Our team of subject expert teachers has prepared and reviewed the NCERT Solutions for Class 6 Social Science Civics Chapter 8 Rural livelihoods are given here will help you to prepare well and score good numbers in exams.
Rural livelihoods NCERT Solutions for Class 6 Social Science Civics Chapter 8
Class 6 Civics Chapter 8 Rural livelihoods InText Questions and Answers
Describe the work that you see people doing in the pictures (given in the textbook page 67).
The work that people are doing includes:
- Labourers, carrying lorids
- Plucking fruits and vegetables
- People supervising the work in the field
- Labourers working in the fields
Identify the different type of work that/are related to farming and those that are not. List this in a table.
|Work-related to farming||Work not related to agriculture|
|1) labourers working in the fields
2) plucking fruits and vegetables
|1) labourers carrying loads
In your notebook draw some pictures of work that you have seen people do in rural areas and write a few sentences that describe the work.
Students do it yourself.
Describe the work that Thulasi does. How is it different from the work Raman does?
(1) Thulasi works in the paddy field from 8.30 in the morning till 4.30 in the evening. She transplants the paddy when they have grown a little.
(2) She does all the work at home like cooking, cleaning the house and washing clothes. She goes to the nearby forest to collect firewood arid fetch water.
- Raman is a labourer. He sprays pesticide on the sapling.
- When there is no work on the farm, he finds work loading sand from the river or stone from the quarry.
- He also helps to get grocery for the household.
Thulasi gets paid very little money for the work she does. Why do you think agricultural labourers like her are forced to accept low wages?
Agricultural labourers are forced to work for very little wages because there is no other kind of work in the village. Secondly, the labourers have the assurance that they will be again called back to work.
In what ways would her way of earning a living have been different if Thulasi owned some farmland? Discuss.
If Thulasi had owned some farmland she would have cultivated her field, with little outside help at the time of harvesting. The whole produce and the money she got after selling would have belonged to her. If she had purchased seeds and fertilizers from the traders on loan, she will have to pay it back.
What are the crops grown in your region or nearby rural area? What kinds of work do agricultural labourers do?
Rice is cultivated in my region. The labourers do the following work: ploughing the field, planting the sapling, filling the fields with water, transplanting the sapling, weeding and harvesting.
What work does Sekar’s family do? Why do you think Sekar does not usually employ labourers for doing farming work?
Sekar’s family work in the field, cultivating and growing crops. Sekar does not usually employ labourers for doing farming work because he owns a very small plot of land and it is cultivated by him and his family. If outside help is needed at the time of harvesting, he exchanges his labour with the other farmers.
Why does Sekar not go to the town market to get a better price for his paddy?
Sekar does not go to the town market to get a better price for his paddy because he gets about 60 bags of paddy. Some of this will be sold to settle the loan and the rest will be used in his home. He does not have a surplus.
Sekar’s sister Mina had also taken a loan from the ’’ trader. She does not want to sell her paddy to him but she
will pay back her loan. Write an imaginary conversation between Mina and the trader’s agent and the argument given by each person.
Mina: (Is sitting near her hut and the trader’s agent has come.) (There is fear in her eyes.) When the agent arrives she greets him politely and asks him to sit.
Agent: You have collected the paddy from the field I have come to buy it. After deducing the money taken by you as a loan. The rest of the money will be given to you.
Mina: I do not want to sell my paddy to you.
Agent: (In anger) Why? You do not have to go the market to sell it. I will save you time.
Mina : (Insists) I will give the loan.
Agent : (Rudely) I am asking why?
Mina s The market price is more and you are giving less. Agent: Aha! We give money when you need it. Not the market. I will buy your paddy.
What are the similarities and differences between Sekar and Thulasi’s lives? Your answer could be based on the land that they have, their need to work on the land, that belongs to others or loans that they need and their earnings.
The differences between Sekar and Thulasi’s lives are:
|He owns a plot of land which is about 2 acres and works on his own.||She does not own way plot of land she works for big landowners.|
|He takes loans from the traders and to pay back the loans, he was to sell the paddy at a lower piece.||When Thulasi took a loan, because her daughter was ill, she had to sell her cow.|
(1) Both are labourers and work on the land. They work from morning till evening in the paddy fields. They have to take loans.
(2) Both have to work to get additional money. Sekar works for Ramalingam and Thulasi has to do all household chores like collecting firewood and fetching water.
Read about Sekar and Thulasi’s account. What do they say about Ramalingam the large fanner? Together with what you have read, fill in the details below.
(1) How much laud does he has?
Ramalingam owns about 20 acres of paddy fields in Kalpattu.
(2) What does Ramalingam do with the paddy grown on his land?
The paddy is used to produce rice in the rice mill, which is then sold to the traders in nearby towns.
(3) Apart from fanning how else does he earn?
The other sources of his earnings are
- He gives loans to poor people and gets interested.
- He owns a rice mill and buys paddy from within the village and surrounding villages and profits are earned.
- He also owns a shop which sells seeds, pesticides etc.
From the figures given in the textbook, page 72, would you say that majority of the country’s farmers are quite poor? What do you think can be done to change this situation?
In India, about 2/5 rural families are agricultural labourers and what they earn is not sufficient to meet the expenses of the family. To improve their condition the government has to take necessary steps, e.g., to provide land, provide a credit on easy terms and give a high yielding variety of seeds, fertilizers, pesticides etc., help them in marketing their produce.
Why do both Sekars and Arana’s families have to borrow? What similarities and differences do you find?
Both Sekar’s and Aruna’s families have to borrow because Sekar’s family owns about 2 acres of land and produces about 60 bags of paddy, which is not sufficient for his family. So he has to borrow money. Aruna’s family has to borrow money because four months in a year are the breeding season and men cannot go to the sea.
- Both have to work very hard, from morning till evening to earn their living.
- Both are under the clutches of the traders, from whom they have borrowed money.
- Sekar is a small farmer and Aruna is a fisher-woman.
- Sekar has to do additional work.
Have you heard of a Tsunami? What is this and what damage do you think it might have done to the life of fishing families like Aruna’s?
Tsunami is a Japanese word. It is made of two smaller words ‘Tsu’ and ‘Nami’. It is a killer wave. When the waves reach the coast, they gain both in height and speed. They cause wide destruction, wash away the villages. The villages are flooded with water debris floating on the water. It takes away everything which comes in its way.
The fishermen who live near the coast may have lost the huts and belongings. Many family members lost their lives and many children were either, orphaned or separated from their family.
Class 6 Civics Chapter 8 Rural livelihoods Exercise Questions and Answers
You have probably noticed that people in Kalpattu are engaged in a variety of non-farm work. List five of these.
The non-farm work in which the people of Kalpattu are engaged are :
- People engaged in making baskets, utensils, pots, bricks.
- People who provide services like blacksmith, washermen, weavers, teachers and nurses.
- Shopkeepers like tea shops, barbershops.
- Repair shops.
- Construction workers and lorry drivers.
List the different types of people you read about in Kalpattu who depend on farming. Who is the poorest among them and why?
The people who depend on farming are :
- Landowners, who have their farms and employ workers to work in their fields.
- Farmers with small plots on land, who do all their work themselves. Sometimes they take the help of other farmers and in turn help them to harvest their fields.
- Landless labourers, who work on the land of others.
- The poorest among them are landless peasants who work very hard but are unable to meet their needs. The landless labourers are out of work for a few months in a year, when there is no work in the field.
Poor rural labourers like Thulasi often do not have access to good medical facilities, good schools and other resources. You have read about inequality in the first unit of this text. The difference between her and Ramalingam is one of inequality. Do you think this is a fair situation? What do you think can be done? Discuss in class
To improve the condition of the landless labourers and farmers the government can
- Give land, which can be cultivated either individually or by a group of families.
- Give credit and loans to the farmers on easy terms, i.e., less rate of interest.
- provide them with High Yielding Variety of seeds (HYV) pesticides, fertilizers etc.
- provide water and electricity.
What do you think the government can do to help farmers like Sekar when they get into debt? Discuss.
The government can give loans to the farmers, through the rural banks, on easy terms, i.e., less rate of interest.
Compare the situation of Sekar and Ramalingam by filling out the following table :
|Land cultivated||Is about 2 acres||Owns about 20 acres of land.|
|Labour required loans required||Work on their own take loans from traders.||Employes other labourers no loans|
|Selling of harvest||Some of it is used by home consumption and some sold to the traders.||Harvest is sold in the village and nearby towns.|
|Other work is done by them.||Working in the rice mill, selling milk.||Shop selling seeds and pesticides.|