Diseases – Maharashtra Board Class 8 Solutions for General Science (English Medium)
Certain changes in the weather and contamination of water can cause many people to get the same disease simultaneously. Such a disease is called an epidemic disease. Cholera, typhoid, influenza and diarrhoea are examples of epidemic diseases.
Constant sharing of space with a diseased person can cause disease-producing germs to enter a healthy person’s body through the air. Such diseases are called communicable diseases. Tuberculosis and influenza are examples of communicable diseases.
A person suffering from tuberculosis should avoid going to public places because the bacteria causing the disease enter the air through the spittle of the patient. These bacteria may infect and spread the disease to a healthy person.
Symptoms of polio:
- Throat becomes red
- Strain in the muscles of the back and legs
- Weakness in the muscles of the arms or legs
- Growth of muscles is arrested
- Muscles become flaccid and cause disability
Symptoms of cholera:
- Severe diarrhoea and vomiting
- Dry skin, sunken eyes
- Stomach ache
- Cramps in the legs
Symptoms of tuberculosis:
- Low-grade fever
- Blood in spittle
- Loss of weight
- Pain in the chest
- Difficulty in breathing
Symptoms of typhoid:
- Fever that lasts for a definite period
- Rose-coloured rash on the chest
Measures taken to prevent rabies:
- Clean the wound caused by the dog bite by flushing with soap and plenty of water.
- Visit a doctor at once and take the required number of injections of the anti-rabies vaccine.
- Give all the pet animals in your house the anti-rabies vaccine.
Measures taken to prevent chickenpox:
- Proper medical treatment.
- A person does not generally get chickenpox for the second time as he/she acquires lifelong resistance.
Measures taken to prevent tuberculosis:
- Taking the BCG vaccination.
- Isolating the patient.
- Medical treatment.
- Dehydration is a condition when the body becomes dry due to loss of water due to diarrhoea.
- A patient should be treated for dehydration by giving him/her oral rehydration solution (ORS).
- In diarrhoea, although the absorptive function of the intestine is disturbed, sugar, salt and water can be absorbed in the body. This gives temporary relief.
- Dehydration can be fatal. If medical treatment is given immediately, serious outcomes can be avoided.
- Vaccination is a process of injecting a substance which provides resistance against diseases.
- Vaccinating a person strengthens his/her resistance to diseases. Thus, vaccination is a preventive measure.
- Various diseases such as typhoid, cholera and polio can be prevented by vaccination.
- The Government implements special programmes for the vaccination of children.
- Vaccines such as BCG, the triple vaccine (diphtheria, whooping cough, tetanus), polio, measles, double vaccine (diphtheria, tetanus), tetanus and hepatitis B vaccines are given to children from time to time.
The body of a cholera patient becomes dry because of loss of water. To make up for the loss of water, I will give him oral rehydration solution containing water, sugar and salt. I will then take the person to the hospital at once so that he can get vaccinated for cholera. I will take care of the hygienic conditions and will provide him with boiled drinking water.
I will try to provide him proper medical treatment and make him avoid going to public places. If the scabs on his blisters are falling off, he will be kept in isolation. I will tell him to take plenty of rest. All the things used by him would be kept separately and then washed properly.
I will plan a clean, fresh, nutritious and home-made diet for him. It will also be easy to digest. He will be given covered food and pre-boiled, cooled water to drink. Fluids such as soups, curries, gravies and fruit juices made with boiled water will also be included in his diet.
I will neither ill treat nor shun the child. I will extend a helping hand, give affection and care to the child in my class and will advise other students to provide help to him too. I will make efforts to allow him to mix, play and study with all classmates.
During epidemics, water is contaminated with disease-causing microorganisms. Drinking such contaminated water can cause water-borne diseases such as typhoid, cholera and hepatitis. Therefore, as a preventive measure, one should drink boiled water during epidemics because boiled water becomes free from microorganisms and such diseases spread by drinking contaminated water.
Communicable diseases spread when people share space with a diseased person. The germs of the communicable diseases may enter the body of a healthy person through air. If the resistance power of the person is less, he will fall sick. This may eventually result in an epidemic. Therefore, people suffering from communicable diseases should avoid going to public places.
Rabies is a viral disease caused by virus present in the saliva of an infected dog. When such a dog bites and causes a wound, the virus may enter the blood of the victim and cause infection of rabies. However, if the wound is washed immediately with soap, the virus may get destroyed. Therefore, as an immediate treatment, the wound caused by a dog bite should be flushed clean with soap and water.
Contagious and communicable diseases spread fast if personal and public hygiene is not maintained. To avoid such infections and prevent the spread of epidemics, it is important that everyone follows personal and public cleanliness.
Some personal good habits such as taking a bath every day, brushing your teeth twice a day, using a handkerchief while sneezing or coughing will help maintain personal hygiene.
Importance of personal cleanliness:
- It allows us to keep our body clean.
- It keeps us free from contagious diseases.
- It keeps us healthy.
Public cleanliness can be maintained by practices such as not spitting in public places, not throwing litter anywhere, not defecating and urinating in the open, keeping the environment clean etc.
Importance of public cleanliness:
- It keeps our surrounding clean.
- It maintains a good environment.
- It helps to avoid the spread of communicable and epidemic diseases.
- It prevents various types of pollution.
Therefore, maintaining personal and public cleanliness is an essential factor for maintaining the health of society.