**NEET Physics Notes Electrostatics-Electrical Resistance**

**Electrical Resistance**

**Electrical Resistance**

The obstraction offered by any conductor in the path of flow of current is called electrical resistance (R).

**Its SI unit is Ohm **

In terms of free electron density n and relaxation time the resistance of a conductor is given by

**Resistance of Different Materials**

Resistance offered by the conductors is minimum while resistance offered by an insulator is maximum. Semiconductors have resistance which is intermediate to conductor and insulator

**V-I Characteristics of Ohmic and Non-ohmic Conductors**

Substances obeying Ohm’s law are called ohmic resistors, e.g. metals and their alloys. V-I graph for an ohmic resistor is an inclined straight line. Substances which do not obey Ohm’s law are called non-ohmic resistors, e.g. electrolytes, gases, thermionic tubes, transistors, rectifiers, etc., V-I graph for them is non-linear.

**Electrical Resistivity**

Resistivity is a characteristic of material, i.e. it does not depend upon dimensions of the material. Although it depends on temperature.

In terms of free electron density n and relaxation time

Resistivity,

SI unit of resistivity is m and its dimensional formula is [ML^{3}T^{–}^{3}A^{-2}].

**Colour Code for Resistors**

The value of resistance used in electric and electronic circuit vary over a wide range.

Such high resistances used are usually carbon resistances and the values of such resistances are marked on them according to a colour code.

**Series and Parallel Combinations of Resistors**

**Series Grouping**In series grouping of resistances same current I flows through all the resistances.

The potential difference applied across the combination is distributed across various resistors in the direct ratio of their resistances,

i.e. V = V_{1}+ V_{2}+ V3 + …

and V_{1}:V_{2}:V_{3}… = R_{1}: R_{2}: R_{3}…- Total equivalent resistance in series grouping is equal to the sum of individual resistances.

Thus,

R_{s}= R_{1}+ R_{2}+ R_{3}+… **Parallel Grouping**In parallel grouping same potential difference V appears across each resistance.- The current is distributed among various resistors in the inverse ratio of their resistances. Thus,

- Equivalent resistance in parallel grouping Rp is given by

- If n identical resistances are first connected in series and then in parallel, the ratio of the equivalent resistance

or - If there are n resistors of different values, then we can have 2″ different possible combinations.
- If a skeleton cube is made with 12 equal resistances, each having a resistance R, then the net resistance across (a) the
- diagonal of
- The diagonal of a face
- Alomg a side

**Temperature Dependence of Resistance**

Resistance and resistivity of metallic conductors increases with increase in temperature. The relation is written as

Where, R0 and are values of resistance and resistivity at 0° C and are two constants whose value vary from metal to metal.

**Electric Energy and Power**

Whenever the electric current is passed through a conductor, it becomes hot after short time. This indicates that the electric energy is being converted into heat energy. This effect is known as heating effect of current or Joule heating effect.

SI unit of electric energy is joule but another unit is watt-hour.

The rate at which work is done by the source of emf in maintaining the effect of current in a circuit is called electric power of the circuit

**P= VI**

where, V is the potential difference across the conductor, I is the current flowing through the conductor.

Other expressions for power

SI unit of electric power is **Watt.**

Another important unit is **Horse Power (HP), 1HP = 746 W.**