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Understanding Secularism NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Civics Chapter 2
Class 8 Civics Chapter 2 Understanding Secularism InText Questions and Answers
Page No. 19
Re-read the introduction to this chapter. Why do you think retaliation is not the proper response to this problem ? What would happen if different groups followed this path ?
In Hitler’s Germany, Jews were persecuted and several millions were killed. Now, the Jewish State of Israel treats its own Muslim and Christian minorities quite badly. It is a form of retaliation which is not the proper response to this problem because it creates further tension and chaos in the country. It also hinders the social and economic development as the people are always engaged in minor problems. The minorities are ignored and, thus, feel humiliated.
If different groups follow the same path, there will be a state of turmoil throughout the world. It will adversely affect the international relations. There will be a lack of cooperation and coordination among the different communities.
Page No. 20
Discuss in class : Can there be different views within the same religion?
Yes, there can be different views in the same religion. For example, in Hinduism some people like to worship Lord Shiva while some other to Lord Vishnu. The Muslim community is also divided into Shiyas and Sunnis due to different beliefs.
Page No. 22
In the above storyboard, discuss the answer given by the teacher.
In the storyboard (given on Textbook Page No. 22), the students of government school asked their teacher to celebrate a big religious festival in the school premises. But teacher explained that government schools do not celebrate any religious festival because they cannot give importance to any one religion. In other words, teacher is trying to explain that celebration of religious festival in government organisations means violating the aspect of federalism which is mentioned in our Constitution.
Page No. 23
Government schools often have students from different religious backgrounds. Re-read the three objectives of a secular State and write two sentences on why it is important that government schools do not promote any one religion?
Government schools should not promote any one religion because the students of a particular religion (minority) will feel inferior. They will be ill-treated or even insulted by the majority religious group from time to time. The minority students will not be able to perform their best in the school
Page No. 25
Can you think of a recent incident, from any part of India, in which the 1 secular ideals of the Constitution were I violated and persons were persecuted and I killed because of their religious backgrounds?
In Jammu and Kashmir, the non- k Muslim communities are persecuted, killed, and threatened by the Muslim community. Hindus; are not allowed to practice their festivals and culture. It is just a violation of secular ideals of the Constitution.
Class 8 Civics Chapter 2 Understanding Secularism Exercise Questions and Answers
List the different types of religious practice that you find in your neighbourhood. This could be different forms of prayer, worship of different gods, sacred sites, different kinds of religious music and singing, etc. Does this indicate freedom of religious practice?
(i) Different types of religious practice that I found in my neighbourhood are :
(1) Hindus go to the temple to worship God. They celebrate various festivals like Holi, Diwali, etc. They hymn Bhajans, Ramayan and Gita.
(2) Muslims go to mosques to worship God (Allah). They celebrate Id. They recite Quran. Elders go for their pilgrimage at Mecca.
(3) Sikhs celebrate Guru Nanak Birthday and Guru Gobind Singh Jayanti. They go to Gurudwara to worship their God. Their holy book is Guru Granth Sahib.
(ii) Yes, it indicates freedom of religious practice.
Will the government intervene if some religious group says that their religion allows them to practice infanticide? Give reasons for your answer.
The government will intervene if some religious group says that their religion allows them to practice female infanticide.
In this instance, the State is intervening in religion in order to end a social practice that violates the Fundamental Rights of the female child to live on this earth.
Complete the following table :
|Objective||Why is this important?||Example of a violation of this objective|
|One religious community does not dominate another.||For the progress and upraising of all communities together.||Muslims dominate Hindus in Jammu and Kashmir.|
|The State does not enforce any particular religion nor take away the religious freedom of individuals.||To avoid discrimination, coercion, and killing of religious minorities.||Tamils are dominated by Sinhale’s natives of Sri Lanka.|
|That some members do not dominate other members of the same religious community.||To maintain peace, tolerance, coordination, and cooperation in the society.||Untouchability is practised in the Hindu community.|
Look up the annual calendar of holidays of your school. How many of them pertain to different religions? What does this indicate?
We get about SO days of holidays every year in which 25 of them pertain to different religions. Like Holi and Diwali (Hindu festivals), Id (Muslim festival), Good Friday, Christmas (Christian festivals), Guru Nanak Birthday (Sikh festival), Mahavir Jayanti (Jain’s festival), Budh Jayanti (Budh’s festival).
This indicates that, in India, all religions are treated equally. The Indian Constitution allows individuals the freedom to live by their religious beliefs and practices.
Find out some examples of different views within the same religion.
Examples of different views within the same religion
- Hindus are divided in Vaishnav (followers of Lord Vishnu) and Shaiv (worshippers of Lord Shiva).
- Muslims are divided into Shiyas and Sunnis.
- Buddhists are divided into Mahayana and Hinyan.
- Followers of Lord Mahavir are called Jain. They are also divided into Shwetamber and Digambar.
The Indian State, both keeps away from religion as well as intervenes in religion. This idea can be quite confusing. Discuss this once again in class using examples from the chapter as well as those that you might have come up with.
India is a land of complex ideas. It is difficult to understand what it really wants. There are many ideas in the Constitution but practices are quite different from them. In many cases we see laws explain a concept in a different way. But people interpret it differently. Law itself in some cases acts differently. For example, secular state law has nothing to say in any of the practices of the religion but when the dominance of upper castes in religion was brought to question the law took favour of the lower castes. This interference of the State creates confusion.
To prevent the practice of untouchability among the Hindus, the Indian Constitution bans untouchability. In this case, the State is intervening in religion in order to end a social practice that it believes discriminates and excludes, and that violates the Fundamental Rights of lower castes who are citizens of this country.
(i) This poster (given on Textbook Page No. 27) highlights the need for Peace. It says, “Peace is a never-ending process…. It cannot ignore our differences or overlook our common interests.” Write in your own words what you think the above sentences are trying to convey? How does it relate to the need for religious tolerance?
Peace is important for the smooth functioning of a country. It helps a nation to make progress rapidly. The people working with cooperation contribute effectively to the development of a nation. Along with human resources, other resources can also be fully and efficiently utilized to raise the economic growth of the country.
But the people living in a nation of different religions or communities do have their own views and ideas. Such differences very often lead to discrimination, exclusion, and persecution. Religious beliefs cannot be excluded from society. Thus, there is a need for religious tolerance. People have to learn to respect other religions, beliefs, customs, etc. It will help to maintain peace and ultimately lead to the progress of the people, resources, and the country as well.
(ii) This chapter had three drawings on religious tolerance made by students of your age. Design your own poster on religious tolerance for your peers.
Student, do yourself.