GSEB Solutions for Class 10 Science and Technology – Transportation, Circulation and Excretion in Organisms (English Medium)
Select the proper choice from the given multiple choices :
Which of the following structures is responsible for transportation of water in higher plants :
Vessels and tracheids are main structural components of xylem which are responsible for the transportation of water in plants.
The kidneys in human being are a part of the system for :
Kidneys in human beings help in the elimination of metabolic waste from the body in the form of urine.
How many chambers are present in human heart ?
The human heart is a four chambered organ with two atria and two ventricles.
Where is tricuspid valve found in human heart ?
C. Between right atrium and right ventricle
The tricuspid valve facilitates the flow of blood from the right atrium to the right ventricle and prevents the back flow of blood.
What is the excretory unit in human being ?
Nephron is the structural and functional unit of the kidney which facilitates the urine formation and the elimination of waste from the body.
In which part of the body blood gets purified (Becomes oxygenated) ?
Lungs receive deoxygenated blood from the heart, purify it and send oxygenated blood back to the heart for circulation in the body.
In plants, food and other substances are transported through……………
C. Sieve tubes
Sieve tubes and sieve cells are components of phloem tissue responsible for transport of food in plants.
During which process blood is filtered out in Bowman’s capsule ?
In the kidneys, the blood flows under pressure in the arteries and gets filtered into Bowman’s capsule. This process is known as ultrafiltration.
Answer the following questions in brief :
Mention the color of blood and lymph.
Human blood is red in colour and lymph is a colourless fluid.
Transpiration is the process of removal of excess water through stomata present on the surface of the leaves in plants.
What is transported through phloem?
Photosynthetic products in the form of food produced by leaves are transported through the phloem to different parts of the plant.
Ultrafiltration is the process of filtration of blood flowing under pressure from the renal arteries into the Bowman’s capsule.
Name the organs of excretory system in human being.
The excretory system of human being contains
- A pair of kidneys
- A pair of ureters
- Urinary bladder
Name the components of circulatory system of human being.
The components of the circulatory system of human being are
- Blood vessels – arteries, veins and capillaries
- Lymph vessels and lymphatic capillaries
Differentiate between arteries and veins.
|Arteries carry blood from heart to different parts of the body.||Veins carry blood from different parts of the body to the heart.|
|Valves are absent in veins.||Valves are present in veins|
|They carry oxygenated blood.
Exception: Pulmonary artery
|They carry deoxygenated blood.
Exception: Pulmonary veins.
|Arteries end in capillaries.||Veins start in capillaries.|
Why the wall of artery is thick and elastic ?
Arteries carry blood from the heart to different parts of body. As blood is pumped by the heart, it is under high pressure. To sustain the pressure of the blood, walls of the arteries are thick and elastic.
What is the advantage of four chambered heart ?
A four chambered heart prevents the mixing of oxygen rich blood with blood containing carbon dioxide.
Excretion is the process of removal of metabolic waste from the body.
Answer the following questions pointwise :
Explain the excretory system of human being.
- The excretory system of human beings contains a pair of kidneys, a pair of ureters, urinary bladder and urethra.
- The kidneys are bean shaped and reddish brown in colour.
- Each kidney is divided into cortex and medulla and contains nephrons as excretory units.
- Nephrons perform the function of purification of blood and removal of waste from the blood.
- Kidneys produce urine as waste for elimination from the body.
- Ureters are tube-like structures arising from each kidney. They carry urine from kidneys to the urinary bladder.
- Urinary bladder is a bag-like muscular structure which stores urine till it is eliminated from the body.
- Urethra is an external opening which helps in the elimination of urine from the body.
Explain the structure of human heart.
- The human heart is a muscular structure, conical in shape.
- The heart is of the size of a closed fist.
- It is a four chambered structure present between the lungs.
- The left and right side of the heart is separated by a vertical septum.
- The right side of the heart contains deoxygenated blood and the left side of heart contains oxygenated blood.
- The upper two chambers of the heart are called atria.
- The lower two chambers of the heart are called ventricles.
- The walls of the atria are thin and those of the ventricles are thick.
- Tricuspid valve is present between the right atrium and the right ventricle.
- Bicuspid valve is present between the left atrium and the left ventricle.
- These valves prevent the backflow of blood from ventricles to atria.
Explain the process of urine formation.
- Urine is the fluid containing waste excretory substances from the body.
- It is formed in the kidneys.
- The renal arteries carry blood and waste material to the kidneys.
- As the blood flows under pressure, it gets filtered from the glomerulus into the Bowman’s capsule. This process is called as ultrafiltration.
- This filtrate now passes from the Bowman’s capsule to different parts of the nephron.
- Here, useful substances like water, amino acids, minerals, etc. are reabsorbed back into the blood capillaries which surround the nephron.
- The remaining fluid contains excretory waste and is called urine.
- Urine passes through the collecting duct out of the nephron.
- It gets collected in the urinary bladder through the ureters till it is eliminated from the body.
Describe the structure of nephron.
- Nephrons are the structural and functional units of the kidneys.
- They perform the function of formation of urine i.e. the removal of waste from the blood stream.
- Each nephron consists of a cup shaped double walled structure called Bowman’s capsule.
- Within Bowman’s capsule, a mass of coiled capillaries called glomerulus is present.
- From Bowman’s capsule, a short tubular structure called neck emerges.
- The neck then progresses into a narrow coiled tubular structure.
- This structure is composed of a proximal convoluted tubule (PCT), the loop of the Henle and a distal convoluted tubule (DCT).
- The last part of the nephron is the collecting tubule which opens into the renal pelvis leading to the ureters.
Write a note on lymphatic system.
- The lymphatic system of a human being consists of the lymph, lymph vessels, lymphatic capillaries and lymphatic nodes.
- Lymph is a colourless fluid which is formed when some amount of plasma, proteins and blood cells escape into the intracellular space through the pores of the capillaries.
- Lymph contains less amount of protein as compared to the blood.
- From the intracellular spaces, the lymph drains into the lymphatic capillaries.
- The lymphatic capillaries join to form lymph vessels which eventually form lymph veins.
- Lymphatic system provides protection against diseases.
- Lymph vessels present in the villi of the small intestine help in the absorption of lipids and also, help in its circulation to the blood stream.