# Learn Physics Online – List of Major Topics and Concepts in Physics

**Electricity**

- Types of Electric Charges
- Electric Current
- Electric Circuits
- Ohms’ Law
- Factors Affecting the Resistance of a Conductor
- Resistivity of materials
- Combinations of Resistors in Series and Parallel
- Domestic Electric Circuits : Series or Parallel
- Electric Power
- Commercial Unit of Electrical Energy
- Heating Effect of Current

**Magnetic Effect of Electric Current**

- Magnetic Field Characteristics
- Magnetic Effect of Current (OR Electromagnetism)
- Magnetism in Human Beings
- The Electric Motor
- Electromagnetic Induction : Electricity From Magnetism
- Electric Generator
- Domestic Wiring Electric Circuits

**Sources of Energy**

- Categories of Sources of Energy
- Conventional Sources of Energy
- Thermal Power Plant
- Non-Conventional Sources of Energy
- Biomass Energy
- Energy From the Sea
- Nuclear Fission
- Nuclear Fusion

**Reflection of Light**

- Nature of Light
- Reflection of Light From Plane Surfaces
- Reflection of Light From Curved Surfaces
- Rules and Formation of Image by a Concave Mirror
- Sign Convention For Spherical Mirrors
- Mirror Equation
- Rule and Formation of Image by a Convex Mirror

**Refraction of Light**

- Cause of Refraction of Light
- Optically Rarer and Denser Medium
- Effects of Refraction of Light
- Laws of Refraction of Light
- Refraction of Light by Spherical Lenses
- Formation of Different Images by a Convex Lens
- Sign Convention For Spherical Lenses
- Rule and Formation of Image by a Concave Lens
- Lens Formula and Maginification Formula for Concave Lens
- Power of a Lens formula

**The Human Eye And The Colourful World**

- Human Eye – Structure and Functioning
- Defects of Vision and Correction
- Advantages of having Two Eyes
- Glass Prism Definition and Meaning
- Atmospheric Refraction: Explanation and Applications
- Scattering of Light

**Motion**

- Laws and Types of Motion
- Speed and Its Units
- Define the Term Velocity
- Acceleration – Definition and Facts
- Equations of Uniformly Accelerated Motion
- Graphical Representation of Motion
- Derive Equation of Motion by Graphical Method

**Force and Laws of Motion**

- Effects of Force on an Object
- Balanced and Unbalanced Forces
- Newton’s First Law of Motion
- Momentum Definition and Meaning
- Newton’s Second Law of Motion
- Newton’s Third Law of Motion
- Conservation of Momentum

**Gravitation**

- Universal Law of Gravitation
- Gravitational Force Holds the Solar System
- Kepler’s Laws of Planetary Motion
- Newton’s Third Law of Motion and Gravitation
- Equations of Motion for Freely Falling Bodies
- Mass
- Thrust and Pressure Formula
- Pressure in Fluids Mechanics
- Archimede’s Principle
- Principle of Flotation
- Introduction to Density
- Relative Density

**Work and Energy**

- Work : Factors Affecting Work
- Energy and Types of Energy
- What is Power Formula?
- Transformation of Energy
- Law of Conservation of Energy

**Sound**

- Sound Travels in the Form of Waves
- Characteristics of a Sound Wave
- Production of Sound Wave in air
- Speed of Sound in Different Media
- Reflection of Sound Produces Echo
- Utlrasound Defintion and Applications
- Human Ear Structure and Function

**Force and Pressure**

- A Push or a Pull
- Discuss Types of Force
- Pressure Dimensional Formula
- Atmospheric Pressure Definition

**Friction**

- Direction of Force of Friction
- Types of Friction and its Concepts
- Advantages and Disadvantages of Friction
- Methods of Increasing and Reducing Friction
- Introduction to Fluid Friction

**Sound **

- Sound is Produced by Vibrating Objects
- Speed of Sound in air
- Characteristics of Sound in Music
- Musical Instruments Names and Information
- Noise Pollution and its Measures

**Some Natural Phenomena**

- Electric Charge Simple Definition
- Electroscope Definition and Notes
- Lightning Definition
- Earthquakes Definition

**Light **

- Types of Objects of Light
- Regular and Diffuse Reflection of Light
- Formation of Image in a Plane Mirror
- Working of The Human Eye

**Stars and The Solar System**

- Celestial Objects in the Sky
- List of Constellations
- The Solar System and The Earth
- Satellites in Space

**Heat**

- Hot and Cold Temperature
- Describe a Clinical Thermometer
- Modes of Transfer of Heat
- Convection Definition
- Radiation

**Winds, Storms and Cyclones**

- Air Exerts Pressure Introduction
- Air Expands on Heating
- Formation of Winds and Causes
- How High Speed Winds are Accompanied
- Thunderstorm Definition & Meaning
- Effect of Cyclones Formation
- Tornado Facts and History

**Motion and Time **

- Speed of Moving Objects
- Measuring Speed With Problems
- Graphical Representation of Motion
- Measurement of Time
- Simple Pendulum Definition

**Electric Current and its Effects**

- Electric Circuits Formula – Diagrams and Examples
- Heating Effect of Electric Current
- Magnetic Effect of Electric Current

**Light**

- Light Travels Through Straight Lines
- Spherical Mirrors – Types and Applications
- Images Formed By Spherical Mirrors
- Spherical Lenses – Introduction and Definition
- Images Formed By Lenses
- Dispersion of Light by Prisms

**Motion and Measurement of Distances**

**Light, Shadows, And Reflections**

- Sources of Light
- Transparent, Translucent and Opaque Materials
- Light Travels in Straight Lines
- Pinhole Camera – A Camera Without Lens
- Reflection of Light and Mirror
- Periscope : Formation of Image

**Electricity and Circuits**

- Electricity : Definition and Facts
- Electric Circuit Introduction and Diagrams
- Electric Conductors and Insulators

**Fun with Magnets**

**Elementary Phenomena of Electrostatics**

- Types of Electric Charge and Its Properties
- What is the Electronic Theory of Electricity?
- Conductors and Insulators : Definition and Features
- Gold-Leaf Electroscope – Description, Construction and Uses
- Electrostatic Induction : Definition and Meaning
- Charge Always Resides Outer Surface of a Conductor
- What is the meaning of Action of a Pointed Conductor?

**Electric Field**

- Coulomb’s Law : Force of Attraction or Repulsion Between Two Charges
- What is the Practical Unit of Charge? What is its Relation with 1 esu of charge?
- How Do We Determine The Force Due To Continuous Charge Distribution?
- Electric Field : Intensity of An Electric Field At a Point
- Write an Expression for Electric Field Intensity at a Point Near a Charged Conductor?
- Electric Dipole – Definition, Formula, Units and Magnitude
- Gauss’s Law : Area Vector, Solid Angle and Electric Flux?
- Applications of Gauss’s Theorem : Proof, Properties and Solved Examples

**Electric Potential**

- Define Electric Potential at a Point in an Electric Field?
- Define Units of Potential? Write Down its CGS and SI Units?
- Give the Relation Between Electric Field Intensity and Electric Potential
- Electrical Potential Energy – Formula, Facts and Solved Examples
- Equipotential Surface : Work Done, Properties and Solved Examples

**Capacitence and Capacitor**

- Units of Capacitance : Learn its SI Unit and Other Units
- Obtain the Formula for Capacitance of a Spherical Conductor
- Potential Energy of a Charged Conductor : Formula, Definition and Solved Examples
- What is the Working Principle of a Capacitor?
- Dielectrics : Classification, Dielectric Polarisation and Dielectric Constant With Definition
- Obtain an Expression for the Capacitance of a Parallel Plate Capacitor
- Obtain the Formula for Stored Energy in a Charged Capacitor and Solved Examples
- Combination of Capacitors : Types, Formula and Solved Examples
- Different Types of Capacitors and Their Uses
- Van De Graaff Generator – Description, Working Principle and Uses

**Electric Current and Ohm’s Law**

- ElectroMotive Force or EMF – Definition, Formula, and Unit
- What are the Different Types of Chemical Cells?
- Unit of Electrical Quantities – CGS Unit, SI Unit and Other Units
- Resistivity or Specific Resistance : Definition, Unit and Solved Examples
- Temperature Coefficient of Resistance – Meaning, Unit and Solved Examples
- What is the Colour Code of Carbon Resistor With Example?
- Combination of Resistances : Types, Characteristics and Solved Examples
- Resistance in Parallel – Characteristics, Formula and Solved Examples
- Electric Cell – EMF, Internal Resistance, Solved Examples
- What is Shunt? Obtain Formula for the Shunt
- Combination of Cells – Description, Special Cases and Solved Examples
- What is the Flow of Free Electrons in a Metallic Conductor?
- Mobility of Free Electrons : Definition, Unit and Solved Examples

**Kirchhoff’s Laws and Electrical Measurement**

- Kirchhoff’s Laws : First Law, Second Law and Solved Examples
- Potential Divider or Potentiometer : Description, Uses and Solved Examples
- Wheatstone Bridge – Description, Working Principle and Solved Examples
- Metre Bridge : Description, Steps, Working Principle and Solved Examples

**Electric Energy and Power**

- Electrical Work : Introduction, Definition and Solved Examples
- Electrical Power : Definition, Formula, Unit and Solved Examples
- What is Meant by Rating of an Electrical Appliances?

**Electromagnetism**

- What are the Fundamental Properties of a Magnet?
- Describe an Experiment to Show That There is a Magnetic Field Around a Current Carrying Conductor
- Biot-Savart Law or Laplace’s Law : Statement, Formula, Applications and Solved Examples
- What is the Application of Biot Savarts Law to the Current Carrying Circular Loop?
- Ampere’s Circuit Law : Statement, Explanation, Limitations and Solved Examples
- Magnetic Field Strength : Force on Moving Charge in a Magnetic Field
- Cyclotron – Principle, Description, Remedies and Solved Examples
- What is the Magnetic effect of Electric Current?
- Galvanometer – Types, Moving Coil, Transformation and Solved Examples

**Magnetic Properties of Materials Introduction**

- Magnetic Moment – Definition, Units and Magnetic Dipole Force
- Derive an Expression for Magnetic Field at a Point on the Axial Line of a Bar Magnet
- Magnetism: Quantities, Units and Relationships
- Magnetic Properties of Substances : Paramagnetic, Diamagnetic And Ferromagnetic Materials
- What are the Elements of a Geomagnetism at a Place?
- The Neutral Points : Where Bar Magnet’s Field and Earth’s Magnetic Field Balance

**Electromagnetic Induction**

- What is Induced Electromotive Force and Current?
- What are the Laws of Electromagnetic Induction?
- Induced EMF : Expression, Explanation and Solved Examples
- Motional EMF : Explanation, Calculation, and Solved Examples
- What is Eddy Current? Definition, Causes and Uses
- Self Inductance : Definition, Units, Mutual Induction and Solved Examples

**Alternating Current**

- Alternating Current Dynamo : Definition, Working Principle and Solved Examples
- Power Consumed in AC Circuits : Some Important AC Circuits
- What is LR Circuit: Derivation and Its Diagram
- CR Circuit : Derivation and Its Diagram
- What is a Series LCR Circuit? Derivation, Properties and Solved Examples
- LC Oscillations : Definition and Solved Examples
- Transformer : Description, Working Principle, Uses and Solved Examples

**Electromagnetic Waves**

- What is Meant by Displacement Current?
- What do you Mean By Electromagnetic Spectrum?
- What are the Characteristics of Electromagnetic Wave?

**Reflection of Light**

- What is Reflection of Light? Definition, Laws and Types
- Image – Definition, Types and Characteristics
- What is the Reflection of Curved Surface?
- What is the Formation of the Image of an Extended Object?
- How do You Identify a Mirror as Concave or Convex Without Touching it?

**Refraction of Light**

- Laws of Refraction of Light : Introduction and Solved Examples
- What is Angle of Deviation in Reflection ? Explain With Diagram?
- What is the Image Formed by Refraction?
- Total Internal Reflection : Definition, Conditions and Solved Examples
- Optical Fibre : Working Principle, Applications and Solved Examples
- Derivation of Prism Formula : Definition, Angle of Deviation and Solved Examples
- Thin Prism – Definition, Deviation and Solved Examples
- What is the Angle of Prism for No Emergent Ray?
- Total Reflecting Prism: Types, Advantages and Solved Examples

**Refraction of Light at Spherical Surface: Lens**

- Spherical Refracting Surfaces : Introduction and Types
- What is the Formula for Refraction at a Concave Surface?
- What are Some Different Types of Lenses?
- Determination of the Position of an Image by Geometrical Method
- What is Lens Formula? Give its Sign Conventions and Assumptions.
- What is the Magnification of the Image Formed by the Lens?
- Lens Maker’s Formula: Derivation and Solved Examples
- Derive an Expression for an Equivalent Focal length of Two Thin lenses kept in Contact
- How is a Real Image Formed by a Convex Lens?
- Power of a Lens : Definition, Units and Solved Examples

**Dispersion and Scattering of Light**

- What do you Mean by Angular Dispersion?
- What is Meant by Combination of Prism? What is Prism Formula?
- Write down the Conditions of Formation of a Pure Spectrum?
- What is the Meaning of Rainbow ? How is a Rainbow Form?
- Types of spectra – Emission spectra, Line spectrum, Band Spectrum, Absorption Spectra
- What are Fraunhofer Lines in Solar Spectrum?
- What are the Applications of Spectral Analysis?
- What does the Color of an Opaque Object Depend On?
- Raman Effect : Definition, Features Explanation and Applications

**Optical Instruments**

- Human Eye – Description, Structure, Function, Parts, Diagram
- Eye Defects : Myopia Its Causes, Remedy and Astigmatism
- Optical Instruments, Visual Angle and Angular Magnification
- Microscope : Types, Diagram, Uses and Solved Examples
- Telescope : Types, Reflecting Astronomical Telescope and Solved Examples

**Light Wave and Interference of Light**

- Wavefront : Definition, Types and Properties
- Huygens Principle: Definition, Principle, Explanation and Solved Examples
- Interference of Light : Definition, Analytical Treatment and Conditions
- What are the Methods of Producing Coherent Source?

**Diffraction and Polarisation of Light**

- Diffraction of Light : Definition and Some Special Conclusions
- Classification of Diffraction Phenomena – Fraunhofer Diffraction By Single Slit
- Resolving Power of Optical Instruments : Types and Concepts
- Polarisation of Light : Definition, Explanation and Conclusion
- What is Meant by Plane of Polarisation?
- What is the Phenomenon of Polarization by Reflection?
- Double Refraction or Birefringence : Definition, Types with Examples
- Polarisation : The Roles of Dichroism and Polaroid

**Quantum Theory**

- What are the Main Properties of Electrons?
- What is the Significance of the Photoelectric Effect?
- Photoelectric Cell : Definition, Description, Working Principle and Uses
- Quantum Theory of Radiation : Formula and Solved Examples
- Einstein’s Photoelectric Equation : Postulates, Graphical Representation and Solved Examples
- De Broglie Wavelength : Derivation, Formula and Solved Examples
- What was the Experimental Verification of Matter Waves Davisson and Germer Experiment?

**Atom**

- Rutherford’s Atomic Model : Experiment, Observation and Drawbacks
- Bohr’s Atomic Model : Postulates and Quantum Condition
- Application of Bhor’s Theory : Orbital Angular Momentum of the Electron
- Hydrogen Spectrum : Balmer Series, Paschen Series and Solved Examples
- Ionisation Energy : Definition, Ionisation Potential and Solved Examples
- X-Rays : History, Wavelength, Uses and Solved Examples
- Moseley’s Law – Characteristic of X-rays and Solved Problems

**Atomic Nucleus**

- Mass-Energy Equivalence : Formula, Explanation and Solved Examples
- Atomic Mass : Definition, Unit and Examples
- Binding Energy of a Nucleus : Definition, Formula and Example
- Discovery of Radioactivity : Characteristics and Definition
- What are the Main Types of Radiation?
- What is the Law of Radioactive Decay Equation?
- Obtain the Exponential Law of Radioactive Disintegration?
- Activity of Radio Active Substances : Definition and Solved Examples
- Artificial or Induced Radioactivity : Definition, Characteristics and Solved Examples
- What is Nuclear Fission? – Definition and Solved Examples

**Semiconductors and Electronics**

- Solid Materials : Conductors, Insulators and Semiconductors
- Impure or Extrinsic Semiconductor : Definition, Types and Solved Examples
- p-n Junction : Definition, Application, Characteristics and Solved Examples
- What are the Two Semiconductor Diodes?
- Junction Transistor : n-p-n and p-n-p Transistor
- Oscillator : Definition, Types and Advantages

**Digital Circuits**

- Binary Number System : Definition, Conversion and Solved Examples
- Logic Gates : Types, Application and Truth Table
- Integrated Circuit or IC : Advantages, Disadvantages and Types

**Communication System**

- Communication System : Elements, Modulations and Block Diagram
- What are the Three Types of Data Transmission?
- What is Bandwidth of Carrier Wave?
- Amplitude Modulation : Definition and Types
- What are the Three Modes of Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves?
- What is Meant by Communication Channel?

**Measurement and Dimension of Physical Quantity**

- What is the Nature of Physical Laws?
- Measurement of Physical Quantity : Units and Examples
- System of Units : Definition, Examples and Tables
- Dimensions of Physical Quantities : Examples, Tables and Units
- Dimensional Analysis : Principle, Limitations and Solved Examples
- Vernier Scale : Description, Diagram, Measurement and Solved Examples
- Screw Gauge : Working Principle, Description and Solved Examples
- Errors in Measurement : Types, Calculation and Solved Examples

**One Dimensional Motion**

- What are the Different Types of Dimensional Motion?
- Differentiation : Definition, Properties and Examples
- Integration : Definition, Properties and Examples
- Different Kinds of Motion : Translation and Rotation
- Displacement : Definition, Unit and Solved Examples
- Velocity : Definition, Units and Solved Examples
- Motion in a Straight Line : Rectilinear Motion with Uniform Velocity and Acceleration
- Derive the Equation of Motion with the Graphical Method
- Motion Under Gravity : Equation, Alternate Method and Solved Examples

**Vector**

- Physical Quantities : Scalar and Vector Quantities
- Types of Vectors : Definition of Different Vectors
- Vector Addition: Parallelogram and Triangle Laws
- Properties of Vector Addition : Commutative and Associative Rules
- Law of Polygon of Vectors: Addition of Three or More Vectors
- Displacement Vector: Position Vector, Definition and Solved Examples
- Resolution of Vectors : Definition, Rectangular Component and Solved Examples
- Composition of Several Vectors by Resolution : Process, Calculation and Solved Examples
- Three Dimensional Resolution of Vectors : Algebraic Representation
- Relative Velocity : Definition, Calculation and Solved Problems
- Relative Velocity of Rain With Respect to a Moving Observer
- Scalar or Dot Product : Definition, Properties and Solved Examples
- Vector or Cross Product : Definition, Properties and Solved Examples
- Projectile Motion : Definition, Concepts and Solved Examples

**Newton’s Law of Motion**

- Laws of Motion: Statement, Concepts and Solved Examples
- Weight of a Body : Definition, Inertial Mass and Solved Examples
- Impulse of Force : Definition, Graphical Method and Solved Examples
- Newton’s Third Law : Statement, Formula and Examples
- Problems on Tension : Horizontal and Vertical Motion
- Reaction in a Moving Lift : Apparent Weight
- Law of Conservation of Linear Momentum
- Motion of an Object or a System of Objects with Variable Mass

**Friction**

- Frictional Force : Static And Kinetic Friction
- Laws of Friction : Kinetic Friction and Static Friction
- Angle of Friction : Cone of Friction
- What is Equilibrium of a Body on an Inclined Plane?
- Rolling Friction : Definition, Source and Solved Examples

**Circular Motion**

- Angular Displacement : Definition, Formula and Polar Vector
- Angular Velocity : Definition, Unit and Solved Examples
- Angular Acceleration : Definition, Unit and Solved Examples
- Uniform Circular Motion : Centripetal Acceleration
- Centripetal Force : Definition, Practical Examples, Formula and Solved Examples
- Centrifugal Force – Definition, Examples and Solved Examples
- What is the Difference Between Linear and Angular Motion?

**Work and Energy**

- Graphical Representation of Work – Units, Dimension and Solved Examples
- Concept of Power : Units, Dimension and Solved Examples
- Energy : Definition, Types and Examples
- Kinetic Energy : Definition, Examples and Expression
- What is Gravitational Potential Energy ? Definition and Solved Examples
- Conservative Force : Definition, Example and Solved Examples
- Non-Conservative Force : Definition, Example and Solved Examples
- What is an Elastic Collision of Two Objects in One Dimension?
- What is a Perfectly Inelastic One Dimensional Collision Between Two Moving Objects?
- Collisions in Two Dimensions : General Analysis and Solved Examples
- Collision of a Falling Body with a Fixed Horizontal Plane : Bouncing of a Rubber Ball

**Statistics**

- Centre of Mass Or C.M. : Definition, Two Particle System and Example
- Momentum of a Force : Definition, Unit and Solved Examples
- Resultant of Parallel Forces : Two Like Parallel Forces and Two Unlike Parallel Forces
- Equilibrium of a Body : Definition, Conditions and Solved Examples
- Centre of Gravity : Definition, Equation and Solved Examples
- Types of Equilibrium : Stable, Unstable and Neutral Equilibrium

**Rotation of Rigid Bodies**

- Couple : Definition, Unit and Dimension
- Moment of Inertia : Definition, Unit, Dimension and Important Theorems
- Angular Momentum : Definition, Unit, Dimension and Solved Examples
- What is the Difference Between Rotational and Linear Motion?

**Newtonian Gravitation and Planetary Motion**

- Newton’s law of Gravitation : Definition, Derivation and Solved Examples
- What is the Gravitational Attraction of Spherical Bodies?
- Gravitational Potential : Definition, Unit and Solved Examples
- Gravity : Acceleration Due to Gravity
- Acceleration due to Gravity – Value of g on Earth
- Escape velocity : Definition, Formula, Earth, Moon, and Solved Examples
- Geostationary Artificial Satellite : Definition, Uses and Solved Examples
- What is Binding Energy of a Satellite?
- What is Weightlessness in Artificial Satellite With Example?

**Elasticity**

- Elastic Property of Matter : Some Useful Definitions
- Elastic Moduli: Young’s Modulus, Shear Modulus, Formula and Units
- Poisson’s Ratio : Longitudinal and Lateral Strain
- Work Done in Stretching a Wire : Energy Density
- Force Constant of Spring : Series and Parallel Combination
- Stress-Strain Graph : Load-Extension Graph of a String

**Hydrostatics**

- Specific Gravity : Definition, Equation and Solved Examples
- Pressure of a Liquid : Definition, Units and Solved Examples
- Nature of the Free Surface of a Liquid at Rest
- Transmission of Fluid Pressure : Pascal’s Law
- Buoyancy and Buoyant Force
- Archimede’s Principle