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Article Writing Class 11 CBSE Format, Topics, Examples, Samples
Articles and speeches express the personal opinions of the writer. Input for an article/speech may be in the form of verbal/visual input. The output may be descriptive or argumentative.
Writing an article is quite challenging. It involves a high degree of creativity, a wide vocabulary, a thorough knowledge of the subject, some research and a lot of organisational ability.
In addition, one has to keep in mind the target readers, the purpose of writing the article, as well as an appropriate style. An article is a piece of non-fiction prose writing especially meant for newspapers, magazines or your school magazine. An article is written for a specific purpose like informing, persuading, convincing or entertaining the reader. It is divided into three main parts.
- Introduction This part establishes the content. This sentence or paragraph should have thought-provoking language so as to draw the reader’s attention.
- Body This part should detail different aspects of the topic like causes, effects, advantages, disadvantages, merits, demerits, etc.
- Conclusion It concludes the main idea and presents your viewpoint, comments or criticism as well as your recommendations. Always end articles with an appeal, a conclusion or a warning.
Points to be Kept in Mind
- Understand carefully the hints/information given in the question.
- Arrange all the hints/information in an order in which you want them to develop for writing the article.
- Use the hints/information provided in the question after interpreting them properly.
- Divide your article into several paragraphs. All the sentences in each paragraph should logically lead to the objective for which the article is being written.
- The whole composition should not be sketchy. Every sentence should be linked with the rest into a single whole.
- The language of an article should be straightforward, to the point, and objective. Avoid using informal expressions, slang (words which are not used in the literary language), or abbreviations, particularly in persuasive or argumentative articles.
- Articles are usually written in the third person.
- Adhere to the word limit of 150-200 words.
I. BASED ON VERBAL INPUT
Many children get nervous before the board exams, which affects their health and performance. Good counselling is needed to help them overcome what is called ‘exam fever’. Write an article in 150-200 words on ‘Need for Counselling before Board Exams’. You are Mallika/Mihir.
Need For Counselling Before Board Exams
When the board exams approach, schools work hard to prepare their students for succeeding in them. Extra classes are held, more assignments are given and mock tests, called ‘pre-boards’ are held. But what many schools do not attempt is devising mechanisms to de-stress the students, by organising workshops or counselling sessions.
For this task, they need the help of professional counsellors. Such counsellors identify students who are stressed and help them release the anxiety and fear factor attached to exams. Such student’s anxiety levels automatically start building up during this part of the year. The system has become so competitive that despite the schools not wanting to burden children with studies, they end up allowing the students to enroll for coaching classes and tuitions.
Parents can help their children in guiding them, rather than controlling them, and following simple tips. They should ensure a positive environment at home besides helping the child to balance the activities in the day (too much of studying is not productive), providing healthy food and snacks during the day, and making sure that the child is able to relax during the day and ensuring proper sleep at night for him. Parents need to understand that they also have to sacrifice on outings or parties and be there when their child needs them, stop comparing them with other kids, and avoid statements which create anxieties or fear. Parents must understand that an exam is just another event in one’s life and not a monster or something to be afraid of.
You are Aditi/Aditya. You visited the Taj at Agra during the Autumn break when the Historical Society of your school organised a trip. You were impressed and noted the following points:
Autumn break—school closed—trip to Agra organised—journey—Taj Express—first sight of the Taj—impressions—History teacher as guide—some other places visited— Red Fort, Fatehpur Sikri—trip: educative & entertaining.
Using the above notes and your own ideas, write an article on ‘A visit to a Place of Historical Interest’ in 150-200 words.
A VISIT TO A PLACE OF HISTORICAL INTEREST
(by Aditi / Aditya)
The schools in Delhi closed for autumn break on Saturday, the 27th September. The Historical Society of our school arranged a trip to Agra. We started early in the morning the next day by the Taj Express. The two hour journey was very pleasant and quite comfortable. After half-an-hour we had the first glimpse of the Taj. It is indeed a marvel in marble, one of the wonders of the world. The serene beauty of the Taj cast a spell on me. It appeared to me like a dream in marble. Our History teacher
played the role of a guide as well. He explained each part of this monument in detail. Then we visited other places of historical interest such as the Red Fort and the Moti Masjid. The visit to Fatehpur Sikri and the ‘Buland Darwaja’ filled us with excitement. This historical town is now uninhabited. On the whole, the trip proved very educative and entertaining. For the first time History appeared as a vivid and living subject.
In most Indian families, particularly in rural areas, the girl child is considered inferior to the male child. As a result of this bias, a daughter is considered a burden and she suffers discrimination in the matter of food, freedom, health and education. Write an article in 150-200 words showing how such an attitude is harmful and unjust. You are Satyen/Sunidhi.
EVILS OF GENDER DISCRIMINATION
(by Satycn /Surddhi)
In our male-dominated society the girl child is considered inferior. The birth of a male child is an event for celebration while that of a female child is rued. The bias is more pronounced in rural areas. Daughters are not given good quality food. Milk, eggs, fruit, etc. are reserved for the boys. Girls are sent to schools which have no claim to any quality education or facilities. On the other hand, boys are sent to the most exclusive ‘public schools’. After school the daughters stay at home and assist in household work. The boys go out to meet friends, enjoy movies and shows or play games. It is the girls who face all types of restrictions. This discrimination is unjust and harmful. Ultimately it is the society that suffers. Girls too have intelligence, talent and creativity. Indeed they have more sensibility, affection and love. We should end the evil discrimination against the girl child.
The Information Technology has provided new avenues to the students for knowledge, creativity, discovery as well as job opportunities at home and abroad. Computers have brought in a silent revolution. Write an article in 150-200 words showing how the information technology has provided the younger generation new opportunities, joys of discovery and thrill of creativity. You are Madhu/Mudit.
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND YOUNGER GENERATION
The Information Technology has provided new avenues to the students for acquiring knowledge, enhancing thrills of creativity, enjoying pleasures of discovery as well as new job opportunities at home and abroad. Computers have brought in a silent revolution. These electronic devices are as efficient as the best of human brains. Computers have become indispensable in data-processing and resource planning. Access to Internet’ has opened vast field of knowledge to the computer-operator. Computer is more than a calculating machine. No doubt it has made lengthy calculations and working out tedious problems a matter of fun. In writing articles too it helps like a good friend by correcting spellings and grammatical errors. Web-designing, e-mail and e-commerce are quite engrossing and rewarding.
Our country is prone to disasters like floods, drought, cyclones, or earthquakes. Ad hoc measures are adopted to cope with every disaster. The slow response results in loss of human life and property. Write an article for a newspaper giving suggestions about disaster management. You may suggest having special equipment, trained personnel, better transport and communication, quick decisions and speedy implementation. Your article should be of 150-200 words. You are Shishir/Shweta.
(by Shishir /Shweta)
Our country is prone to disasters like floods, drought, cyclones, or earthquakes. We do not have any clear-cut policy of disaster management nor any force to tackle the situation. Ad hoc measures are adopted to cope with every disaster. We wait and watch for others to join the fray. There are heated arguments over jurisdiction—centre or state liability, official assessment and surveys before any help is rushed out to the affected area. The slow response results in the loss of precious human life and valuable property. We must have clear-cut, well defined guidelines for disaster management. A well-trained task-force having special equipment and trained personnel should be constituted. Its controlling officer should have the authority to take decisions and ensure their speedy implementation. Better transport and communication facilities will ensure better results. Bureaucratic set-up should not be allowed to interfere with the work of the disaster-management group.
Hypocrisy exists in abundant measure in our society. People do not practise what they preach. They have double standards; are rude and dishonest but expect politeness and honesty from others.- There are numerous examples of lack of sincerity in our daily experience. Write an article of 150-200 words showing how such behaviour causes disharmony at home, in the neighbourhood and at the work place. You are Harsha/ Hrishit.
My neighbour shows great concern for the poor, but beats his fourteen-year-old servant black and blue. Mr Seth, the rich man living in that palatial house expects the government to do everything for him, but he evades paying taxes. The pious old woman upstairs feeds the sacred cow, the ants and the birds but is merciless to her neighbour’s pet dog and kicks, shoos away and beats the poor pup whenever it strays over to her path. Thus in small matters and big ones, we find people lacking sincerity in their dealings with others. The consequences of such hypocritical and discriminatory behaviour are quite damaging and harmful. These cause a breach in the family. Love is lost between brothers and family ties are weakened. Our neighbours begin to lose faith in us. Suspicion and selfishness replace trust and dedicated service. Thus good neighbourliness is broken and community living is vitiated by the virus of hypocrisy. In work place too dishonesty can bring ruin to the flourishing business. Hence people should control their selfishness and be truthful in their dealings.
You are Renu/Rohit. Write an article of 150-200 words for your school magazine on ‘ Journalism as a Career’. You may use the following points as well as ideas of your own. Journalism: Suitable for those good at languages—who desire to present the truth to the public—challenging & mobile—new forms: TV news, sports, travel, Journalism— can bring name, fame and money—needs courage and honesty.
JOURNALISM AS A CAREER
Among the numerous careers open to youngsters, journalism is perhaps one of the most challenging, mobile and adventurous but also rewarding. Journalism is not everyone’s cup of tea. It requires special skills, the primary and essential ones being good command of language. Only those who can use language effectively should opt
for this career. Journalism is concerned with current affairs. Therefore, those who aspire to be journalists should have keen interest and awareness of politics, international affairs and social studies. Journalists are the most active arm of media. The impact of media on the general public is quite powerful. Hence great responsibility rests on journalists. Investigative journalism is the latest breed. It aims to unravel the truth behind appearances. Some investigative journalists, like Arun Shourie, have achieved name, fame and phenomenal success through their writings. Some new forms of journalism are sports, films, TV news and travel journalism. It is a challenging career for the youth. It has great prospects but demands courage, integrity and the capacity to rough it out.
You are Astitva/Ashita. This year students of your school organised many campaigns to create awareness in society towards some of the rampant social evils. The efforts of your school were appreciated by the press and the public alike. Write an article on the ‘Role of Students in National Development’ for publication in The Indian Express (word limit 150-200).
ROLE OF STUDENTS IN NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
Students are the pride and glory of a nation. They can play a very constructive role in the progress, uplift and development of a country. In the new millennium information technology has turned the world into a global village. Our educated youth have a tremendous responsibility on their young shoulders. Our country is overpopulated and beset with poverty, ignorance, illiteracy and superstitions. The young students can play a positive and constructive role in every field of national development. They can enlighten the villagers about new techniques in agriculture. By making them literate, the students can provide them valuable guidance in establishing cooperative societies. This will help in generating money through self-employment. In short, they can bring a transformation in the society.
You are Sudhir Ranjan of Cambridge Sr. Secondary School, Gurgaon. You attended a hiking and trekking expedition to the hills, organised by your school during the summer vacation. Write an article (in about 150-200 words) for your school magazine expressing your opinions about the tour and suggestions for improvement.
HIKING & TREKKING EXPEDITION
(by Sudhir Ranjan)
Our hiking and trekking expedition to Gaumukh, the source of river Ganga in Garhwal Himalayas was partly successful. We had to hire ponies to cover difficult terrains. Sometimes we had to seek help of vehicles to accommodate two or three members of our trekking party who either suffered from exhaustion or lack of acclimatization. In spite of these minor irritants we managed to reach Uttarkashi from where we hired some equipment for our expedition to Gangotri. Situated at a height of 3048 metres, Gangotri was a bit of disappointment. It was not only overcrowded with pilgrims but the ashrams were commercialised. Most of the pilgrims don’t go beyond Gangotri. We walked 11 km to Bhojbasa at a height of 12000 feet. Next morning we started for Gaumukh which was still 4-5 km away. The trekking to the altitude of 3892 metres over boulders and glaciers was a challenging experience. However, the sight of the Ganga rushing out of the mouth of the glacier in a thundering torrent made us forget all fatigue. It was a bliss.
In future only sturdy students who can cope with long walks in difficult terrains should be selected.
Ritu, a student of XI class of St. Mary’s Convent, Kanpur, is shocked by the communal disturbance and riots in the city. She discusses the issue with her teacher, who tells her about India’s secularism, democracy and socialism and the efforts of religious fanatics to spread communal hatred which cripples economy and hinders development. Motivated by the discussion, Ritu writes an article on the ‘Bane of Communalism’ for her school magazine (word limit: 150-200). Write the article for her.
BANE OF COMMUNALISM
Communalism is a black spot on the fair name of secular India. The cancer of communalism is eating into the vitals of our nation. Every year we have communal riots and arsoning in one big city or the other. Cities like Aligarh, Meerut, Moradabad, Kanpur and Ahmedabad have frequent communal riots.
The root cause of communalism is religious intolerance. It is fanned by religious fanatics who spread communal hatred in order to feather their own nest. These narrow¬minded persons suffering from sectarian or communal prejudices lack a rational, scientific and democratic approach. They harm the nation by crippling economy and hinder the development. Communalism has also been spread by self-seeking politicians. It is high time that the organizations and the people who divide people in the name of religion and block the progress of secular, socialist and democratic India should be brought to book.
You are Rahul/Rashmi. You come across news item of migration of talented and highly educated young professionals to the advanced countries for good salaries and perks or due to lack of proper facilities. The news item hints the loss to the parent nation in terms of talent and resources. Using these points and your own ideas write an article on The Menace of Brain-Drain for publication in ‘The Hindustan Times’.
THE MENACE OF BRAIN DRAIN
(by Rahul /Rashmi)
India is facing a problem of tremendous magnitude these days. It is man-made. Every other day we come across news items of migration of talented and highly educated young professionals to the advanced countries of Europe and America for good salaries and perks or due to lack of proper facilities. This continuous brain drain of talent has affected our nation adversely. India and its people are deprived of the fruit of their knowledge and experience. Their migration, sometimes desertion for ever, causes a severe loss to the parent nation in terms of talent and resources. It is admitted that India lacks facilities and equipment that developed countries offer. Moreover, our organizations suffer from red-tape, corruption and nepotism. Stagnation and lack of promotion cause disappointment and despair. Effective steps should be taken to retain the best brains in our country.
India has been facing and fighting terrorism for the last twenty years. In fact terrorism has disrupted the peace and harmony of the country and created panic and insecurity in certain areas/states. Write an article in about 150-200 words on ‘Terrorism: A Curse to Humanity’. You are Deepak/Jyoti.
TERRORISM: A CURSE TO HUMANITY
Terrorism is the biggest threat that the world faces today. Modem terrorism thrives on its ability to hit where it hurts the most. The aim of the terrorists is to create fear, anxiety, panic and disturbance in the minds of the common people. They believe in destruction and death and create lawlessness. At present innocent citizens are becoming the victims of terror and violence. Hapless citizens are used as pawns and ransoms for exerting pressure on governments. Sometimes governments too feel helpless and yield to their unlawful and exorbitant demands for money, material and release of fellow terrorists. As the authorities bow to the demands of terrorists, citizens lose faith in government. Terrorists attacked the twin towers in America, on September 11, 2001, killing thousands of persons. The state of Jammu and Kashmir has been infested by terrorists. Even the Indian Parliament was the target of the attack on 13th December 2001. The latest was the Mumbai attack on the Taj Hotel on 26 Nov. 2008. The government should enact strict laws to combat this evil against humanity.
Computers have brought a revolution in our life. To students, they offer great joy, information, the excitement of creativity and discovery as well as job opportunities in India and abroad. In fact, the computer has become a necessity in day-to-day life. As Manish/Manju, write a composition of 150-200 words showing how computers have opened up a new world of discovery and opportunity for the youth today.
COMPUTER—AN ESSENTIAL AID
(by Manish / Manju)
Computer is the latest boon of science to the modem youth. It is a device that has broadened the frontiers of knowledge, opened up a new world of discovery and provided fresh opportunities of employment. The facility of Internet has made the flow of latest knowledge possible and accessible. Computer with its wonderful capacity to solve complicated problems is an essential aid to the modem youth. Schools and colleges train students to use computer logically and methodically. Information Technology has made wide use of computer. Now computer is used in almost all the offices, banks, hospitals, business establishments and even in defence. Professionals trained in computer hardware and software have many job opportunities in India and abroad. The use of computer also offers great joy, excitement of creativity and discovery. Computer is the most efficient servant man has ever had.
You are Namit/Neha. Recently you read a report in the newspaper that children have developed a tendency towards obesity, physical inactivity but mental agility as a consequence of watching too much television programmes. Write an article to be published in your school magazine on how the cable TV is both a boon and a bane. Your article should not exceed 200 words.
CABLE TV—A BOON OR A BANE
Television has brought a wonderful transformation in the lifestyle and outlook of people. Through news and views, documentaries and short films it has highlighted social problems like the evils of dowry system, black marketing, adulteration, corruption, political-bribe taking campaign, etc. Several national development programmes such as family planning, adult education, small savings campaign, eye-donation, blood donation, tree-plantation and anti-pollution drives have been made familiar to us through television. Cable TV operates a step forward. It provides us serials, plays, live musicals, live sports, face-to-face interactions with eminent persons and instant news. But cable TV has a thorn al§o. Children sit glued to it. They go on watching their programmes and eating junk food. They are expanding their knowledge but tending to be obese and physically inactive. These couch-potatoes are also becoming stubborn, uncivil, ill mannered and violent as a result of exposure to violence, nudeness and foreign culture on the screen. In this sense TV is a bane. Parents should advise their children to choose programmes carefully.
Meenakshi, a student of class XI feels highly disturbed when she reads about the hike in the prices of essential commodities like gas, pulses, vegetables etc. Write an article on ‘Price-hike of Essential Commodities’ for publication in a local daily, suggesting certain steps to curb this menace.
PRICE-HIKE OF ESSENTIAL COMMODITIES
Prices of essential commodities like gas, pulses, vegetables, etc. have been rising steadily for the last many years. The escalation of prices hits the common man and the salaried classes the most. Leaders talk of removing poverty and holding the price line, but the consumers have to shell out more money every year for maintaining their standard of living. Defective planning, deficit financing, lack of dynamic price- regulation policy, anti-social tendencies like hoarding, black-marketing and avarice to become rich overnight are the root cause .of this problem. The middle man fleeces the grower as well as consumer. The trade is in the hands of private traders. Govt, efforts to provide essential articles through ration shops are limited to only people below poverty line. There is an urgent need of a cooperative movement to act as a bridge between the farmer and the consumer and eliminate the profit hungry trader. People should join hands to curb the anti-social mediators in their deal making compaigns.
Komal had a discussion with her friend on Information Technology. After getting from her a lot of ideas, she decides to write an article on Information Technology for her school magazine in about 150-200 words. Imagine you are Komal. Write the article.
Applied science and technology have changed our lives and modes of functioning. Technological advancements have made the world a global village. The revolutionary advancement in telecommunication have made it possible for us to talk to persons in the farthest parts of the world. Tele-conferencing has enabled us to communicate across the world. ‘
Information technology has been revolutionised with the invention of computers. It has opened a new window on the world. Computer based information technology has increased efficiency and human capacity to work. Internet provides instantaneous knowledge and service through its world wide network. Electronic mail (E-mail) and Electronic Commerce (E-commerce) have come in vogue. Genetic engineering, cloning and miraculous cures for diseases are now available to humanity through information technology.
To enforce strict discipline in schools and colleges is a great problem these days when cases of indiscipline have become quite frequent. Taking help of the points given below, write an article on the importance of discipline in life in about 150-200 words. You are Chitra/Chetan.
Discipline—order—sense of duty & obedience—essential in all walks of life—absence: chaos and confusion—Home: nursery of discipline—indiscipline in educational institutions—strikes—demonstrations—boycott of classes—elections to students’ unions. Political interference—proper counselling and guidance by parents and teachers.
IMPORTANCE OF DISCIPLINE
Discipline ensures order. It is the basis of the whole universe. Even the earth, the moon and other planets revolve around the Sim in set orbits. Hence there is perfect beauty and harmony in nature. Discipline inculcates in us a sense of duty and obedience and is essential in all walks of life. The absence of discipline will lead to chaos and confusion. Home is the nursery of discipline. It must be inculcated early in life. However, a glimpse of the existing scenario reveals discipline is sadly lacking in all spheres of life. We hear of strikes and demonstrations in schools and colleges. Students boycott classes on trivial issues. Elections to students’ unions have also ruined the healthy academic environment. Direct political interference has caused student strife, clashes and violence. The students forget that they come to educational institutions to study. They are easily misled and misguided by vested interests. Proper counselling and guidance by parents and teachers can help the students to maintain discipline.
Write an article in about 150-200 words for your school magazine on the topic ‘Value Education—a remedy for social evils’. You are Mohit/Mona.
VALUE EDUCATION—A REMEDY FOR SOCIAL EVILS
The present scenario of our country is not good. The newspapers carry accounts of thefts, murder, terrorist-attacks, robberies, rapes, dowry deaths etc. Modem youth are a disillusioned, depressed, disheartened lot. Unemployment scares them in face. There is an increase in the crime rate amongst the educated folk as well. Many social evils have crept in the society due to lack of moral education. Modem education is merely academic and there is no stress to uplift the students morally, spiritually and physically. Value-based education inculcates morals, ethical values, performance of duty, regard and consideration for fellow human beings, sympathy and compassion. Value education makes an individual responsible, sensitive and a decent human being. In short, value education can help in removing all social evils.
The government has banned smoking in public places. Write an article on ‘Hazards of Smoking’ in about 150-200 words for your school magazine. You are Anu of XI A.
HAZARDS OF SMOKING
(by Anu—XI A)
It is a welcome step that the government has banned smoking in public places like railway station, bus terminus, parks, cinemas and social gathering. Smoking is injurious to health. It endangers our life and is a serious health hazard. Smoking is a very bad habit. Children take to it for fun in tender age and soon become addicts. One may start with a cigarette a day and end with a packet or two per day. Smoking causes great damage to our mind and body, heart and purse. A tobacco addict falls a prey to many ailments such as cough, cancer and heart ailments. Lungs and respiratory as well as circulatory systems get impaired. Even the digestion system is badly affected. Smoking is a slow poison which holds its victim in its clutches firmly. The sooner it is left, the better it will be and the best thing is not to start smoking.
Delhi Administration has launched a campaign against use of crackers on the occasion of Diwali. Write an article on “Ban Crackers” in about 150-200 words for your school magazine. You are Dipti/Dhruva.
Many harmful practices have been associated with some of our religious festivals and social events. Bursting crackers on Diwali, weddings etc. is such an evil practice. It is not only wasteful but harmful as well. Perhaps the desire to display wealth and a misguided notion of fun urges people to enjoy the sight of their hard earned money going up in smoke.
The smoke emitted by the firework releases harmful and poisonous gases. People suffering from asthma and other respiratory disorders have to bear additional suffering. The indulgence in this practice encourages the social evil of child labour. Most of the factories producing fire-crackers use children as labourers. These unfortunate children are deprived of education and healthy childhood. They also contact diseases by handling poisonous chemicals. Hence, it is the need of the hour to ban crackers.
Delhi Administration has launched a campaign against use of polythene bags. Write an article on ‘Hazards of Polythene Bags’ in about 150-200 words for your school magazine. You are Swati/Sanjay.
HAZARDS OF POLYTHENE BAGS
Polythene bags are a potential threat to our environment. They have many adverse effects on human health and hygiene. Polythene bags are non-biodegradable. They do not dissolve in mud. Rather they clog the pores and do not allow earth to suck up water. Thus the fertility power of the earth is lost. New buds do not get a chance to come up. Greenery is hampered. They produce obnoxious gases when burnt. These gases cause serious diseases like bronchitis, eyesore, rashes, allergy, cancer etc. Heaps of discarded polythene bags present an ugly sight. They scatter with wind and choke the drains. Deadly germs breed in the pools of dirty water. Sewer system is choked. Stray animals eat them and their digestive systems get disturbed. We should create public awareness against these hazards. Anti-polythene campaigns should be organised.
You are Priya/Piyush. You have noticed growing tendency towards violence among young people. Write an article for the school magazine in about 150-200 words highlighting the role of the media, viz the TV and the Cinema.
VIOLENCE AMONG YOUTH
Recently a very disturbing trend has been noticed in the behavioural pattern of the teenagers. It is the growing tendency towards violence among the youth. They have turned aggressive and assertive. They indulge in violent protests and loud outbursts of emotion. They take out processions and hold demonstrations at the slightest provocation. If opposed, they indulge in arson and looting. They take sinister delight in damaging public property. The tendency to vent their anger, show themselves off and impress others with their heroic feats forces them in off-beat activities. The media, viz the cable TV and the films with overdose of violence is largely responsible for fanning the tendency of violence among the young people. Lack of proper parental care and control and a desire to emulate their peers are other contributory factors. They should realize the difference between reel life and real life.
You are Rajat/Rajani. You have worked for Pulse Polio Campaign of Delhi. Write your experience of Health Care Schemes launched by the government. Write an article of about 150-200 words for a newspaper under “Health Column” discussing the need of a “Health Care Centre” in every locality.
NEED OF HEALTH CARE CENTRES
The government has launched many health care schemes for small-pox, tuberculosis, leprosy and HIV infections. The Pulse Polio campaign has been a resounding success. These efforts of the government are commendable but not sufficient. Recently, the city climes reported the re-emergence of some infectious diseases like cholera, small pox, malaria, dengue, etc. These were thought to be under control, but they have resurfaced. Cases of HIV infection have multiplied. Hence there is urgent need of a health care centre in every locality. These centres can check diseases by diagnosing them at early stages and providing effective cure. In short, health care centres are essential to ensure a disease-free nation.
In a “Pollution-control awareness” drive launched by your school a student Kapil Mathur arrived at the conclusion that Delhi is the most polluted city of the world. He noted down certain causes as well as suggestion in his diary for writing an article for a school magazine. Use the following notes together with your own idea to write an article in about (150-200 words) for your school magazine.
Delhi : The most polluted city of…
Causes : No. of vehicles increasing.
— increasing no. of industries emitting poisonous gases.
— flow of waste into the water of the Yamuna.
— Check increasing carbonisation.
— plant trees.
— build mass public awareness.
DELHI—THE MOST POLLUTED CITY OF THE WORLD
(by Kapil Mathur)
Among the most polluted cities of the world, Delhi enjoys the dubious distinction of topping the list. It is not only the most polluted city in India, but the whole world. The reasons are quite obvious. Delhi has developed and expanded phenomenally. With the ever-increasing population, the number of vehicles plying on the road has also multiplied manifold. Growing number of industries emitting poisonous gases is another contributory factor for air- pollution and environmental degradation. The discharge of chemical waste into the Yamuna has polluted the water of the river. It is now unfit even for animals. Immediate steps should be taken to check carbonisation. Tree-plantation and preservation should be given top priority. Mass public awareness has to be built. The citizens should realize their responsibility in keeping Delhi neat and clean. Campaigns like ‘Cleaner Delhi—Greener Delhi’ have spread the message of keeping pollution under check. The efforts of MCD of collecting household waste in separate bins—biodegradable and non-biodegradable—can also decrease pollution. Let us all join hands to keep Delhi pollution free. Only then we can control the demon of pollution.
II. BASED ON VISUAL INPUT
- Study the visuals carefully—you may get a picture, a diagram, a graph, a table etc.— observe the main points. ‘
- You should think carefully and note the salient points.
- The verbal input may contain a suggestion or guideline.
- The article should be an organic whole.
You are Manish/Manisha. You went to a circus famous for its extraordinary animal shows. You saw people clapping and shouting with joy while applauding the tricks and feats performed by some of these wild animals. But you felt miserable to learn the cruel ways and methods used at the circus to make animals perform antics and dangerous feats. Your father showed you the pictures given below.
Write an article in 150-200 words on the ‘Plight of Circus Animals’.
PLIGHT OF CIRCUS ANIMALS
(by Manish /Manisha)
Animals were born free, but man has tamed them and uses them for his own benefit. Even the wild animals have not been spared. The more dangerous the animal, the more spectators it draws to the circus. So man uses these animals as an object of fun, diversion and merriment. In the world of public entertainment, circus occupies a prominent place. We feel thrilled to watch the antics of the lion, bear and elephants who dance to their ring master’s tunes. The tricks and feats of these animals provide a sheer contrast to the adventurous feats of performing artistes. The children express their joy with clapping while the grown-ups just marvel at the dare devilry of the ring masters. People ignore hard and harsh facts. The bears, tigers, lions and elephants are caged, starved and lashed during the long period of their training. They are subjected to blood-chilling cruelty till they become tame, weak and obedient. Even their angry growls titillate people. The cruelty to animals should be stopped.
Recently Govt, of NCT has banned the use of plastic bags in entire Delhi. But you see the use of plastic goods in every walk of life. Some of them are indicated below in the pictures.
Think of the other uses of plastics in human life and write an article on the Role of Plastics in the Modem Age in about 150-200 words. You are Varsha/Vijay.
PLASTIC AND MODERN AGE
Plastics are synthetic substances—polymers—produced by chemical reactions. They are mostly made from petroleum. Plastics are everywhere: the pipes that carry water to the fields to irrigate crops, bright light, handy and portable furniture, light weight but durable and unbreakable crockery are some of the items made of plastic. The soles of our shoes, the covers of machines and even their bodies and parts, e.g., the body of the camera, television, computer, washing machine, mixer-grinder etc. are made of various types of plastics. The steering wheel of your car, the mobile cell phone and even the ball-pen in your hand are made of polymers. Plastic has permeated deep into our lives. The high consumption of plastic has created the problem of solid waste. Recycling of plastic is highly polluting, that is why the carry bags of recycled plastics have been banned.
Plastic is non-biodegradable. Burning of plastic releases toxic gases in the air. Plastic bags choke the drains and check flow of sewage system. Some hungry stray cows eat plastic carry bags and die. However, in spite of the dangers posed by low quality plastic bags, plastic goods are popular in almost every walk of life.
The picture given below is of Aditya’s room. He had an encounter with an intruder in which he came out with flying colours with his presence of mind though inwardly he was shivering with fear and his tongue was too dry to utter a word. Reproduce Aditya’s experiences in your own words in 150-200 words. You are Pravesh/Preeti.
A COWARD TURNS A HERO
(by Pravesh /Preeti)
Aditya is well known as a chicken-hearted fellow. He is scared of even little insects, but the tension and fear of examination made him study till late at night. He kept his door a little ajar to go to his granny in the lobby. One night, he heard some heavy footsteps treading on the floor. He feared that some devil or ghost was about to devour him. So he switched off the light and hid
himself under the bed. In the darkness a giant figure moved towards him. The newcomer was groping in the dark. Aditya was so terrified that his mouth was dry. He dare not utter a sound as it might reveal his presence. As the figure turned its back towards Aditya, he grabbed one of his legs with both hands and dug his teeth on his calf. The man shrieked in panic. Aditya’s father and their servant rushed in with torch and sticks. The intruder was overpowered. The man was handed over to police. Later, Aditya was honoured for his “bravery as he had helped in nabbing a ‘wanted’ offender.
You are Navin/Neha. You have just visited a glass factory which employs children and have witnessed the awful coi.dition of the boys and their place of work. You share your experiences with your classmates, who recount the plight of child labour engaged in carpet and cracker industry, brick-kilns, roadside restaurants and as domestic helps.
With the help of the sketches given below and your own ideas, write an article in about 150-200 words advocating a total ban on child labour.
BAN ON CHILD LABOUR
Witnessing a factory which employs child labour is a nerve-racking experience. The other day I was shocked to see the plight of young boys working in a bangle factory in awful conditions. Their tired looks, haggard bodies, dirty and tom clothes, drooping eyes and blackened hands and faces revealed their misery. It clearly showed the height of exploitation motivated by greed. Child labour is also engaged in carpet-making, cracker industry, toy industry, brick-kilns and road side restaurants and as domestic help. Poverty, hunger and unemployment force the poor parents to get their wards employed anywhere provided he can bring money. Child-labour is cheap, docile and unorganised. They can be forced to work for longer hours. The government should take effective steps to stop this menace. The offenders must be awarded severe penalties and punishment. This will act as a deterrent for others also.
You are Madhur/Madhuri. While commuting to your school you notice some scooterists wearing masks and carrying oxygen inhalers. The sudden emission of black smoke at the cross-roads flashes the answer—environmental pollution—the real culprit.
With the help of the above sketch/picture and your own ideas, write an article in about 150-200 words advocating steps to prevent environmental degradation.
PREVENTING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION
Environmental degradation is a major problem for the modem city-dwellers. Unprecedented advance in industrialisation, mining and rapid urbanisation and increasing vehicles of transport caused a severe strain on the facilities. Emissions of poisonous and harmful gases, discharge of the effluents and industrial waste have destroyed the purity of air and water. Deforestation and arbitrary felling of trees have deprived mother earth of her lungs. City-dwellers have fallen prey to breathing disorders and chest-lung related diseases such as asthma, bronchitis and whooping cough. There is so much suspended particulate matter in the air that scooterists have to put on masks and carry oxygen inhalers. The black smoke emitted by the vehicles sends out clouds of smoke. We should take steps to prevent further environmental degradation.
‘Another dowry victim’ reads the caption above the following picture:
You are deeply moved and agitated on reading the report. You interact with your peers who relate some more harrowing tales of the sufferings of girls at the hands of greedy dowry seekers. With the help of this sketch and your own ideas write an article (in about 150-200 words) on the evils of dowry system for publication in The Indian Express, Chennai. You are Shreya/Shirish.
EVILS OF DOWRY SYSTEM
Dowry which used to be a token of love and affection to a daughter at her wedding has now become a necessary evil in the modem materialistic age. Dowry has in fact assumed such a menacing proportion that the merit of the girl is secondary. The worth of a girl is measured in terms of the dowry she brings. All the laws and regulations such as equality of sexes, equal opportunities, respect for the girl child are thrown aside while negotiating a marriage deal. Many educated, talented and beautiful girls fall in the clutches of this demon. The greedy dowry seekers invent novel measures to seek and extract dowry. The incidents of bride burning Eire increasing day by day. Gender bias cannot be rooted out without eradicating social evils like dowry. There is no dearth of laws and regulations. Stringent action and deterrent punishment are needed. An awakened society of enlightened youth can help to curb the evils of dowry.
Arti Gupta, a social worker, visits an office in connection with some work. She is shocked to see the following scenes. She feels highly pained at the rampant corruption in social and political life in our country. She decides to write an article on ‘Corruption— the cancer of our society’ for The Times of India, New Delhi. Write her article in 150-200 words.
CORRUPTION—THE CANCER OF OUR SOCIETY
(by Arti Gupta)
Corruption has become the dangerous canker that has entered deep into all strata of our society. It has entrenched itself deeply in the social, political, economic and religious life of the nation. Even the persons in high places have been ensnared in the web of corruption. The names of former Prime Ministers Rajiv Gandhi and Narasimha Rao are linked with scandals. It seems corruption has percolated from the top to the bottom. You pay the piper and call the tune. Files don’t move in the offices until the wheels of illegal gratification pull them. Everything seems on sale. Top posts and jobs can be bought. Corrupt officers and businessmen are hand in glove with each other. Smuggling, hoarding, parallel black-marketing are the banes of corruption. If this virus of corruption is not eliminated now, it will wreck our social, economic and political fabric beyond redemption.
Smoking harms the smoker as well as the non-smoker. It should be banned in public places. Look at the picture given below and write your views on the subject in an article for publication in your school magazine. You are Vinay/Varsha. (Word limit: 150-200)
The hazards of smoking are too grave to be dismissed lightly. Practically all mayor health disorders are caused by smoking as well as aggravated and made worse. High blood pressure, heart disorders and cancer are the major killer diseases caused by smoking. Doctors, health workers and societies engaged in social work are making all out efforts, worldwide to stop smoking. Banners, posters, placards and street plays proclaim loudly and clearly that each cigarette smoked reduces the smoker’s life by a couple of minutes. Few people realise that non-smokers can also suffer from the diseases induced by smoking if they go on inhaling smoke from other people’s smoking. These passive-smokers run a high risk of the incidence of these disease as they fail to take any precaution or remedial action. Our government should realise the harms of smoking and ban smoking in public places. Awareness, motivation and sense of responsibility on the part of smokers is needed to curtail smoking and avoid giving smoke to non-smokers.
More Resources For Class 11
RD Sharma Class 11 Solutions
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CBSE Class 11 English NCERT Solutions