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### Whole numbers:

Counting numbers such as 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,…..etc., are called **natural numbers**.

All natural numbers together with ‘0’ are called **whole numbers**.

Thus 0, 1, 2, 3,…etc., are whole numbers.

Every natural number is a whole number but 0 is a whole number which is not a natural number.

#### Successor of a whole number:

If we add 1 to a whole number, we get the next whole number called its successor.

Thus, successor of 0 is 0 + 1 = 1, the successor of 1 is 1 + 1 = 2, the successor of 12 is 12 + 1 = 13, and so on.

Every whole number has its successor.

#### Predecessor of a whole number:

One less than a given whole number(other than 0), is called its predecessor.

Thus, the predecessor of 1 is 1 – 1 = 0, the predecessor of 2 is 2 – 1 = 1, the predecessor of 87 is 87 – 1 = 86, and so on.

Every whole number other than 0 has its predecessor.

**Illustrative Example:**

Whole Number |
Predecessor |
Successor |

45 |
44 |
46 |

12 |
11 |
13 |

0 |
– |
1 |

**Representation of Whole Numbers on Number Line:**

Draw a line. Mark a point on it. Label it 0. Mark a second point to the right of 0. Label it 1.

The distance between these points labelled as 0 and 1 is called **unit distance**.

On this line, mark a point to the right of 1 and at unit distance from 1 and label it 2. In this way go on labeling points at unit distances as 3, 4, 5,… on the line. You can go to any whole number on the right in this manner.

This is a number line for the whole numbers.

#### Addition of Whole Numbers on Number Line:

Addition of 3 and 4 is as follows:

Start from 3, we add 4 to 3. We make 4 jumps to the right on the number line, then we will reach at 7.

So, 3 + 4 = 7.

Whenever we add two numbers we move on the number line towards right starting from any of them.

#### Subtraction of Whole Numbers on Number Line:

Consider 7 – 5

Start from 7, we subtract 5 from 7. We make 5 jumps to the left on the number line, then we will reach at 2.

So, 7 – 5 = 2.

#### Multiplication of Whole Numbers on Number Line:

Let us find 2 x 3. We know that 2 x 3 means taking 2 steps 3 times. 2 x 3 means 3 jumps towards right, each of 2 steps.

Start from 0, move 2 units to the right each time, making 3 such moves. We will reach 6.

So, 2 x 3 = 6.

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