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CBSE Class 12 English Long Compositions – Factual Description
A Factual Description is a writing task that describes a person, place, thing or explains a process in a matter-of-fact way. It is systematic and logical.
While Attempting the Factual Description of a Process
- Explore the topic using your five senses. This is true for any description relating to a person, place, thing or even a process. For example, while describing the ATM, you have to take into consideration the impressions which are received through eyes and touch, i.e. skin.
- Thorough knowledge of a process is essential. You can’t possibly write about using an ATM if you do not know it yourself.
- You have to be systematic in your approach. For example, while you are describing the process of using an ATM card, the first step is logically and obviously inserting the card. You can’t get the cash without this step.
- Adopt a continuous and spontaneous narrative approach. You can’t leave out any part of the description or add anything more than required to it. Your description has to be factual. There is a sequence of steps and you have to adhere to it strictly.
- Your description should be clear, concise and logical.
- Provide a suitable title.
Factual Description of a Process
Value Points for writing a Factual Description of a Process
- Correct sequence of steps involved in it
- Use of present tense (mostly)
- Use of passive voice
- Use of appropriate sentence-linkers like first of all, next, then, while, finally, at last etc.
Opening a Bank Account
Opening a bank account is one of the safest options to save money for rainy days. Otherwise also, one can keep only a limited amount of money at home. So, having a bank account is a wise decision. First of all, you will have to go to the bank personally and find out the relevant form. Fill in the form carefully and give all details like your full name, complete address, occupation, age, income etc.
You will have to paste two passport size photographs in the space especially left for this purpose. Remember, you should give complete and true information because these details are verified and then kept as a record. You will need to submit copies of documents relating to proof of identity and proof of residence to the bank. You also need an existing account holder of the bank to introduce you. You will have to put three specimen signatures on a signature card.
The next step is to go to the deposit counter. Deposit your money. Remember that you will have to maintain a minimum deposit (mostly it is ₹ 5000) in the bank. Now collect your passbook and cheque-book. Here’s hoping that you have a hefty bank balance!
Factual Description of a Place
Keep the following points in mind when you attempt the factual description of a place.
Locational aspects and spatial description are important in this type of description. For example, you have to use words like in the North-West corner, in front of, beyond, adjacent to etc.
Your description should be factual with focus on specific features. For example, if you are describing Goa, you can write about balmy sea breezes, haute cuisine, tropical climate, happy-go-lucky people etc.
Value Points for Factual Description of a Place
- Locational aspects
- Spatial relation
- Sights, Sounds
- Any other point
Wankhede Cricket Stadium
The Wankhede Cricket Stadium is the largest cricket stadium in Mumbai, established in 1975. It is located at Churchgate in the heart of the city. With a seating capacity of 45,000, it has overtaken the world class Brabourne Stadium in all respects.
The main gates of the stadium are named after India’s cricketing icons, Polly Uniifigar and Vinoo Mankad. The stands are named after famous Mumbai cricketers like Vijay Merchant (West Stand), Sunil Gavaskar (East Stand Upper) and Sachin Tendulkar (North Stand).
The first test match played in the stadium was India versus West Indies in 1975. When the era of one day matches began, the Wankhede Stadium hosted the first ODI, India versus Sri Lanka in the year 1987. Floodlights ensured that it hosts the day and night matches as is the norm these days. The first day and night match there was held in 1995.
The Wankhede Stadium is a bowler’s favourite bastion with the spinners having an edge. It’s proximity to the sea ensures spin and bounce to the spinners.
A visit to the stadium is indeed an exciting one.
Factual Description of an Object
Keep the following points in mind while you describe an object.
- What is it? You must define the object by including its name, the class and its distinguishing features. For example, a wrist watch belongs to the class of instruments which show time. Its differentiating feature is that it is specifically designed to be fastened around the wrist.
- Describe the various parts of the object. This will depend upon the particular object.
For instance, in the case of a mobile phone, we can start from its exteriors and then describe the intricacies of the insides. When describing a fan, we can move from top to bottom. Adhere to a particular sequence while you describe the various parts of an object.
Value Points for Factual Description of an Object
- Differentiating features
- External features/design, texture, colour
- Internal working- about machinery
- Any other relevant point
- Brand name (if necessary)
A wrist watch is a small instrument to show time. It is so designed that it can be fastened around the wrist. There are markings or numbers from 1 to 12 to give us a sense of time.
On its dials it has two hands, pointed needles to show the hours and the minutes. Sometimes watches also have a hand to show seconds. The dial is covered with a glass.
There is a small knob attached on the exterior of the dial to bind the watch and set the time in mechanical watches. However, in electronic watches the knob is multi-functional. In such watches, a battery cell provides the energy and a quartz crystal functions as the timing device. Electronic watches are available in both analog and digital displays. These days there are innumerable brands of watches available according to choice and budget.
Factual Description of a Person
When describing a person, keep the following points in mind.
- Mention the physical features of the person, i.e. build, height, complexion, facial features, eyes, nose, hair, dress.
- Take a note of the person’s habits.
- Remember the context and the purpose of the description. This is because there is a lot of difference in the way you describe yourself to a friend and the way you give a description in a job application.
Value Points for Factual Description of a Person
- Physical appearance
- Opinion of others about him
I think that my mother is a wonderful personality. She always has a smile on her face, whatever task she is engaged in. She always takes care of our family, which includes my younger sister, my father and me.
She likes her house to be clean and organised. She is herself an organised person, and all things at home are always in their right places.
She is of medium height and she has curly brown hair which looks lovely on her. Her eyes are honey coloured and her skin is a light brown.
She is a very kind person. She is very friendly, patient and she loves to help people. I love my mother, because she has set a good example for me to follow.
Sample Factual Descriptions
Write a factual description of the new library in your school, in about 150 words.
New School Library
The pride of the school is the new wing that houses the library. There is a spacious hall lined with bookshelves on both sides as well as rows on the other side. It has acquired a number of books on different subjects in the field of Science and Humanities. The self-study centre attracts serious students, as it offers many facilities. About 80 to 100 students can sit and read here. Textbooks and reference books are readily available in the shelves. There is a computer room with internet facilities and access to E-Books. In short, the new library promotes the reading habit among students. It is hoped that more students will benefit in future from this rich source of information and knowledge.
You are Sooraj/Shilpa, who was enjoying Christmas holidays at his/her home when a disastrous earthquake rocked the area. Describe the havoc caused by the earthquake in about 150 words.
An Earthquake and its Aftermath
Yesterday we had a late dinner at 10 pm and kept on chatting after dinner. Many friends and relatives of mine had come to my town for the Christmas holidays. We also enjoyed a campfire after dinner. Small children and the older people went to bed quite early. We were just about to leave when we felt the earth shaking. The rumbling sound sent a shiver down our spines. We at once understood that the ground under our feet had been hit by an earthquake. We ran out shouting to alert as many people as we could so that they could rush out from their homes. The earthquake lasted for fifty seconds only, but these terrible moments has brought death, destruction and doom. This information was well-publicised by the media. We were probably lucky this time, but the havoc caused by the earthquake will haunt us for ever.
Give a factual description about a picnic you enjoyed last Sunday in about 150 words.
Picnic at Okhla
It was a pleasant cloudy Sunday morning. We left our school with our class teacher in the school bus. After half an hour we reached Okhla. A large number of children and youngsters had already come there. We found a shady nook and spread a carpet there. We played on musical instruments, sang and danced together. Boys played cricket for some time and girls were busy gossiping. The entertainment hour brought out the best talent.
Each one of us had to entertain the others and devise something new to enliven the atmosphere will laughter. We could hardly give up the temptation of having a plunge into the Yamuna Canal. Some of us enjoyed boating. It was now 2 pm , so we took lunch and rested for a while. It soon began to drizzle. We got into the bus and returned home. The picnic had broken the routine, refreshed our mind and replenished our energy.
You have been a witness to an incident of chain snatching in your area. Give a short description of the same in about 150 words.
Incident of Chain Snatching
Chain snatching incidents are on a peak in the city. Every now and then complains are being lodged. I witnessed one such incident in our colony, Vikas Puri, recently. As I was returning from college, I saw a motorcycle-borne youth block the way of our neighbour, Mrs Renu Bhatia. The pillion rider snatched her purse and the gold chain and the driver rode away quickly. All this happened in broad daylight in the unguarded inside lane of our colony and nobody dared to intervene, as only one or two bystanders were present at that time. Before I could realise what was happening, the bikers had escaped. However, I rushed for Mrs Bhatia’s help and both of Us then informed the police. The police has assured to make progress in the case to instill fear in the minds of snatchers. Since then police patrolling has been increased in the area.
You were one of volunteers who donated blood at the blood donation camp organised by the Red Cross Society in your school. Write a description about your experience and feelings while donating blood.
When I Donated Blood
The Red Cross Society had organised a blood donation camp at our school. Banners all around proclaimed the importance of blood donation. One such banner read ‘Blood donation can save a precious life’. After reading it I got motivated and started telling everybody about it. Our science teacher informed us that blood cells are replenished every three months. I thought it would be a real service to humanity. The doctors first checked my blood group, which was B-positive. I was asked to lie down on a bed. Then they punctured my skin with the needle of a syringe and collected my blood in a bottle. I was then given a glass of milk, an egg and an apple. I felt that my noble act was a step in the right direction. It was a silent service to suffering humanity. I resolved to donate blood regularly.
You as the group leader will speak on ‘Planting a Sapling’ to the volunteers of ‘Vanmahotsav’. Write the complete process involved in ‘Planting a Sapling’ in about 150 words.
Planting a Sapling
Planting a sapling is not a very difficult job. It, however, requires a bit of gardening skill and knowledge of elementary Botany. Every time is not suitable for planting. The rainy reason is the ideal season for planting new saplings. First of all, you should dig out holes, level the soil and mix manure with it. A little watering of the soil makes it softer and more receptive to the roots of the sapling. Add a few drops of some insecticide to keep off white ants and insects.
Now put the roots of the sapling into the hole and adjust the stem in the centre. Fill the hole with the soil dug out earlier. Level the earth around the sapling. Press the soil with thumbs or the handle of a shovel and then water the plant. Let the loose soil settle properly. The process of planting a sapling is complete.
Last week the newly built auditorium of your school was inaugurated. As Deepak/Deepti Saha, the head boy/girl of the school, write a factual description of the auditorium in 125-150 words.
New Auditorium for School
by Deepti Saha, Head Girl
After all the waiting, finally we have new auditorium for the school. It is a marvel of modern facilities with videoconferencing arrangement, electronic projection, movable whiteboards and cushioned seats. A split air-conditioner completes the comforts provided. It has a capacity of 750 seats, more than adequate for the school’s requirements. It even has two ‘Green Rooms’ for drama artistes to change clothes before and after the enaction of plays. A public address system with movable and fixed microphones is part of the facilities. The videoconferencing arrangement is helpful for senior students, as they are able to attend a web telecast by overseas and Indian TV Channels / Academic Institutions on topics which will help them to be successful in competitive examinations. Such a facility is not available in any school in our city.
Thus, it was worth waiting for such a high-tech auditorium.
Your brother is going to Chennai to write an entrance exam. You have reguested your friend to meet him at the railway station and arrange accommodation for him. As your brother has not seen your friend, give a detailed factual description of your friend in 125-150 words, so that your brother can recognise him easily. You are Parvesh/Parvati
Description of PD Venkataraman
My friend Venkat is a twenty year old college student of height 170 cm. He is lean in build with a handlebar moustache, which is his main facial feature distinguishing him from others. Venkataraman is fluent in Hindi as he lived in Delhi in his childhood. He always wears spotlessly clean white shirt and white trousers, which should enable you to spot him on the station platform. In addition, he always wears sandals without any socks.
He is generally having a Vermillion tika on his forehead, which is another distinguishing feature. His nose is rather long and he has keen blue eyes. His jet black well-oiled hair is parted in the middle. He is a very enthusiastic person, being an optimist, and you will enjoy spending time with him.
Parks are not only useful for children, adults and the old, but are environment friendly. Write a factual description in 100-125 words of the neighbourhood park you often visit.
My Neighbourhood Park
Parks in the neighbourhood are the best places for gathering. It is not only useful for children, adults and the old, but environment friendly too.
I also often visit my neighbourhood park to enjoy the colourful atmosphere and greenery.
It is a lush green park well marked with passages. It has four big entrances. The park is oval in shape. In the middle there is a huge open space. Along the open space, there lies a circular path on which people walk. A huge lamp is fitted in the middle which makes the park glow in the evening. Children enjoy playing on the slides, swings and see-saw. The beautiful arrangement and variety of flowers are a treat for the eyes. The park is the best combination of nature and entertainment in the neighbourhood.
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