NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Economics Chapter 1 Development are part of NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science. Here we have given NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Economics Chapter 1 Development.
|Subject||Social Science Economics|
|Number of Questions Solved||13|
NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Economics Chapter 1 Development
From the exam point of view, the students should be able to:
- Define basic concepts like development, per capita income, literacy rate, IMR, HDI and sustainable development
- Assess different perspectives of development
- Interpret the different indicators of development
- Comparison of economic and non-economic indicators of development
- Analyse the merits and demerits of PCI as a development indicator
- Identify the significance of sustainable development
Development of a country can generally be determined by
(a) its per capita income
(b) its average literacy level
(c) health status of its people
(d) all of these
Which of the following neighbouring countries has better performance in terms of human development than India?
(b) Sri Lanka
Assume there are four families in a country. The average per capita income of these families is ₹ 5000. If the income of three families is ₹ 4000, ₹ 7000 and ₹ 3000 respectively, what is the income of the fourth family?
(a) ₹ 7500
(b) ₹ 3000
(c) ₹ 2000
(d) ₹ 6000
What is the main criterion used by the World Bank in classifying different countries? What are the limitations of this criterion, if any?  
The World Bank uses the following criterion in classifying different countries.
(a) Rich countries : Countries with per capita income of ₹ 4,53,000 per annum and above in 2004, are called rich countries.
(b) Low-income countries : Countries with per capita income of ₹ 37,000 or less are called low-income countries.
Limitations of the criterion :
(a) It ignores other aspects of development such as, health, education, peace, freedom, security, etc.
(b) It does not reveal distribution of income.
(c) National income increases but its distribution makes the rich richer and the poor poorer.
In what respects is the criterion used by the UNDP for measuring development different from the one used by the World Bank? 
The base of the World Bank comparison is very narrow as it follows only the per capita income criterion whereas UNDP takes a wider view. It calculates Human Development Index which is simple average of three indices—education, longevity and per capita income.
Why do we use averages? Are there any limitations to their use? Illustrate with your own examples related to development.
The total income is not considered a useful measure for comparison between countries due to different population of countries. We use average income to know whether the people in one country are in a better condition than others in a different country.
Limitations to their use are that averages do not show the distribution of income and ignore other development. For example, there are five citizens each in two countries. In the first country the incomes of citizens are ₹ 15,000; ₹ 16,000; ₹ 13,000; ₹ 17,000 and ₹ 14,000. Their average is ₹ 15,000. On the other hand, in the second, these are ₹ 1,000; ₹ 500; ₹ 4,000; ₹ 15,000 and ₹ 10,000; and their average is ₹ 6,100. We see that the first country has more equitable distribution of income than the second, i.e. citizens are neither very rich nor extremely poor. But in the second country rich citizens are richer and poor are poorer. This situation also follows in case of development, i.e. some regions are developed while the others are remained backward.
Kerala, with lower per capita income has a better human development ranking than Punjab. Hence, per capita income is not a useful criterion at all and should not be used to compare states. Do you agree? Discuss.
Yes, we agree that per capita income is not the only criterion behind human development. Criteria such as infant mortality rate, literacy rate and net attendance ratio are also equally important for overall human development. In these crucial areas Kerala is better than Punjab. Therefore, Kerala has a better human development ranking than Punjab, in spite of lower per capita income.
Find out the present sources of energy that are used by the people in India. What could be the other possibilities fifty years from now?
Coal, petroleum, natural gas, etc., are the present sources of energy used by people in India. These are conventional sources of energy. Fifty years from now there is a possibility that people will be making more use of non-conventional sources of energy such as solar energy, biogas, biomass, wind energy, energy from waste material because they are abundant, renewable, pollution-free and ecofriendly.
Why is the issue of sustainability important for development? 
Sustainable development is essential for economic growth because it
(a) protects the people against pollution ensuring their quality of life and health.
(b) raises the standard of living of the existing population.
(c) conserves environment which is necessary for sustainable development.
“The Earth has enough resources to meet the needs of all but not enough to satisfy the greed of even one person.” How is this statement relevant to the discussion of development? Discuss.
This statement implies that our earth has been provided with enough resources but human beings want to get the greatest benefits from the available resources so they are overusing them in the name of development and industrial revolution. But such a thing would be quite disastrous because the available resources shall be exhausted at a rapid speed. As a consequence, our future generation will be deprived of such resources. To continue the process of development, conservation of resources is essential as it aims at sustainable benefit to the present generation as well as maintains a potential to meet the needs and aspirations of future generation.
List a few examples of environmental degradation that you may have observed around you.
Deforestation and wildlife extinction, air pollution, water pollution, noise pollution, soil erosion, use of fertilisers and pesticides.
For each of the items given in the table given below, find out which country is at the top and which is at the bottom.
Following points are worth noting from the given table regarding India and its neighbours for 2004.
(a) Sri Lanka has the highest per capita income and Myanmar has the lowest.
(b) Sri Lanka is at the top in life expectancy at birth while at the bottom is Myanmar.
(c) Literacy rate is the highest in Sri Lanka and the lowest in Bangladesh.
(d) In case of gross enrolment ratio, Sri Lanka is at the top and Pakistan is at the bottom.
(e) HDI rank is the lowest for Sri Lanka and the highest for Nepal.
The following table shows the proportion of undernourished adults in India. It is based on a survey of various states for the year 2001. Look . at the table and answer the following questions.
(a) Compare the nutritional level of people in Kerala and Madhya Pradesh.
(b) Can you guess why around 40 per cent of people in the country are undernourished even though it is argued that there is enough food in the country? Describe in your own words.
(a) The table shows that the nutritional level of the people in Kerala is quite higher than the people in Madhya Pradesh. In Kerala nutritional level is 78 percent in males and 81 percent in females while in Madhya Pradesh it is 57 percent in males and 58 percent in females.
(b) Around 40 percent people in the country are undernourished because of inequitable distribution of income which leads to higher percentage of poor people who cannot afford nutritious food. Besides it, there is a lack of educational and health facilities in many parts of the country due to which many people remain backward and poor and cannot get sufficient food.
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