Understanding chemical bonding is crucial in many Chemistry Topics, as it explores how atoms combine to form molecules.
Examples of Objects which are made of different materials
Anything which has mass and occupies space is called matter. The matter of which an object is made is called material. All the objects are made up of one or more materials.
For example, table is an object which is made of wood, so wood is a material. Similarly, nails are made of iron, so iron is also a material. Some of the examples of materials are : Wood, Glass, Metals (such as Iron, Aluminium, Copper, Silver, Gold), Steel, Stainless steel, Plastics, Paper, Rubber, Leather, Canvas, Concrete, Cotton, Wool, Silk, Nylon, Polyester, Cement, Sand, Sugar, Water, Soil, etc. Materials are of two types: natural materials and man-made materials.
- Some examples of natural materials (or naturally occurring materials) are : Wood, Coal, Rocks, Minerals, Water, Gold, Petroleum, Cotton, Wool, Silk, Leather, Sand and Soil.
- Some examples of man-made materials are : Iron, Stainless steel, Cement, Glass, Plastics, Paper, Paints, Nylon, Polyester, Sugar and Brass.
In our everyday life, we use many objects made of natural and man-made materials. Please note that:
- The same object may be made of different materials,
- Many kinds of objects can be made of the same material, and
- Many objects are made up of a combination of materials.
This will become more clear from the following examples.
Tumbler is an object which we use in our daily life. A tumbler can be made of different materials like plastic, glass, stainless-steel, brass and silver. We are giving below the names of five more objects each of which can be made of different kinds of materials.
Plastic is a material. This plastic can be used to make different kinds of objects. For example, plastic can be used to make different objects like ruler, tumbler, mug, bucket, pipes, lunch-box, toys and tooth-brush. We are listing below the names of many more materials and the different objects which can be made out of these materials.
Many objects are made up of a combination of materials. For example, biscuit is an object which is made by the combination of three materials: white flour (maida), sugar and oil (or ghee). We are listing below five more objects which are made by a combination of different kinds of materials.
We will now answer one question based on the objects and the materials of which they are made.
Match the objects given below with the materials from which they could be made (Remember, an object could be made from more than one material) :
The correct match is as follows :
Book : Paper
Tumbler : Glass, Plastics
Chair : Wood, Plastics
Toy : Plastics, Wood
Shoes : Leather, Plastics
Properties of Materials
a material to make a particular object based on properties which are suitable for the purpose for which the object is to be used. For example, we make a tumbler of materials such as glass, plastic or steel because all these materials have a property of holding water (or other liquids). We cannot make tumbler out of a piece of cloth because a piece of doth cannot hold water. Water will just leak out of a piece of cloth ! Similarly, we make cooking utensils of materials such as copper, aluminium or stainless steel, etc., because these materials can conduct heat well. We do not make cooking utensils of paper-like materials because they will burn out as soon as they are kept on a burning gas stove.
We use gold metal for making ornaments because it has a shiny appearance (or lustre). We use steel for making buildings and bridges because it is very hard and strong. We use cotton wool (rui) for filling pillows because it is very soft. We use wood for making boats because it floats on water. We use clear glass for making window-panes because it is transparent and we can see through it. We use ground-glass for making windows of bathrooms because it is translucent and nothing can be seen clearly through it. And we use bricks for making walls of our house because they are opaque and nothing can be seen through them. We will now use the different properties of materials to classify them into various groups.