NEET Biology Notes Morphology of Flowering Plants
Morphology of Flowering Plants
Introduction to Angiosperms
- In general, the study of various external features of the organism is known as morphology. Plant Morphology deals with the study of forms and features of different plant organs, i.e. roots, stems, leaves, flowers, seeds, fruits, etc., including their development.
- Angiosperms (Gr. Angion-vessels, sperma-seed) are flowering, fruit bearing phanerogamic, spermatophytic, sporophytic plants.
- The angiosperms appeared about 130 million years ago but comprise about 300,000 species or 50% of all plants.
- The smallest angiosperm is rootless aquatic Wolffia and the tallest angiosperm is Eucalyptus (over 100 metres).
- Theophrastus (370-285) classified plants on the basis of their shape and size into herbs, shrubs and trees.
On the basis of lifespan, plants can be classified as annuals (e.g. paddy, pea and sunflower), biennials (e.g. radish, turnip and carrot) and perennials (e.g. banana, ginger, doob grass, herbs, henna, rose, shrubs and all trees).
On the basis of frequency of flowering or fruiting, plants may be either monocarpic or polycarpic. Monocarpic plants produce flower and fruit only once in their life, e.g. all annual and biennial plants, bamboo and Agave. Polycarpic plants bear flowers and fruits repeatedly after attaining maturity, e.g. mango, Acacia, Eucalyptus, etc. Morphologically the angiospermic plant body consists of root, stem, leaves, flower, inflorescence, fruits, seeds, etc.