
|8. Viper||Vipera russelli|
|Common Name||Scientific Name|
|1. Indian bullfrog||Rana tigrina|
|2. Common toad||Bufo melanostictus|
|3. Tree frog||Rhacophorus Fergusonii|
|4. Salamander||Ambystoma tigrinum|
|Common Name||Scientific Name|
|1. Rohu||Labeo rohita|
|2. Catla||Catla catla|
|3. Mrigle||Cirrhinus mrigala|
|4. Boal||Wallago attu|
|5. Calbasu||Labeo calbasu|
|6. Magur||Clarlas batrachus|
|7. Singhi||Heteropneustes fossilis|
|8. Vetki||Lates calcarifer|
|9. Koi||Anabas testudineus|
|10. Hilsa||Tenualosa ilisha|
|11. Shark||Scoliodon sorrakowah|
|12. Bata fish||Labeo bata|
|Common Name||Scientific Name|
|1. Earthworm||Pheretima posthuma|
|2. Leech||Hirudinaria granulosa|
|3. Neris||Nereis virens|
|4. Bloodworm||Glycera americana|
|Common Name||Scientific Name|
|1. Prawn||Macrobrachium rosenbergii|
|2. Crab||Carcinus sp.|
|3. Cockroach||Periplaneta Americana|
|4. Butterfly||Rhopalocera sp.|