GSEB Solutions for Class 8 Science and Technology – Nervous System and Endocrine System (English Medium)
During winter, the temperature is very low and our body cannot resist the outside temperature; so, to avoid cold, we wear woolen clothes as they are very thick and are a bad conductor of heat.
When we feel thirsty, we need water to quench our thirst. Water is required by our body to regulate the activities such as digestion, excretion, circulation etc.
Our body performs various activities the whole day starting from morning to evening. The muscles of our body experience pain and we need to rest our muscles. So, we take rest when we feel tired.
|Sr. No.||Name of the Endocrine gland||Location of the gland||Hormones secreted by the gland||Functions|
|1||Pituitary Gland||Base of the brain||Growth Hormone||Essential for normal growth and promotes secretion of milk|
|2||Thyroid Gland||Neck||Thyroxine||Regulates metabolic activities and growth of the body|
|Insulin and Glucagon||Regulates blood glucose level|
|4||Adrenal Gland||Kidney||Adrenaline/ Epinephrine||Increases the rate of the heart beat and helps in fighting mechanism|
|5||Testes||Male reproductive system (Beside penis)||Testosterone||Controls development of sex organs and secondary sexual characteristics|
|6||Ovary||Female reproductive system (Beside vagina)||Progesterone,
|Development of female secondary sexual character|
- Brain – The brain performs almost all the functions of our body like concentration, sleep, talk, rest, work and also controls the understanding of speech and language.
- Spinal cord – The spinal cord is basically the “information highway of the body”, in which messages are sent back and forth between the brain and the rest of the body.
- Peripheral Nervous System – The peripheral nervous system connects the central nervous system to the organs, limbs, and skin to allow for complex movements and behavior.
- Nerve- Nerves conduct impulses from the brain or spinal cord to receptor organs as well as conducting impulses from the receptor organs back to the brain or spinal cord.
- There are three types of nervous system in our body and they are central nervous system, peripheral nervous system and sense organs.
- The central nervous system comprises of two organs – brain and spinal cord.
- The glands producing hormonal secretions that pass directly into the bloodstream are called endocrine glands.
- The endocrine glands are adrenal gland, thyroid gland, pancreas, pituitary gland, testes and ovary.
|Sr. No.||Name of an organ||Connecting nerve||Function|
|1||Skin||Central nervous system||Provides insulation and helps to feel hot and cold.|
|2||Nose||Olfactory nerve||The olfactory cells help to sense smell.|
|3||Ear||Auditory nerve||Sound vibration is collected by the external ear and sent to the middle ear.|
|4||Tongue||Ninth cranial nerve||Taste buds help in identifying particular tastes such as sweet, salty, bitter and sour.|
|5||Eye||Optic nerve||The optic nerve carries the impulse to the brain, where it is interpreted and we are able to see.|