NEET Biology Notes Biodiversity and Wildlife Conservation-Biodiversity Conservation
Conservation is the most efficient and most beneficial, utilisation of the natural resources. Conservation of biodiversity is protection, unlift and scientific management of biodiversity so as to maintain it at its optimum level and derive sustainable, benefits for the present as well as future strategies. The reasons for conserving biodiveristy can be grouped into three categories
- Narrowly Utilitarian Reasons
State that human beings derive a number of economic benefits like food, fibre, firewood, industrial and medicinal products.
- Broadly Utilitarian Reasons
Stalis that biodiversity plays a major role in providing ecosystem services, which cannot be given a price-tag. They are
- production of oxygen.
- pollination of flowers, without) dvhich fruit/seeds are not produced.
- aesthetic pleasures like bird watching, watching spring flowers, etc.
- Ethical Reasons
Every species has an intrinsic value, even if it is not of any economic value to us.
We have a moral duty to care for their well-being and pass on the biological legacy to our future generation.
It is the conservation of living resources through their maintenance within the natural ecosystems, in which they occur. It includes a comprehensive system of protected areas such as National Parks, Sanctuaries, Natural Reserves, Natural Monuments, Cultural Landscapes, Biosphere Reserves and several others.
Red Data Book
A Red Data Book or Red List is a catalogue of taxa facing risk of extinction. International Union of Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) maintains it.
Red Data Book or red list was initiated in 1963. Its purpose is to
- Provide awareness to the degree of threat to biodiversity.
- Provide global index about existing decline
- rate of biodiversity
- Identification and documentation of species at high risk of extinction.
- Preparing conservation strategies and help in conservation action.
- IUCN is International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, which is now called World Conservation Union (WCU).
- The main objectives of IUCN is to promote and support the conservation of wildlife and natural resources. WCU has its headquarter at Morgan, Switzerland.
Red list has following categories of species
- Threatened Species
The species, which is liable to be extinct if not allowed to realise it’s full biotic potential by providing protection from exotic species.
A taxon is extinct, when there is no reasonable doubt that it’s last individual has died.
- Extinct in the Wild (EW)
A taxon is extinct in the wild, when it is known only to survive in cultivation, in capacity or as a naturalised population, well outside the past range.
- Critically Endangered (CE)
A taxon is critically endangered, when it is facing an extremely high risk of extinction in the wild in the immediate future (925 animals and 1014 plants).
- (v) Endangered (EN)
A taxon is endangered, when it is not critically endangered but facing a very high risk of extinction in the wild in the near future.
- Vulnerable (VU)
A taxon is vulnerable, when it is not critically endangered or endangered but is facing a high risk of extinction in the wild in the medium term future, e.g. Madagascar frog [Dyscophus antongilii), black buck [Antilope cervicapra).
- Conservation Dependent (CD)
Taxa that do not currently qualify as critically endangered, or vulnerable and may be classified as conservation dependent.
- Data Deficient (DD)
A taxon is data deficient, when there is indequate information to make a direct or indirect assessment of it’s risk of extinction based on it’s distribution or population status.
- Non-Evaluated (NE)
A taxon is under the category non-evaluated when it has not yet been assessed against any criteria.