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Understanding Marginalisation NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Civics Chapter 7
Class 8 Civics Chapter 7 Understanding Marginalisation InText Questions and Answers
Page No. 83
Explain at least three different reasons why groups may be marginalized?
Marginalization is the social process of being confined to a lower social standing. Marginalization involves people being denied their fundamental rights which results in lowering their economic and social status.
Why was Dadu forced to leave his village in Orissa?
Dadu was forced to leave his village in Orissa because he was told by forest officials and contractors that the forest was not theirs. These officials and contractors cut down a large part of it.
Then they beat and threatened Dadu till eventually he was forced to sell and abandon the land of his forefathers. They had the support of the authorities.
In your own city or village, who would you think are the marginalized groups? Discuss.
Student, do yourself according to the city or village you belong to.
Can you name some Adivasi communities that live in your state?
Student, do yourself according to the state you belong to.
What languages do they speak?
Student, do yourself.
Do they live close to the forest?
Student, do yourself.
Do they migrate to other regions looking for work?
Adivasis do migrate to other regions looking for work.
Page No. 85
What metals are important in present-day India? Why? Where do they come from? Are there Adivasi populations there?
- Metals important in present-day India are – Iron, manganese, aluminium, copper, gold, silver, etc.
- These are important for the development of our country. Iron is used to make machines, agricultural instruments, automobiles, etc. Copper is used to making electrical wires. Aluminium is used to make aeroplanes. Gold and silver are used to make ornaments.
- Metals are found beneath the earth which is extracted through mining. They are concentrated mainly in the states of Orissa, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Assam, etc.
- Yes, the Adivasi populations reside in the above-mentioned states.
List five products that you use at home that come from the forest.
- Construction of houses
By whom were the following demands being made on forest land?
- Timber for construction of houses and railways
- Forest land for mining
- Forest land for agriculture by non-tribal people
- Reserved by the government as wildlife parks
The demand mentioned in the question above is made by the state (political force) and private industry.
In what ways would this affect tribal people?
- Tribal people lose their main source of livelihood and food.
- Due to the loss of their traditional homelands, Adivasis migrate to cities in search of work where they are employed for very low wages in local industries and in building construction work.
- Apart from their, land, they lose their traditions and customs a way of living.
What do you think this poem is trying to convey?
This poem is trying to convey when Adivasis were forced to leave their land they lost their sources of livelihood and went through various hardships. They had no means of livelihood anymore. Finally, they decided to go to Assam in search of a job as they heard from someone that there are huge tea gardens.
When they reach Assam all their dreams shattered since there they experienced more hardships. The supervisors order them (laborers) to do more and more work. Labourers are often beaten by their masters. If any labor tries to run away, the master (Babu) sent four-person behind him.
The Adivasis (labourers) experienced much worst life as they are tortured by the Babus on a tea plantation. Adivasis regret their decision of coming to Assam. In conclusion, the life of Adivasis did not improve but degraded day by day No hopes left for them.
Page No. 87
In your opinion, why is it important that Adivasis should have a sky in how their forests and forest lands are used?
Adivasis live in close association with forests. They have a deep knowledge of and access to most of the vast tracts of forests and forest resources. Adivasis also suggest certain ways or measures through which they can continue to live in their land and the government or private industries can also practice mining, agriculture, construction, etc.
Adivasis can also provide us information about the valuable medicinal herbs and other products found in the forests. Therefore, Adivasis should have a say in how their forests and forest lands are used.
Page No. 88
Why do we need safeguards for minorities?
Safeguards are needed for minorities :
- To protect minority communities against the possibility of being culturally dominated by the majority.
- To protect them against any discrimination and disadvantage they may face.
- To protect India’s cultural diversity and promoting equality as well as justice.
Page Nos. 88-89
Access to Basic Amenities, 2008-2009
|Religious community||Pucca House||Electricity||Tap Water|
Source: India Human Development Report 2011: Towards Social Inclusion, Oxford University Press for Institute of Applied Manpower Research, Planning Commission, Government of India, New Delhi, p. 346,389,392.
Which of these communities have the most and the least access to basic amenities?
Sikhs have the most access to the basic amenities while Muslims have the least access to the basic amenities.
Question 3. II.
Literacy Rates by Religion, 2011 (Percentages)
|All 74||Hindus 63||Muslims 57||Christians 74|
|Sikhs 67||Buddhists 71||Jains 86|
Source: Census of India 2011
Which of these communities have the highest and the lowest literacy rate?
Jains have the highest literacy rate (86%) while Muslims have the lowest literacy rate (57%).
Question 4. III.
Public Employment of Muslims (Percentages)
|Population 13.5||IAS 3||IPS 4||IFS 1.8|
|State PSU 10.8|| Banks
Source: Social, Economic and Educational Status of the Muslim Community of India, Prime Minister’s High-Level Committee Report 2006.
What do these figures convey?
In comparison to the total population of Muslims in India, the percentage of public employment is quite less. In-State PSU the representation of the Muslim community is better. But their percentage in IAS, IPS, IFS, Central Public Sector Unit (PSU), Bank, and RBI is less.
Read the data related to schooling provided by the Sachar Committee Report:
25 percent of Muslim children in the 6-14 years age group have either never been, enrolled in school or have dropped out. This percentage is much higher than that of any other socio-religious community (Page No. 58).
Do you think special measures are required to address this situation?
Yes, special measures are required to address this situation. Awareness has to be made in the Muslim community regarding literacy. They should be encouraged to send their children to schools.
Page No. 90
I live in a Muslim-dominated area. . Some days back during Ramzan there was some disturbance that started taking a communal outlook. My brother and I had gone for an Iftar party in the neighbourhood and were dressed in traditional clothes, that is sherwani and salwar kameez respectively. On returning home, my brother and 1 were asked to change our clothes to jeans and a T-shirt.
Now when everything is fine I wonder what was the reason that -we were asked to change our clothes and why X didn’t find it odd. Were our clothes giving away our identity and is that identity linked to all kinds of fears and discrimination? Ainee A. Farooqi
The essay (previous page) has been written by a child around your age. What do you think she is trying to convey?
She is trying to convey that in our society discrimination prevails between different religious groups or communities, which often converts into communal riots. It leads to bloodshed, loss of life and property. It also generates fear and hatred between different religious groups. Due to fear of death or losing dear ones, people try to hide their identity from other religious groups.
Class 8 Civics Chapter 7 Understanding Marginalisation Exercise Questions and Answers
Write in your own words two or more sentences of what you understand by the word ‘marginalization’.
Groups are marginalised because:
- They speak a different language.
- They follow different customs.
- They belong to a different religious group from the majority community.
List two reasons why Adivasis are becoming increasingly marginalised.
Adivasis are becoming increasingly marginalised because :
- Forestlands have been cleared for timber and to get land for agriculture and industry.
- Their land has also been taken due to mines and mining projects.
- Land of Adivasis remains highly militarised and war-torn in the Northeast.
Write one reason why you think the Constitution’s safeguards to protect minority communities are very important?
Safeguards are needed to protect minority communities against the possibility of being culturally dominated by the majority and being marginalized.
Re-read the section on Minorities and Marginalisation. What do you understand by the term minority?
The term minority is most commonly used to refer to communities that are numerically small in relation to the rest of the population.
You are participating in a debate where you have to provide reasons to support the following statement: ‘Muslims are a marginalised community. Using the data provided in this chapter, list two reasons that you would give.
The literacy rate of the Muslim population in India is the lowest. It is only 59%.
43.2% of Hindus have access to electricity while only 30% of Muslims have access to electricity.
The above statistics support the statement that Muslims are a marginalised community in India.
Imagine that you are watching the Republic Day parade on TV with a friend and she remarks, “Look at these tribals. They look so exotic. And they seem to be dancing all the time.” List three things that you would tell her about the lives of Adivasis in India.
- There is often very little hierarchy among the Adivasis. This makes them radically different from communities organised around the principles of jati-vama (caste).
- Adivasis are not a homogeneous population: there are over 500 different Adivasi groups in India.
- Adivasis practice a range of tribal religious customs that are different from Islam, Hinduism, and Christianity. These often involve the worship of ancestors, village, and nature spirits.
In the storyboard, you read about how Helen hopes to make a movie on the Adivasi story. Can you help her by developing a short story on Adivasis?
Adivasis are a primitive community living in and/or near forests:
- Around 8% of India’s population is of Adivasis. Most important mining and industrial centers like Bokaro, Rourkela, Jameshdpur are located in their area.
- They are not homogeneous populations: There are about 500 different Adivasi groups in India.
- They are in large numbers in the states like Andhra Pradesh, Jharkhand, Odisha, North Eastern States.
- Odisha is home for at least 60 different tribal groups.
- Other states where Adivasis live in sufficient numbers are:
- Chattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra, and Rajasthan.
- They do not have a hierarchical social structure like other communities.
- They are radically different from other Indian societies in which the caste system is there.
Would you agree with the statement that economic and social marginalization are interlinked? Why?
Economic and social marginalization are interlinked. For example, in the case of Adivasis, they have been increasingly forced through economic changes, forest policies, and political force applied by the state and private industry.
They migrated to lives as workers in plantations, at construction sites, in industries, and as domestic workers. Thus, they get caught in a vicious cycle of poverty and deprivation. This leads to deprivation in other areas. Many tribal children are malnourished. literacy rates among tribals are also very low. Thus, destruction in one sphere naturally impacts the other.