Contents

NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Maths Chapter 1 Sets are part of NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Maths. Here we have given NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Maths Chapter 1 Sets.

Board |
CBSE |

Textbook |
NCERT |

Class |
Class 11 |

Subject |
Maths |

Chapter |
Chapter 1 |

Chapter Name |
Sets |

Exercise |
Ex 1.1, Ex 1.2, Ex 1.3, Ex 1.4, Ex 1.5, Ex 1.6, Miscellaneous Exercise |

Number of Questions Solved |
64 |

Category |
NCERT Solutions |

## NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Maths Chapter 1 Sets

**NCERT Exercises**

### Chapter 1 Sets Exercise – 1.1

**Question .**

**Which of the following are sets? Justify your answer.**

**(i)** The collection of all the months of a year beginning with the letter J.

**(ii)** The collection of ten most talented writers of India.

**(iii)** A team of eleven best-cricket batsmen of the world.

**(iv)** The collection of all boys in your class.

**(v)** The collection of all natural numbers less than 100.

**(vi)** A collection of novels written by the writer Munshi Prem Chand.

**(vii)** The collection of all even integers.

**(viii) **The collection of questions in this Chapter,

**(ix)** A collection of most dangerous animals of world.

**Solution.
**

**(i)**The collection of all months of a year beginning with J is {J anuary, June, July}, which is well defined and hence it forms a set.

**(ii)**The collection of most talented writers of India is not well defined because opinions about ‘most talented writers’ vary from person to person and hence it does not form a set.

**(iii)**A team of eleven best-cricket batsmen of the world is not well defined because opinions about ‘best-cricket batsmen’ vary from person to person and hence it does not form a set.

**(iv)**The collection of all boys in your class is well defined and hence it forms a set.

**(v)**The collection of all natural numbers less than 100 is {1, 2, 3, 4,…………, 99}, which is well

defined and hence it forms a set.

**(vi)**A collection of novels written by the writer Munshi Prem Chand is well defined and hence it forms a set.

**(vii)**The collection of all even integers is {………….. ,-4, -2, 0, 2, 4,……….. } which is well defined and hence it forms a set.

**(viii)**The collection of questions in this chapter is well defined and hence it forms a set.

**(ix)**A collection of most dangerous animals of the world is not well defined because opinions about ‘most dangerous animals’ vary from person to person and hence it does not form a set.

**Question 2.**

**Let A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6). Insert the appropriate symbol ∈ or ∉ in the blank spaces:**

**(i)** 5…A

**(ii)** 8…A

**(iii)** 0…A

**(iv)** 4…A

**(v)** 2…A

**(vi)** 10…A

**Solution.
**

**(i)**Since 5 is the element of A. ∴ 5 ∉ A.

**(ii)**As 8 is not the element of A. ∴ 8 ∉ A

**(iii)**As 0 is not the element of A ∴ 0 ∈ A.

**(iv)**4 is the element of A ∴ 4 ∈ A.

**(v)**2 is the element of A ∴ 2 ∈ A.

**(vi)**10 is not the element of A ∴ 10 ∉ A.

**Question 3.**

**Write the following sets in roster form:**

**(i)** A = {x: x is an integer and -3 < x < 7}

**(ii)** B = {x: x is a natural number less than 6}

**(iii)** C = {x: x is a two-digit natural number such that the sum of its digits is 8}

**(v)** E = The set of all letters in the word TRIGONOMETRY

**(vi)** F = The set of all letters in the word

**Solution.**

**(i)** Integers lying between -3 and 7 are -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, ……….. , 6

∴ A = {-2,-1, 6}.

**(ii)** Natural numbers less than 6 are 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.

∴ B = 11, 2, 3, 4, 5}

**(iii)** Two digit natural numbers such that the sum of its digits is 8 are 17, 26, 35, 44, 53, 62, 71, 80.

∴ C= (17, 26, 35, 44, 53, 62, 71,80}

**(iv)** Prime number divisors of 60 are 2, 3, 5.

∴ D = (2, 3, 5}

**(v)** Word TRIGONOMETRY is formed by using the letters T, R, I, G, O, N, M, E, Y.

∴ E = (T, R, I, G, N, O, M, E, Y}

**(vi)** Word BETTER is formed by using the letters B, E, T, R

∴ F = (B, E, T, R}

**Question 4.**

**Write the following sets in the set-builder form:**

**(i)** {3, 6, 9, 12}

**(ii)** {2, 4, 8, 16, 32}

**(iii)** {5, 25, 125, 625}

**(iv)** {2,4,6,…}

**(v)** {1,4,9,……..,100}

**Solution.**

**(i)** Let A = (3, 6, 9, 12}

All elements of the set are natural numbers that are multiples of 3.

∴ A = (x : x = 3n, n∈N and 1 ≤ n ≤4}

**(ii)** Let B = (2, 4, 8, 16, 32} = (2^{1}, 2^{2}, 2^{3}, 2^{4}, 2^{5}}

∴ B = {x : x = 2^{n}, n ∈ N and 1 ≤ n ≤ 5}

**(iii)** Let C = (5, 25, 125, 625} = (5^{1}, 5^{2}, 5^{3}, 5^{4}}

∴ C = {x : x = 5^{n}, n ∈ N and 1 ≤ n ≤ 4}

**(iv)** Let D = (2, 4, 6,……………..}

All elements of the set are even natural numbers.

∴ D = (x: x is an even natural number)

**(v)** Let E = {1,4,9,……….,100}

All elements of the set are perfect squares.

∴ E = {x: x = n^{2}, n ∈ N and 1 ≤ n ≤ 10}

**Question 5.**

**List all the elements of the following sets:**

**(i)** A = {x: x is an odd natural number}

**(ii)** B = {x: x is an integer, < x < }

**(iii)** C = {x: x is an integer, x^{2} ≤ 4}

**(iv)** D = {x: x is a letter in the word “LOYAL”}

**(v)** E = {x: x is a month of a year not having 31 days}

**(vi)** F = {x : x is a consonant in the English alphabet which precedes k}.

**Solution.**

**(i)** A = {x: x is an odd natural number}

∴ A = {1, 3, 5, 7,……………}

**(ii)** B = {x: x is an integer, < x < }

∴ B = { 0, 1, 2, 3, 4}

**(iii)** C = {x: x is an integer, x^{2} ≤ 4}

x^{2} ≤ 4⇒ -2 ≤ x ≤ 2

∴ C = {-2, -1, 0, 1, 2}

**(iv)** D = {x: x is a letter in the word “LOYAL”}

∴ D = {L, O, Y, A}

**(v)** E = {x: x is a month of a year not having 31 days}

∴ E = {February, April, June, September, November}

**(vi)** F = {x: x is a consonant in the English alphabet which precedes k}

∴ F = {b, c, d, f, g, h, j}

**Question 6.**

**Match each of the set on the left in the roster form with the same set on the right described in set-builder form:**

**i.** {1,2, 3,6} ** (a)** {x: x is a prime number and a divisor of 6}

**ii.** {2,3} ** (b)** {x : x is an odd natural number less than 10}

**iii.** {M, A, T, H, E,I,C, S} **(c)** {x: x is natural number and divisor of 6} **iv.** {1, 3, 5, 7, 9} **(d)** {x : x is a letter of the word MATHEMATICS}.

**Solution.**

**(i)** → (c),

**(ii)** → (a),

**(iii)** → (d),

**(iv)** → (b).

**The sets which are in set-builder form can be written in roster form as follows:
(a)** {x : x is a prime number and a divisor of 6} = {2, 3}

**(b)**{x: x is an odd natural number less than 10} = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9}

**(c)**{x : x is natural number and divisor of 6} = {1, 2, 3, 6}

**(d)**{x: x is a letter of the word MATHEMATICS} = {M, A, T, H, E, I, C, S}

### Chapter 1 Sets Exercise – 1.2

**Question 1.**

**Which of the following are examples of the null set ?**

**(i)** Set of odd natural numbers divisible by 2

**(ii)** Set of even prime numbers

**(iii)** {x: x is a natural number, x ≤ 5 and x > 7}

**(iv)** {y: y is a point common to any two parallel lines}

**Solution.**

**(i)** Set of odd natural numbers divisible by 2 is a null set because odd natural numbers are not divisible by 2.

**(ii)** Set of even prime numbers is {2} which is not a null set.

**(iii)** {x: x is a natural number, x < 5 and x >7} is a null set because there is no natural number which satisfies x < 5 and x > 7 simultaneously,

**(iv)** [y: y is a point common to any two parallel lines) is a null set because two parallel lines

do not have any common point.

**Question 2.**

**Which of the following sets are finite or infinite?**

**(i)** The set of months of a year

**(ii)** {1,2,3,…}

**(iii)** {1,2,3, …,99,100}

**(iv)** The set of positive integers greater than 100

**(v)** The set of prime numbers less than 99

**Solution.**

**(i)** The set of months of a year is finite set because there are 12 months in a year.

**(ii)** {1, 2, 3, …} is an infinite set because there are infinite elements in the set.

**(iii)** {1, 2, 3, …, 99, 100) is a finite set because the set contains finite number of elements.

**(iv)** The set of positive integers greater than 100 is an infinite set because there are infinite

number of positive integers greater than 100.

**(v)** The set of prime numbers less than 99 is a finite set because the set contains finite number of elements.

**Question 3.**

**State whether each of the following set is finite or infinite:**

**(i)** The set of lines which are parallel to the x-axis

**(ii)** The set of letters in the English alphabet

**(iii)** The set of numbers which are multiple of 5

**(iv)** The set of animals living on the earth

**(v)** The set of circles passing through the origin (0,0)

**Solution.**

**(i)** The set of lines which are parallel to the x-axis is an infinite set because we can draw infinite number of lines parallel to x-axis.

**(ii)** The set of letters in the English alphabet is a finite set because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet.

**(iii)** The set of numbers which are multiple of 5 is an infinite set because there are infinite multiples of 5.

**(iv)** The set of animals living on the earth is a finite set because the number of animals living on the earth is very large but finite.

**(v)** The set of circles passing through the origin (0, 0) is an infinite set because we can draw infinite number of circles passing through origin of different radii.

**Question 4.**

**In the following, state whether A = B or not:**

**(i)** A = {a, b, c, d};B = {d, c, b, a}

**(ii)** A = {4, 8, 12, 16};B = {8, 4, 16, 18}

**(iii)** A = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10}

B = {x : x is positive even integer and x≤ 10}

**(iv)** A = {x: x isa multiple of 10}

B = {10, 15, 20, 25, 30,…}

**Solution.**

**(i)** A = {a, b, c, d} and B = {d, c, b, a} are equal sets because order of elements does not changes a set.

∴ A = B = [a, b, c, d}.

**(ii)** A = {4, 8, 12, 16} and B = {8, 4, 16, 18} are not equal sets because 12 ∈ A but 12 ∉ B and 18 ∉ B but 18 ∉ A.

**(iii)** A = {2, 4, 6, 8,10} and B = {x: x is a positive even integer and x ≤ 10) which can be written in roster form as B = (2, 4, 6, 8, 10) are equal sets.

∴ A = B = {2, 4, 6, 8,10).

**(iv)** A = {x: x is a multiple of 10) can be written in roster form as A = {10, 20, 30, 40,…….. } and

B – {10, 15, 20, 25, 30, ………..} are not equal sets because 15 ∈ B but 15 ∉ A.

**Question 5.**

**Are the following pair of sets equal ? Give reasons.**

**(i)** A = {2, 3}, B={x: x is solution of x^{2} + 5x + 6 = 0}

**(ii)** A = {x: x is a letter in the word FOLLOW}

B = {y: y is a letter in the word WOLF}

**Solution.**

**(i)** A = (2, 3} and B = {x: x is a solution of x^{2} + 5x + 6 = 0}

Now, x^{2} + 5x + 6 = 0 ⇒ x^{2} + 3x + 2x + 6 = 0 ⇒ (x + 3)(x + 2) = 0 ⇒ x = -3, -2

∴ B = {-2, -3}

Hence, A and B are not equal sets.

**(ii)** A = {x : x is a letter in the word FOLLOW} = {F, O, L, W}

B = {y: y is a letter in the word WOLF}

= {W, O, L, F}

Hence, A = B = {F, O, L, W}.

**Question 6**

**From the sets given below, select equal sets:**

A = {2, 4, 8, 12),

B = {1, 2, 3, 4},

C = {4, 8, 12, 14},

D ={3,1,4,2},

E ={-1, 1},

F ={0, a},

G ={1, -1},

H ={0, 1}

**Solution.**

From the given sets, we see that sets B and D have same elements and also sets E and G have same elements.

∴ B = D = {1 ,2, 3, 4} and E = G = {-1, 1}.

### Chapter 1 Sets Exercise – 1.3

**Question 1.**

**Make correct statements by filling in the symbols ⊂ or ⊄ in the blank spaces:**

**(i)** {2, 3, 4} …{1, 2, 3, 4, 5}

**(ii)** {a, b, c}… {b, c, d}

**(iii)** {x: x is a student of Class XI of your school} … {x: x student of your school}

**(iv)** {x : x is a circle in the plane}… {x: x is a circle in the same plane with radius 1 unit}

**(v)** {x : x is a triangle in a plane}… {x : x is a rectangle in the plane}

**(vi)** {x: x is an equilateral triangle in a plane} … {x: x is a triangle in the same plane}

**(vii)** {x: x is an even natural number}… {x: x is an integer}

**Solution.**

**(i)** {2, 3, 4} ⊂ {11, 2, 3, 4, 5}

**(ii)** [a, b, c) ⊄ {{b, c, d}

**(iii)** {x : x is a student of Class XI of your school} ⊂ {x : x student of your school}

**(iv)** {x : x is a circle in the plane} ⊄ {x : x is a circle in the same plane with radius 1 unit}

**(v)** {x : x is a triangle in a plane} ⊄ {x : x is a rectangle in the plane}

**(vi)** {x : x is an equilateral triangle in a plane} ⊂ {x : x is a triangle in the same plane}

**(vii)** {x: x is an even natural number} ⊂ {x: x is an integer}

**Question 2.**

**Examine whether the following statements are true or false:**

**(i)** {a, b} ⊄{b, c, a}

**(ii)** {a, e} ⊂ {x : x is a vowel in the English alphabet}

**(iii)** {1, 2, 3} ⊂ {1, 3, 5}

**(iv)** {a} ⊂ {a, b, c}

**(v)** {a} ∈ la, b, c}

**(vi)** {x: x is an even natural number less than 6} ⊂ {x: x is a natural number which divides 36}

**Solution.**

**Question 3.**

Let A = {1, 2, {3, 4}, 5}. Which of the following statements are incorrect and why?

**Solution.**

**Question 4.**

**Write down all the subsets of the following sets**

**(i)** {a}

**(ii)** {a,b}

**(iii)** {1,2,3}

**(iv)** φ

**Solution.**

**(i)** Number of elements in given set = 1

Number of subsets of given set = 2^{1} = 2

∴ Subsets of given set are φ , {a}.

**(ii)** Number of elements in given set = 2

Number of subsets of given set = 2^{12} = 4

∴ Subsets of given set are φ, {a}, {b}, {a, b}.

**(iii)** Number of elements in given set = 3

Number of subsets of given set = 2^{3} = 8

Subsets of given set are φ, {1}, {2}, {3}, {1, 2}, {2, 3}, {1, 3}, {1, 2, 3}.

**(iv)** Number of elements in given set = 0

Number of subsets of given set = 2^{0}= 1

∴ Subset of given set is φ.

**Question 5.**

How many elements has P(A), if A = φ?

**Solution.**

Number of elements in set A = 0

Number of subset of set A = 2^{0} = 1

Hence, number of elements of P(A) is 1.

**Question 6.**

**Write the following as intervals:**

**(i)** {x: x ∈ R, -4 < x ≤ 6}

**(ii)** {x: x ∈ R, -12 < x < -10}

**(iii)** {x: x ∈ R, 0 ≤ x < 7}

**(iv)** {x: x ∈ R, 3 ≤ x ≤ 4}

**Solution.**

**(i)**Let A = {x: x ∈ R, -4 < x ≤ 6}

It can be written in the form of interval as (-4, 6)

**(ii)** Let A= {x: x ∈ R, -12 < x < -10}

It can be written in the form of interval as (-12, -10)

**(iii)** Let A = {x: x ∈ R, 0 ≤ x < 7}

It can be written in the form of interval as (0, 7).

**(iv)** Let A = {x: x ∈ R, 3 ≤ x ≤ 4}

It can be written in the form of interval as (3,4).

**Question 7.**

**Write the following intervals in set-builder form:**

**(i)** (-3,0)

**(ii)** [6, 12]

**(iii)** (6, 12]

**(iv)** [-23, 5)

**Solution.**

**(i)** The interval (-3, 0) can be written in set-builder form as {x : x ∈ R,-3 < x < 0}.

**(ii)** The interval [6, 12] can be written in set-builder form as {x : x ∈ R, 6 ≤ x ≤ 12}.

**(iii)** The interval (6, 12] can be written in set-builder form as {x : x ∈ R, 6 < x ≤ 12}

**(iv)** The interval [-23,5) can be written in set-builder form as {x : x ∈ R, -23 ≤ x < 5}

**Question 8.**

What universal set(s) would you propose for each of the following:

**(i)** The set of right triangles.

**(ii)** The set of isosceles triangles.

**Solution.**

**(i)** Right triangle is a type of triangle. So the set of triangles contain all types of triangles.

∴ U = {x : x is a triangle in a plane}

**(ii)** Isosceles triangle is a type of triangle. So the set of triangles contain all types of triangles.

∴ U = }x : x is a triangle in a plane}

**Question 9.**

Given the sets A = {1, 3, 5}, B = {2, 4, 6} and C = {0, 2, 4, 6, 8}, which of the following may be considered as universal set(s) for all the three sets A, B and C

**(i)** {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}

**(ii)** φ

**(iii)** {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10}

**(iv)** {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8}

**Solution.**

**(iii)**

**(i)** {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} is not a universal set for A, B, C because 8 ∈ C but 8 is not a member of {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}.

**(ii)** φ is a set which contains no element. So it is not a universal set for A, B, C.

**(iii)** {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10} is a universal set for A, B, C because all members of A, B, C are present in {0,1 , 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10).

**(iv)** (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8) is not a universal set for A, B, C because 0 ∈ C but 0 is not a member of {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8)

### Chapter 1 Sets Exercise – 1.4

**Question 1.**

**Find the union of each of the following pairs of sets:**

**(i)** X = {1 ,3, 5}, Y= {1, 2, 3}

**(ii)** A = {a, e, i, o, u}, B = {a, b, c}

**(iii)** A = {x: x is a natural number and multiple of 3}

B = {x: x is a natural number less than 6}

**(iv)** A = {x: x is a natural number and 1 < x ≤ 6} B = (x:x is a natural number and 6 <x< 10}

**(v)** A = {1, 2, 3}, B = φ

**Solution.**

**Question 2.**

Let A = {a, b}, B = {a, b, c}. Is A ⊂ B ? What is A ∪B?

**Solution.**

Here A = {a, b} and B = {a, b, c}. All elements of set A are present in set B.

∴ A ⊂ B. Now, A ∪ B = {a, b, c) = B.

**Question 3.**

If A and B are two sets such that A ⊂ B, then what is A ∪ B?

**Solution.**

Here A and B are two sets such that A ⊂ B.

Take A = {1, 2} and B = {1, 2, 3}.

A ∪ B = {1, 2, 3) = B.

**Question 4.**

**If A = {11, 2, 3, 4}, B = {3, 4, 5, 6}, C={5, 6, 7, 8} and D = {7, 8, 9, 10}; find**

**(i)** A ∪ B

**(ii)** A ∪ C

**(iii)** B ∪ C

**(iv)** B ∪ O

**(v)** A ∪ B ∪ C

**(vi)** A ∪ B ∪ D

**(vii)** B ∪ C ∪ D

**Solution.**

Here A = {11, 2, 3, 4}, B = {3, 4, 5, 6}, C={5, 6, 7, 8} and D = {7, 8, 9, 10}

**Question 5.**

**Find the intersection of each pair of sets of .
**

**(i)**X = {1 ,3, 5}, Y= {1, 2, 3}

**(ii)**A = {a, e, i, o, u}, B = {a, b, c}

**(iii)**A = {x: x is a natural number and multiple of 3}

B = {x: x is a natural number less than 6}

**(iv)**A = {x: x is a natural number and 1 < x ≤ 6} B = (x:x is a natural number and 6 <x< 10}

**(v)**A = {1, 2, 3}, B = φ

**Solution.**

**(i)**Here X = {1, 3, 5} and Y = {1, 2, 3}

∴ X ∩ Y= {1,3}

**(ii)** Here A = {a, e, i, o, u} and B = {a, b, c}

∴ A ∩ B = {a}

**(iii)** Here A = {x: x is a natural number and multiple of 3} = {3, 6, 9,12,….} and B = {x: x is a natural number less than 6}

= {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} ∴ A ∩ B = {3}

**(iv)** Here A = {x: x is a natural number and 1 < x < 6} ={2, 3, 4, 5, 6} and B = {x: x is a natural number and 6 < x < 10} = {7, 8, 9} ∴ A ∩ B = φ

**(v)** Here A = {1, 2, 3) and B = φ

∴ A ∩ B = φ

**Question 6.**

**If A = (3, 5, 7, 9, 11}, B = {7, 9, 11, 13}, C = {11, 13, 15} and D = {15, 17}; find**

**(i)** A ∩ B

**(ii)** B ∩ C

**(iii)** A ∩ C ∩ D

**(iv)** A ∩ C

**(v)** B ∩ D

**(vi)** A ∩ (B ∪ C)

**(vii)** A ∩ D

**(viii)** A ∩ (B ∪ D)

**(ix)** (A ∪ B) ∩ (B ∪ C)

**(x)** (A ∪ D) ∩ (B ∪ C)

**Solution.**

Here A = {3, 5, 7, 9, 11}, B = {7, 9, 11, 13}, C = {11, 13, 15} and D = {15, 17}

**Question 7.**

**If A = {x: x is a natural number), B = {x: x is an even natural number}, C={x : x is an odd natural number} and D = {x: x is a prime number}, find**

**(i)** A ∩ B

**(ii)** A ∩ C

**(iii)** A ∩ D

**(iv)** B ∩ C

**(v)** B ∩ D

**(vi)** C ∩ D

**Solution.**

Here A = {x: x is a natural number}

= (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, …….}

B = {x: x is an even natural number}

= 12, 4, 6,………}

C = {x: x is an odd natural number}

= {1, 3, 5, 7,………}

and D = {x: x is a prime number}

= {2, 3, 5, 7,….}

**(i)** A ∩ B = {x: x is a natural number} ∩ {x: x is an even natural number}

= {x: x is an even natural number} = B.

**(ii)** A ∩ C = {x: x is a natural number} ∩ {x: x is an odd natural number}

= {x: x is an odd natural number} = C.

**(iii)** A ∩ D = {x: x is a natural number} ∩ {x: x is a prime number}

= {x: x is a prime number} = D.

**(iv)** B ∩ C = {x: x is an even natural number} ∩{x: x is an odd natural number} = φ .

**(v)** B ∩ D = [x: x is an even natural number} ∩ {x: x is a prime number} = {2}.

**(vi)** C ∩ D = {x: x is an odd natural number} ∩ {x: x is a prime number} = {x: x is an odd prime number}.

**Question 8.**

**Which of the following pairs of sets are disjoint?**

**(i)** {1, 2, 3, 4} and {x: x is a natural number and 4 ≤ x ≤ 6}

**(ii)** {a, e, i, o, u] and {c, d, e, f}

**(iii)** {x: x is an even integer} and {x: x is an odd integer}

**Solution.**

**(i)** Let A = {1,2,3,4}

and B = {x: x is a natural number and 4 ≤ x ≤ 6} = {4, 5, 6}

∴ A ∩ B = {1,2,3,4} n {4,5, 6} = {4}

Hence A and B are not disjoint sets.

**(ii)** Let A = {a, e, i, o, u} and B = {c, d, e, f}

∴ A ∩ B = {e}

Hence A and B are not disjoint sets.

**(iii)** Let A = {x : x is an even integer} and B = {x: x is an odd integer}

∴ A ∩ B = φ. Hence A and B are disjoint sets.

**Question 9.**

**If A = {3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21}, B = {4, 8, 12, 16, 20}, C = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16} and D = {5, 10, 15, 20}; find**

**(i)** A – B

**(ii)** A – C

**(iii)** A – D

**(iv)** B – A

**(v)** C – A

**(vi)** D – A

**(vii)** B – C

**(viii)** B – D

**(ix)** C – B

**(x)** D – B

**(xi)** C – D

**(xii)**D – C

**Solution.**

Here A = {3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21},

B = {4, 8, 12, 16, 20},

C ={2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16},

D = {5, 10, 15, 20}

**(i)** A – B = {3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21} – {4, 8,12,16, 20} = {3, 6, 9,15,18, 21}

**(ii)** A – C = {3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21} – {2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16} = {3, 9, 15, 18, 21}

**(iii)** A – D = {3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21} – {5,10,15, 20} = {3, 6, 9, 12, 18, 21}

**(iv)** B – A = {4, 8, 12, 16, 20} – {3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21} = {4, 8,16, 20}

**(v)** C – A = {2,4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16} – {3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21} = {2, 4, 8, 10, 14, 16}

**(vi)** D – A = {5, 10, 15, 20} – {3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21} = {5, 10, 20}

**(vii)** B – C={4, 8, 12, 16, 20} – {2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16} = {20}

**(viii)** B – D = {4, 8, 12, 16, 20} – {5, 10, 15, 20} = {4, 8, 12, 16}

**(ix)** C – B = {2,4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16} – {4, 8, 12, 16, 20} = {2, 6, 10, 14}

**(x)** D – B = {5, 10, 15, 20} – {4, 8, 12, 16, 20} = {5, 10, 15}

**(xi)** C – D = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16} – {5, 10, 15, 20} = {2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 14, 16}

**(xii)** D – C={5, 10, 15, 20} – {2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16} = {5, 15, 20}

**Question 10.**

**If X= {a, b, c, d} and Y={f, b, d, g}, find**

**(i)** X – Y

**(ii)** Y – X

**(iii)** X ∩ Y

**Solution.**

Here X = {a, b, c, d} and Y = {f, b, d, g}

**(i)** X – Y = {a, b, c, d} – {f, b, d, g} = {a, c}

**(ii)** Y – X = {f, b, d, g} – {a, b, c, d} = {f, g}

**(iii)** X ∩ Y = {a, b, c, d} ∩ {f, b, d, g} = {b, d}

**Question 11.**

If R is the set of real numbers and Q is the set of rational numbers, then what is R – Q?

**Solution.**

We know that set of real numbers contain rational and irrational numbers. So R – Q = set of irrational numbers.

**Question 12.**

**State whether each of the following statement is true or false. Justify your answer**.

**(i)** {2, 3, 4, 5} and {3, 6} are disjoint sets.

**(ii)** {a, e, i, o, u} and {a, b, c, d} are disjoint sets.

**(iii)** {2, 6, 10, 14} and {3, 7, 11, 15} are disjoint

**Solution.**

**Chapter 1 Sets Exercise – 1.5**

**Question 1.**

**Let U = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9}, A = { 1, 2, 3, 4}, B = (2,4,6,8} and C = {3,4,5,6}. Find**

**(i)** A’

**(ii)** B’

**(iii)** (A ∪ C)’

**(iv)** (A ∪B)’

**(v)** (A’)’

**(vi)** (B – C)’

**Solution.**

Here U = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9}, A = {1, 2, 3, 4}, B = {2, 4, 6, 8} and C ={3, 4, 5, 6}

**(i)** A’=U – A

= {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9} – {1, 2, 3, 4}

= {5, 6, 7, 8, 9}

**(ii)** B’=U – B

= {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9} – {2, 4, 6, 8}

= {1, 3, 5, 7, 9}

**(iii)** A ∪ C = {1, 2, 3, 4} ∪ {3, 4, 5, 6}

= (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}

(A∪C)’=U-(A∪C)

= {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9} – {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}

= {7, 8, 9}

**(iv)** A ∪ B = {1, 2, 3,4} ∪ {2, 4, 6, 8}

= {1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8}

(A∪B)’ = U – (A∪B)

= {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9} – {1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8}

= {5, 7, 9}

**(v)** We know that A’ = {5, 6, 7, 8, 9}

(A’)’ =U – A’

= {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9} – {5, 6, 7, 8, 9}

= {1, 2, 3, 4}

**(vi)** B – C = {2, 4, 6, 8} – {3, 4, 5, 6} = {2, 8}

(B-C)’=U – (B-C)

= {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9} – {2, 8}

= {1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9}.

**Question 2.**

**If U = {a,b, c, d, e, f, g, h}, find the complements of the following sets:**

**(i)** A = {a, b, c}

**(ii)** B = {d, e, f, g}

**(iii)** C = {a, c, e, g}

**(iv)** D = {f, g, h, a}

**Solution.**

**(i)** A’ = U – A = {a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h} – {a, b, c}

= {d, e,f, g, h}

**(ii)** B’ = U – B = {a, b, c, d, e,f, g, h} – {d, e, f, g}

= {a, b, c, h}

**(iii)** C’ = U – C = {a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h} – {a, c, e, g}

= {b, d, f, h}

**(iv)** D’ = U – D = {a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h} – {f, g, h, a}

= {b, c, d, e}.

**Question 3.**

**Taking the set of natural numbers as the universal set, write down the complements of the following sets:**

**(i)** {x: x is an even natural number}

**(ii)** {x: x is an odd natural number}

**(iii)** {x: x is a positive multiple of 3}

**(iv)** {x: x is a prime number}

**(v)** {x: x is a natural number divisible by 3 and 5}

**(vi)** {x: x is a perfect square}

**(vii)** {x: x is a perfect cube}

**(viii)** {x: x + 5 = 8}

**(ix)** (x: 2x + 5 = 9)

**(x)** {x: x ≥ 7}

**(xi)** {x: x ∈ W and 2x + 1 > 10}

**Solution.**

**Question 4.**

**If U = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9}, A = {2, 4, 6, 8} and B = {2, 3, 5, 7}. Verify that**

**(i)** (A ∪ B)’ = A’∩B’

**(ii) **(A ∩ B)’ = A’∪B’

**Solution.**

**Question 5.**

**Draw appropriate Venn diagram for each of the following:**

**(i)** (A ∪ B)’

**(ii)** A’∩B’

**(iii)** (A ∩ B)’

**(iv)** A’ ∪ B’

**Solution.**

**Question 6.**

Let U be the set of all triangles in a plane. If A is the set of all triangles with at least one angle different from 60°, what is A’?

**Solution.**

Here U = {x : x is a triangle}

A = {x: x is a triangle and has at least one angle different from 60°}

∴ A’ = U – A = {x : x is a triangle} – {x : x is a triangle and has atleast one angle different from 60°}

= {x : x is a triangle and has all angles equal to 60°)

= Set of all equilateral triangles.

**Question 7.**

**Fill in the blanks to make each of the following a true statement:**

**(i)** A ∪ A’ = **…….**

**(ii)** φ’ ∩ A = .**…….**

**(iii)** A ∩ A’ =** …….**

**(iv)** U’ ∩ A = .**…….**

**Solution.**

**(i) **A ∪ A’= U

**(ii)** φ’ ∩ A = U ∩ A = A

**(iii)** A ∩ A’ = φ

**(iv)** U’ ∩ A = φ ∩ A = φ

### Chapter 1 Sets Exercise – 1.6

**Question 1.**

If X and Y are two sets such that n(X) = 17, n(Y) = 23 and n (X ∪ Y) = 38, find n(X ∩ Y).

**Solution.**

Here n(X) = 17, n(Y) = 23 and n(X ∪ Y) = 38

We know that

n(X ∪ Y) = n(X) + n(Y) -n(X ∩ Y)

⇒ 38 = 17 + 23 – n(X ∩ Y)

∴ n(X ∩ Y) = 40 – 38 = 2.

**Question 2.**

If X and Y are two sets such that X ∪ Y has 18 elements, X has 8 elements and Y has 15 elements; how many elements does X ∩ Y have?

**Solution.**

Here n(X ∪ Y) = 18. n(X) = 8 and n(Y) = 15

We know that

n(X ∪ Y) = n(X) + n(Y) – n(X ∩ Y)

⇒ 18 = 8 +15 – n(X ∩ Y)

∴ n(X ∩ Y) = 23-18 = 5.

**Question 3.**

In a group of 400 people, 250 can speak Hindi and 200 can speak English. How many people can speak both Hindi and English?

**Solution.**

Let H be the set of people speaking Hindi and E be the set of people speaking English.

∴ n(H) = 250, n(E) = 200 and n(H ∪ E) = 400,

We know that

n(H ∪ E) = n(H) + n(E) – n(H ∩ E)

400 = 250 + 200 – n(H ∩ E)

∴ n(H ∩ E) = 450 – 400 = 50.

**Question 4.**

If 5 and Tare two sets such that 5 has 21 elements, T has 32 elements, and S ∩T has 11 elements, how many elements does S ∪ T have?

**Solution.**

Here n(S) = 21, n(T) = 32 and n(S ∩T) = 11

We know that

n(S ∪ T) = n(S) + n(T) – n(S ∩ T) n(S ∪ T)

= 21 + 32 – 11 = 42.

**Question 5.**

If X and Y are two sets such that X has 40 elements, X ∪ Y has 60 elements, and X ∩ Y has 10 elements, how many elements does X have?

**Solution.**

Here n{X) = 40, n(X ∪ Y) = 60 and n(X ∩ Y) = 10

We know that

n(X ∪ Y) = n(X) + n(Y) – n(X ∩ Y)

⇒ 60 = 40 + n(Y) – 10

∴ n(Y) = 60 – 30 = 30.

**Question 6.**

In a group of 70 people, 37 like coffee, 52 like tea and each person likes at least one of the two drinks. How many people like both coffee and tea?

**Solution.**

Let C be the set of persons who like coffee and T be the set of persons who like tea.

∴ n(C) = 37, n(T) = 52 and n(C ∪ T) = 70

We know that

n(C ∪ T) = n(C) + n(T) – n(C ∩ T)

⇒ 70 = 37 + 52 – n(C ∩ T)

∴ n(C ∩ T) = 89 – 70 = 19.

**Question 7.**

In a group of 65 people, 40 like cricket, 10 like both cricket and tennis. How many like tennis only and not cricket? How many like tennis?

**Solution.**

Let C be the set of people who like cricket and T be the set of people who like tennis. Here n(Q) = 40, n(C ∩ T) = 10 and n(C ∪ T) = 65 .

We know that

n(C ∪ T) = n(C) + n(T) – n(C ∩ T)

⇒ 65 = 40 + n(T) -10

⇒ n{T} = 65 – 30 = 35

∴ Number of people who like tennis = 35 j Now number of people who like tennis only and not cricket

=n(T – C) = n(T) – n(C ∩ T) = 35 – 10 = 25.

**Question 8.**

In a committee, 50 people speak French, 20 f speak Spanish and 10 speak both Spanish and

French. How many speak at least one of these two languages?

**Solution.**

Let F be the set of people who speak French and S be the set of people who speak Spanish.

Here n(F) = 50, n(S) = 20 and n(F ∩ S) = 10

We know that

n(F ∪ S) = n(F) + n(S) – n(F ∩ S)

n(F ∪ S) = 50 + 20 -10 = 60

∴ Number of people who speak at least one of these two languages = 60

### Chapter 1 Sets Miscellaneous Exercise

**Question 1.**

Decide, among the following sets, which sets are subsets of one and another:

A = {x : x ∈R and x satisfy x^{2} – 8x + 12 = 0}, B = {2, 4, 6}, C = {2, 4, 6, 8,…}, D = {6}.

**Solution.**

Here A = {x : x ∈ R and x satisfies x^{2} – 8x + 12 = 0}

= {x : x ∈ R and (x – 6)(x – 2) = 0} = {2, 6}

B = {2, 4, 6}, C = {2, 4, 6, 8,…….} and D = {6}

Now, A ⊂ B, A ⊂ C, B ⊂ C, D ⊂ A, D ⊂ B and D ⊂ C

**Question 2.**

**In each of the following, determine whether the statement is true or false. If it is true, prove it. If it is false, give an example.**

**(i)** If x ∈ A and A ∈ B,then x ∈ B

**(ii)** If A ⊂ B and B ∈ C, then A ∈ C

**(iii)** If A ⊂ B and B ⊂ C, then A ⊂ C

**(iv)** If A ⊄ B and B ⊄C, then A ⊄ C

**(v)** If x ∈ A and A ⊄ B, then x ∈ B

**(vi)** If A ⊂ B and x ∉ B, then x ∉ A

**Solution.**

**Question 3.**

Let A, B and C be the sets such that A ∪ B = A ∪ C and A ∩ B = A ∩ C. Show that B – C.

**Solution.**

Given that A ∩ B = A ∩C and A ∪ B=A ∪ C

**Question 4.**

**Show that the following four conditions are equivalent :**

**(i)** A ⊂ B

**(ii)** A – B = φ

**(iii)** A ∪ B = B

**(iv)** A ∩ B = A

**Solution.**

**(i)** ⇒ (ii)

A – B = {x: x∈ A and x∉B]

Since A⊂B

∴ A – B = φ

**(ii)** ⇒ (iii)

A – B = φ ⇒ A⊂B ⇒ A∪B = B

**(iii)** ⇒ (iv)

AuB = B ⇒A⊂B ⇒ A∩B = A

**(iv)** ⇒ (i)

A∩B = A ⇒ A⊂B

Thus (i) ⇔ (ii) ⇔ (iii) ⇔ (iv).

**Question 5.**

Show that if A ⊂ B, then C – B ⊂ C – A.

**Solution.**

Let x ∈ C – B ⇒x ∈ C and x ∉ B

⇒ x ∈ C and x ∉ A [∵ A ⊂ B]

⇒ x ∈ C – A

Hence C – B ⊂C – A

**Question 6.**

Assume that P(A) = P(B). Show that A = B

**Solution.**

**Question 7.**

Is it true that for any sets A and B, P(A) ∪ P(B) = P(A ∪ B) Justify your answer.

**Solution.**

No, it is not true.

Take A = {1, 2} and B = {2,3}

**Question 8.**

Show that for any sets A and B,

A = (A ∩ B) ∪ (A – B) and A ∪ (B – A) = (A ∪ B)

**Solution.**

(A ∩ B) ∪ (A – B) = (A ∩ B) ∪ (A ∩ B’)

= A ∩ (B ∪ B’) (By distributive law)

= A ∩ U = A

Hence, A = (A ∩ B) ∪ (A – B)

Also A ∪ (B – A) = A ∪ (B ∩ A’)

= (A ∪ B) ∩ (A ∪ A’) (By distributive law)

= (A ∪ B) ∩ U= A ∪ B

Hence, A ∪ (B – A) = A ∪ B.

**Question 9.**

**Using properties of sets, show that**

**(i)** A ∪ (A ∩ B)=A

**(ii)** A ∩ (A ∪ B) = A.

**Solution.**

**(i)** We know that if A ⊂ B, then

A ∪ B = B. Also, A ∩ B ⊂ A

∴ A ∪ (A ∩ B) = A.

**(ii)** We know that if A ⊂ B,

then A ∩ B = A Also, A ⊂ A ∪ B

∴ A ∩ (A ∪ B) = A.

**Question 10.**

Show that A ∩ B = A ∩ C need not imply B = C.

**Solution.**

Let A = {1, 2, 3, 4}, B = {2, 3, 4, 5, 6}, C = {2, 3, 4, 9,10}.

∴ A ∩ B = [1, 2,3,4} ∩ {2,3,4, 5, 6]

= {2, 3, 4}

A ∩ C = {1, 2, 3, 4} ∩ {2, 3, 4, 9, 10} = {2, 3, 4}

Now we have A ∩ B = A ∩ C. But B ≠ C.

**Question 11.**

Let A and B be sets. If A ∩ X=B ∩ X = φ and A ∪ X = B ∪ X for some set X, show that A = B. (Hints A = A ∩ (A∪X), B = B ∩ (B ∪ X) and use Distributive law)

**Solution.**

Here

A ∪ X = B ∪ X for some set X

**Question 12.**

Find sets A, B and C such that A ∩ B, B ∩ C and A ∩ C are non-empty sets and A ∩ B ∩ C = φ

**Solution.**

Take A = {1, 2}, B = {1, 4} and C = {2, 4}

Now, A ∩ B = {1} ≠ φ, B ∩ C = {4} ≠ φ and

A ∩ C = {2} ≠ φ

But A ∩ B ∩ C = φ.

**Question 13.**

In a survey of 600 students in a school, 150 students were found to be taking tea and 225 taking coffee, 100 were taking both tea and coffee. Find how many students were taking neither tea nor coffee?

**Solution.**

Let T be the set of students who takes tea and C be the set of students who takes coffee. Here, n(T) = 150, n(C) = 225 and n(C ∩ T) = 100

We know that

n(C ∪ T) = n(C) + n(T) – n(C ∩ T)

= 150 + 225 -100 = 275

∴ Number of students taking either tea or coffee = 275

∴ Number of students taking neither tea nor coffee = 600 – 275 = 325.

**Question 14.**

In a group of students, 100 students know Hindi, 50 know English and 25 know both. Each of the students knows either Hindi or English. How many students are there in the group?

**Solution.**

Let H be the set of students who know Hindi and E be the set of students who know English.

Here n(H) = 100, n(E) = 50 and n(H ∩ E) = 25

We know that

n(H ∪ E) = n(H) + n(E) – n(H ∩ E)

= 100 + 50 – 25 = 125

**Question 15.**

In a survey of 60 people, it was found that 25 people read newspaper H, 26 read newspaper H, 26 read newspaper I, 9 read both H and I, 11 read both H and T, 8 read both T

and I, 3 read all three newspapers. Find:

**(i)** the number of people who read at least one of the newspapers.

**(ii)** the number of people who read exactly one newspaper.

**Solution.**

**Question 16.**

In a survey it was found that 21 people liked product A, 26 liked product B and 29 liked product C. If 14 people liked products A and B, 12 people liked products C and A, 14 people liked products B and C and 8 liked all the three products. Find how many liked product C only.

**Solution.**

We hope the NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Maths Chapter 1 Sets help you. If you have any query regarding NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Maths Chapter 1 Sets, drop a comment below and we will get back to you at the earliest.

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