NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Economics Chapter 2 Sectors of Indian Economy are part of NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science. Here we have given NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Economics Chapter 2 Sectors of Indian Economy.
|Subject||Social Science Economics|
|Chapter Name||Sectors of Indian Economy|
|Number of Questions Solved||27|
NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Economics Chapter 2 Sectors of Indian Economy
From the exam point of view, the students should be able to:
- Understand the significance of the services sector in the Indian economy in the context of its contribution to GDP and employment
- Examine how the Indian service sector is a service provider to the world
- Identify the challenges faced in trying to raise employment levels in India
- Distinguish between the organised and unorganised sectors and give specific examples of how services fit into each of these sectors
- Differentiate between the public and private sector and give specific examples of services sector in the public and private sectors
Fill in the blanks using the correct option given in the bracket:
(a) Employment in the service sector __________ increased to the same extent as production. (has/has not)
(b) Workers in the __________ sector do not produce goods. (tertiary/agricultural)
(c) Most of the workers in the __________ sector enjoy job security. (organised/unorganised)
(d) A __________ proportion of labourers in India are working in the unorganised sector. (large/small)
(e) Cotton is a __________ product and cloth is a __________ product. (natural/manufactured)
(f) The activities in primary, secondary and tertiary sectors are __________ (independent/interdependent)
(a) has not
(e) natural, manufactured
The sectors are classified into public and private sector on the basis of:
(a) employment conditions
(b) the nature of economic activity
(c) ownership of enterprises
(d) number of workers employed in the enterprise
Production of a commodity, mostly through the natural process, is an activity in sector.
(d) information technology
GDP is the total value of produced during a particular year.
(a) all goods and services
(b) all final goods and services
(c) all intermediate goods and services
(d) all intermediate and final goods and services
In terms of GDP the share of tertiary sector in 2003 is
(a) between 20 per cent to 30 per cent
(b) between 30 per cent to 40 per cent
(c) between 50 per cent to 60 per cent
(d) 70 per cent
Match the following:
Problems faced by farming sector
- Unirrigated land
- Low prices for crops
- Debt burden
- No job in the off season
- Compelled to sell their grains to the local traders soon after haNest
Some possible measures
(a) Setting up agro- based mills
(b) Cooperative marketing societies
(c) Procurement of food grains by government
(d) Construction of canals by the government
(e) Banks to provide credit with low interest
Find the odd one out and say why.
(a) Tourist guide, dhobi, tailor, potter
(b) Teacher, doctor, vegetable vendor, lawyer
(c) Postman, cobbler, soldier, police constable
(d) MTNL, Indian Railways, Air India, SAHARA Airlines, All India Radio
(a) Tourist guide is odd one because he is working in organised sector.
(b) Vegetable vendor is odd one because he is included in the category of unskilled workers.
(c) Cobbler is odd one because he works in unorganised sector.
(d) SAHARA Airlines is odd one because it is in private sector.
A research scholar looked at the working people in the city of Surat and found the following:
Complete this table. What is the percentage of workers in the unorganised sector in this city?
Do you think the classification of economic activities into primary, secondary and tertiary is useful? Explain how.
Yes, classification of economic activities into primary, secondary and tertiary sector is useful as it helps in finding out the number of workers working in different sectors and the share of each sector in the GDP. This type of classification also helps in finding out interdependence of each sector and comparing the level of growth in different countries.
For each of the sectors that we came across in this chapter why should one focus on employment and GDP? Could there be other issues which should be examined? Discuss.
For each of the sectors of Indian economy one should focus on employment and GDP because employment gives solution to many economic problems such as poverty and GDP helps in finding out the share of each sector in the national income. Yes, there are other issues like health, education and protection of workers in the unorganised sector, etc., which should be examined.
Make a long list of all kinds of work that you find adults around you doing for a living. In what way can you classify them? Explain your choice.
To be attempted by the students themselves.
How is the tertiary sector different from other sectors? Illustrate with a few examples.
Tertiary sector is also called the service sector because the activities that falls under this sector generate services rather than goods. These activities help in the development of the primary and secondary sectors. These activities, by themselves, do not produce a good but they are an aid for the production process. For example, goods that are produced in the primary or secondary sector would need to be transported by trucks or trains and then sold in wholesale and retail shops. At times, it may be necessary to store these in godowns. We also may need to talk to others over telephone or send letters (communication) or borrow money from banks [banking] to help production and trade. Thus, the tertiary sector is different from the other sectors.
What do you understand by disguised unemployment? Explain with an example each from the urban and rural areas.
For disguised unemployment refer to Very Short Question Type 10.
Example from urban and rural areas: If for the cultivation of 2 hectares land, 20 workers are needed but instead of 20 workers, 30 workers are working, in this case, all workers are disguised unemployed. If 10 of them are moved out, production does not suffer. Similarly, in urban areas, when more people are involved in family business than required, it shows disguised unemployment.
Distinguish between open unemployment and disguised unemployment.
(a) An able and needy person does not get any opportunity to work and earn an income.
(b) They are not able to add anything to the GDP and are a burden on the economy.
(a) Workers are engaged in an activity without actually producing any goods or services.
(b) If a few of them are removed from the job, there is no decrease in the GDP.
“Tertiary sector is not playing any significant role in the development of Indian economy.” Do you agree? Give reasons in support of your answer.
It is not correct to say that tertiary sector is not playing any significant role in the development of Indian economy. There could be a number of reasons for this which are as follows:
For reasons refer to synopsis
Service sector in India employs two different kinds of people. Who are these?
(a) First category includes skilled and educated people such as engineers, doctors, teachers, lawyers, police, etc.
(b) Second category includes unskilled and uneducated people such as small shopkeepers, repair persons, transport persons, farm labourers, etc.
Workers are exploited in the unorganised sector. Do you agree with this view? Give reasons in support of your answer.
Yes, I agree with this view because workers working in an unorganised sector get less wages. Jobs in this sector are often not regular. There is no provision for overtime, paid leave, holidays, etc. Employment is not secure. Workers can be asked to leave without any reason. A lot also depends on the whims of the employer.
How are the activities in the economy classified on the basis of employment conditions?
Activities in the economy on the basis of employment conditions are classified as follows:
(a) Organised sector: This sector covers those enterprises or places of work where the terms of employment are regular and therefore, people have assured work. They are registered by the government and have to follow its rules and regulations which are given invarious laws such as the Factories Act, Minimum Wages Act, Payment of Gratuity Act, Shops and Establishments Act, etc.
(b) Unorganised sector: This sector is characterised by small and scattered units which are largely outside the control of the government. There are rules and regulations but these are ndt followed.
Compare the employment conditions prevailing in the organised and unorganised sectors.
(a) Terms of employment are regular.
(b) People have assured work.
(c) They are registered by the government and have to follow rules and regulations like Factories Act, Minimum Wages Act, etc.
(d) Many benefits are enjoyed by the workers like paid leave, payment during holidays, PF, gratuity, etc.
(a) No regular terms of employment.
(b) Employment is not secure.
(c) They are outside the control of the government, there are rules and regulations but not followed.
(d) There is no provisions for overtime, paid leave, holidays, leave due to sickness, etc.
Explain the objective of implementing the NREGA 2005. 
(a) The NREGA 2005 is the law made by the Central Government of India implementing the right to work in 200 districts of India.
(b) A hundred days of employment in a year is guaranteed to all who are able and in need of work.
(c) If the government fails to provide the promised employment, it will give unemployment allowance to the people.
(d) The types of work that would in future help increase the production from land will be given preference under this act.
Using examples from your area compare and contrast that activities and functions of private and public sectors.
To be attempted by the students themselves.
Discuss and fill the following table giving one example each from your area.
Well managed Organisation , Badly managed organisation
To be attempted by the students themselves.
Give a few examples of public sector activities and explain why the government has taken them up.
Construction of roads, bridges, railways, harbours, generating electricity, providing irrigation through dams, running proper schools and providing quality education, particularly elementary education are some public sector activities. There are several things needed by society as a whole but which the private sector will not provide at a reasonable cost because some of these need spending large sums of money, which is beyond its capacity. Also, collecting money from thousands of people who use these facilities is not easy. Even if they do provide these things they would charge a high rate for their use. Thus, governments have to undertake such heavy spending and ensure that these facilities are available for everyone.
Explain how public sector contributes to the economic development of a nation. 
The public sector enterprises are owned and run by the government. They enable the government to have control ovfer the economy for the benefit of the people in general. Activities undertaken by public sector require huge amount of money. Public sector provides the service at a lower rate. Its investment in the infrastructure sector paves the way for agricultural and industrial development of a country like India. Private sector investments also depend on such infrastructural facilities which are developed by the public sector of a nation. Public sector also promotes the export of a nation, contributing to the economic development of a nation.
The workers in the unorganised sector need protection on the following issues: wages, safety and health. Explain with examples.
(a) Wages : In the urban areas, unorganised sector comprises mainly of workers in small-scale industry, casual workers in construction, trade and transport, etc. Their earnings are low and not regular. They are often exploited. Their jobs are not secure and have no other benefits.
(b) Safety : Workers working in mines, chemical industries, crackers factory often meet accidents as their is no provision for their safety.
(c) Health : Long working hours and unhygienic working surrounding make the workers physically and mentally weak and ill.
A study in Ahmedabad found that out of 15,00,000 workers in the city, 11,00,000 worked in the unorganised sector. The total income of the city in this year (1997-1998) was ₹ 60, 000 million. Out of this ₹ 32,000 million was generated in the organised sector. Present this data as a table. What kind of ways should be thought of for generating more employment in the city?
Table based on study of employment and income in Ahmedabad
|Organised Sector||Unorganised Sector||Total|
The following table gives the GDP in Rupees (Crores) by the three sectors:
(a) Calculate the share of the three sectors in GDP for 1950 and 2000.
(b) Show the data as a bar diagram similar to Graph 2 in the chapter.
(c) What conclusions can we draw from the bar graph?
(b) Data as a bar diagram :
(c) Conclusions drawn from the bar graph are as follows :
- Share of primary sector in GDP has decreased in 2000 as compared to 1950.
- Share of secondary sector in GDP has increased.
- Share of tertiary sector in GDP has increased.
We hope the NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Economics Chapter 2 Sectors of Indian Economy help you. If you have any query regarding NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Economics Chapter 2 Sectors of Indian Economy, drop a comment below and we will get back to you at the earliest.