Physics Topics are also essential for space exploration, allowing scientists to study phenomena such as gravitational waves and cosmic rays.
What are the Two 2 Types of Waves?
Simple harmonic wave: If the motion of the particles of a medium is simple harmonic, then the corresponding wave is known as a simple harmonic wave.
There are two types of simple harmonic waves-
- transverse wave and
- longitudinal wave.
Definition: A wave which propagates in a direction, perpendicular to the direction of motion of the vibrating particles of the medium, is called transverse wave.
Example of Transverse wave:
i) If a small stone is thrown into a pond, it generates waves which spread out horizontally in all directions. Now, if a small piece of cork is floated on the water surface, it oscillates vertically about it mean position. So the wave motion is directed along the horizontal direction, but the direction of motion of the cork and the vibrating water particles are vertical. This is an example of transverse wave.
ii) A rubber rope AB is taken. The end B is fixed to a rigid support and the other end A is held in such a way that the rope is in a streched condition. Now the end A is oscillated vertically. A wave is found to be generated along the rope and it propogates towards the end B [Fig.]
It is evident that the direction of vibration of each particle of the rope is perpendicular to the direction of propogation of the wave through the rope. The particle whose position at some instant is P, occupies the position Q at another instant is P, occupies the position Q at another instant. Since PQ and AB are perpendicular to each other, the wave is obviously a transverse wave.
A transverse wave can be described generally through Fig. The straight line OBDF is the equilibrium position of the rope. Suppose at an instant, the particle at O is passing through its mean position in its course of vibration from upward to downward direction. The directions of motion of the different particles of the medium at that instant have been shown by arrows. A and E are two points having displacement in the positive direction. These are called crests. Again C is a point having maximum displacement in the negative direction. This is called a trough.
It is evident that at the said instant, the points A and E are situated on the same side of and at the same distance from the mean position. Their velocities are also the same. In short, the conditions of motion at points A and E are the same. So, these two points are in opposite phase.
Electromagnetic waves like light waves, radio waves, etc., are tranverse waves. The two quantities responsible for the production of electromagnetic waves are electric field vector and magnetic field vector, which are always perpendicular to the direction of propogation of the wave. Electromagnetic waves can propogate through solid, liquid, gaseous media and even through vacuum.