CBSE Revision Notes for Class 10 English First Flight Chapter 10 The Sermon at Benares
‘The Sermon at Benares’ is a chapter written by Betty Renshaw. The chapter covers the journey of Gautama Buddha from princehood to his saintly life. After seeing the suffering of the world, he decided to give up all worldly pleasures and seeked enlightenment. He finally attained salvation under a tree at Bodhgaya. His first sermon was delivered at Benares near the bank of the Ganges. Kisa Gautami was the first one to receive this sermon.
About the Characters
Buddha Gautama Buddha is the founder of the Buddhist Religion. He was a spiritual teacher who had gained enlightenment after seeing the World’s pains and greed.
Kisa Gotami She was a young mother whose only son had died. She was a loving and caring mother, but at the same time, she became selfish and wanted to get her son back after death
OVERVIEW OF THE CHAPTER
Buddha as a Prince
Gautama Buddha was bom as a prince named Siddhartha Gautama in Northern India. At 12, he was sent for schooling in Hindu Sacred Scriptures. Four years later, he returned home and got married to a princess. They had a son. They lived a royal life for 10 years.
Gautama is Enlightened from the Sufferings of the World
He was protected from the sufferings of the world. One day, he saw a sick man, an old man, a funeral procession and a monk begging for money and food. This moved Buddha and he then went out to seek enlightenment.
Gautama Seeks Enlightenment and Becomes Gautama Buddha
He travelled aimlessly for seven years and then he stayed under a peepal tree until he attained enlightenment. After seven days, he got enlightened and renamed the tree as Bodhi Tree (Tree of Wisdom). There, he began to teach and share his knowledge and became known as Buddha.
Buddha Gives his First Sermon
Buddha preached his first sermon at the city of Benares. It is the holiest of the dipping places on the river Ganges. This sermon reflects Buddha’s wisdom about the kind of suffering that is impossible to interpret.
Kisa Gotami’s Story
Kisa Gotami had only one son. She carried her dead son in her arms and she went door to door asking for medicines for her dead child. The neighbours pitied her but could not help her as her son was dead. They were as helpless as Kisa and couldn’t go against the will of God. Finally, somebody suggested that she should go to the Sakyamuni, the Buddha. Kisa Gotami went to meet Gautama Buddha. Gautama told her to bring a handful of mustard seeds from a house where death has never knocked at the door. Kisa thought that it was a very easy task. She went to all the houses in the village but couldn’t find a single house where death had not taken a beloved away.
She sat down, hopeless and tired. She soon realised that she was being very selfish in her grief. Death is common to all.
Buddha’s Reply to Kisa Gotami
The life of morals is troubled, brief and combined with pain. It is not possible to avoid death. As the ripe fruits are in danger of falling, as the earthen vessels made by the potter break, similarly the mortals have the danger of death. Wise men and fools, all fall in the power of death. Only the wise do not grieve and they accept the reality. All weeping and grieving will bring more pain and sufferings to the body. One, who is composed, will obtain peace of mind and will be free from sorrow and be blessed.
- This lesson is about the life of Gautama Buddha, who was born in a royal family as Siddhartha.
- He was sent to study Hindu scriptures, and later married a princess.
- Once he saw a sick man, an old man, a funeral procession and a monk begging for money.
- These sights moved him and he went to search for enlightenment’.
- He started meditating under a peepal tree and got enlightened after 7 days and became known as the Buddha.
- He preached his first sermon at Benares.
- Once a woman came to him requesting to bring her dead son to life.
- Gautama Buddha asked the lady to bring a handful of mustard seeds from a house where there had been no death.
- The lady moved from one house to another but she could not find a single house where no one has lost a child, husband, parent or friend.
- Then, she came to know that death is common to all and is the ultimate truth of life.
The given page nos. correspond to the pages in the prescribed textbook.
|Scriptures||The sacred writings of a religion|
|Royalty||People of royal blood or status|
|Shielded||Protected from a danger|
|Sufferings||The state of undergoing pain|
|Hunting||The activity or sport of killing wild animals|
|Alms||Money or food given to poor people|
|Enlightenment||A state of high spiritual knowledge|
|Wandered||Moved in a leisurely or aimless way|
|Vowed||A serious promise to do something.|
|Chanced upon||Came across by chance|
|Preached||Deliver a sermon or religious address to a group of people|
|Sermon||A talk on a religious or moral subject|
|Holy||Connected to a God or religion|
|Wisdom||Good sense or judgement|
|Inscrutable||Impossible to understand or interpret|
|Repaired (here)||Went to|
|Handful||A quantity that fills the hand|
|Weary||Feeling or showing extreme tiredness|
|Hopeless||Having or feeling no hope|
|Extinguished||Cause (a fire or light) to cease to burn|
|Selfish||Lacking^ consideration for other people|
|Valley of desolation||An area which is filled with deep sorrow|
|Immortality||The ability to live forever|
|Brief||Of short duration|
|Mortals||Fully grown and ready to be eaten Those fiound to die|
|Earthen||Made of baked or fired clay|
|Lamenting||Expressing sorrow, regret or unhappiness about something|
|Slaughter||The killing of animals for their meat|
|Contrary||Opposite in nature, direction or meaning|
|Composed||Having one’s feelings and expression under control|
|Sorrow||A feeling of deep distress caused by a loss|
|Blessed||Bringing pleasure, contentment or good fortune.|
For More Resources
- NCERT Solutions for Class 10 English
- CBSE Class 10 English First Flight Chapter Wise Question Bank
- CBSE Class 10 English Footprints Without Feet Chapter Wise Question Bank
- CBSE Class 10 English First Flight Extra Questions
- CBSE Class 10 English Footprints Without Feet Extra Questions
- CBSE Revision Notes for Class 10 English First Flight
- CBSE Revision Notes for Class 10 English Footprints Without Feet