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CBSE Class 12 English Sample Question Paper – 2
Section A : Reading [30 Marks]
1. Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow. (12)
- Someone will say, And are you not ashamed, Socrates, of a course of life which is likely to bring you to an untimely end? To him I may fairly answer: There you are mistaken, a man who is good for anything ought not to calculate the chance of living or dying; he ought only to consider whether in doing anything he is doing right or wrong, acting the part of a good man or of a bad.
- And therefore, if you let me go now and reject the counsels of Anytus, who said that if I were not put to death and that if I escape now, your sons will all be utterly ruined by listening to my words, if you say to me, Socrates, this time we will not mind Anytus, and will let you off, but upon one condition; that you are not to inquire and speculate in this way any more, and that if you are caught doing this again you shall die, if this was the condition on which you let me go, I should reply, Men of Athens, I honour and love you; but I shall obey God rather than you and while I have life and strength, I shall never cease from the practice and teaching of philosophy, exhorting anyone whom I meet after my manner, and convincing him, saying: O my friend, why do you, who are a citizen of the great and mighty and wise city of Athens, care so much about laying up the greatest amount of money and honour and reputation, and so little about wisdom and truth and the greatest improvement of the soul, which you never regard or heed at all? Are you not ashamed of this? Therefore, O men of Athens, I say to you, do as Anytus bids or not as Anytus bids, and either acquit me or not; but whatever you do, know that I shall never alter my ways, not even if I have to die many times.
- And now, Athenians, I am not going to argue for my own sake, as you may think, but for yours, that you may not sin against God, or lightly reject. His boon by condemning me. For if you kill me, you will not easily find another like me, who, if I may use such a ludicrous figure of speech, am a sort of gadfly, given to the state by God; and the state is like a great and noble horse who is tardy in his motions owing to his very size, and requires to be stirred into life. I am that gadfly which God had given the state, and all day long and in all places am always fastening upon you, arousing and persuading and reproaching you. I dare say that you may feel irritated at being suddenly awakened when you are caught napping; and you may think that if you were to strike me dead, as Anytus advises, which you easily might, then you would sleep on for the remainder of your lives, unless God in his care of you gives you another gadfly.
- Well, Athenians, this and the like of this is nearly all the defence which I have to offer. Yet a word more. Perhaps there may be someone who is offended at me, when he calls to mind how he himself, on a similar or even a less serious occasion, had recourse to prayers and supplications with many tears, and how he produced his children in court, which was a moving spectacle, together with a posse of his relations and friends; whereas I, who am probably in danger of my life, will do none of these things.
(a) On the basis of your reading of the given passage, answer the following questions by choosing the most appropriate option. (1 × 4 = 4)
- A man who is good for anything should not, according to Socrates,
(a) consider whether he is acting like a good or bad man.
(b) calculate whether he is doing right or wrong.
(c) think about his chances of dying or living.
(d) All of the above.
- Which of the following will Socrates never stop doing?
(a) Obeying the orders of the state.
(b) Being offended by people.
(c) Obeying all men.
(d) Practicing and teaching philosophy.
- What does Socrates compare himself to?
(a) A gadfly for the people.
(b) A God given gadfly to the state.
(c) A ludicrous figure.
(d) None of the above.
- What will Socrates never do in his defence?
(a) Take a group of his relations and friends to the court.
(b) Cause a moving spectacle by bringing his children to the court.
(c) Take recourse to prayers and supplications with many tears.
(d) All of the above.
(b) Answer the following questions as briefly as possible. (1 x 6 = 6)
- What did Socrates consider of greater value than wealth and honour?
- What are two instances in the passage of Socrates saying that he was not afraid of death?
- What is the likeness between the practices of Socrates and a gadfly?
- How can you tell that Anytus wants Socrates to be executed?
- What condition did Socrates not agree to while asserting that he would obey God rather than anybody else?
- According to Socrates, why should a man not think about his chances of living or dying?
(c) Find the words in the given passage which convey the meaning similar to (1 x 2 = 2)
- Think carefully (para 1)
- Blessing (para 3)
- (c) think about his chances of dying or living.
- (d) Practicing and teaching philosophy.
- (b) A God given gadfly to the state.
- (d) All of the above
- Socrates considered wisdom, truth and the improvement of the soul of greater value than wealth and honour.
- The first instance is in paragraph 1, where he says, “To him I may good man or of a bad.” The
second instance is in paragraph 4, where he says, “whereas I, in danger of my life, will do none of these things.”
- Just as a gadfly is a fly that bites livestock, provoking them into action or movement, similarly Socrates keeps on criticising the government (called ‘state’) so that it is stirred into action.
- We can tell that Anytus wants Socrates to be executed by what Socrates says in the last sentence of the third paragraph, “… if you were to strike me dead, as Anytus advises…”.
- Socrates did not agree to the condition that he must not inquire or speculate in this way any longer and that if he is caught doing this again, he will have to die. So he decided to obey God and not the orders of anybody else.
- According to Socrates, a man should not consider the chance of living or dying because, if he is a good man, he should only consider whether in doing anything, he is doing right or wrong.
2. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow. (10)
- Swachh Bharat-Swachh Vidyalaya is the national campaign driving ‘Clean India: Clean Schools’ A key feature of the campaign is to ensure that every school in India has a set of functioning and well-maintained water, sanitation and hygiene facilities. Water, sanitation and hygiene in schools refer to a combination of technical and human development components that are necessary to produce a healthy school environment and to develop or support appropriate health and hygiene behaviours. The technical components include drinking water, hand washing, toilet and soap facilities in the school compound for use by children and teachers. The human development components are the activities that promote conditions within the school and the practices of children that help to prevent water, hygiene and sanitation related diseases.
- School sanitation and hygiene depend on a process of capacity enhancement of teachers, community members, Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) and Community Based Organisations (CBOs) and education administrators. Water, sanitation and hygiene in school aims to make a visible impact on the health and hygiene of children through improvement in their health and hygiene practices, and those of their families and the communities. It also aims to improve the curriculum and teaching methods while promoting hygiene practices and community ownership of water and sanitation facilities within schools. It improves children’s health, school enrolment, attendance and retention, paving the- way for a new generation of healthy children. It is the role of policymakers, government representatives, citizens and parents to make sure that every child attends a school that has access to safe drinking water, proper sanitation and hygiene facilities. This is every child’s right.
- The provision of water, sanitation and hygiene facilities in school secures a healthy school environment and protects children from illness and exclusion. It is the first step towards a healthy physical learning environment, benefiting both learning and health. Children who are healthy and well-nourished can fully participate in school and get the most from the education. Hygiene education in schools helps promote those practices that would prevent water and sanitation related diseases as well as encourage healthy behaviour in future generations of adults.
- Girls are particularly vulnerable to dropping out of school, partly because many are reluctant to continue their education when toilets and washing facilities are not private, not safe or simply not available. When schools have appropriate gender-separated facilities, an obstacle to attendance is removed. Thus, having gender segregated toilets in schools particularly matters for girls. Gender norms and physiology make privacy more important for girls than boys, and biological realities mean that girls need adequate sanitary facilities at school to manage menstruation. Basic facilities that provide for good hygiene and privacy, along with sensitive health promotion, assist girls to stay in school and complete their education.
- Hygiene in school also supports school nutrition. The simple act of washing hands with soap before eating the school mid-day meal assists to break disease transmission routes. Children get the nutritional benefits intended, rather than ingesting bacteria, germs and viruses. Studies show that when hand washing becomes part of a child’s daily routine, the benefits to health are evident and the practice does not easily fade. School is therefore an ideal setting for teaching good hygiene behaviours that children can also carry home.
- Having safe water, toilet and hygiene facilities in schools promote equity. All children are equal in their right to access to safe drinking water, sanitation and hygiene facilities, and all children gain benefits through the improved hygiene practices promoted in schools. By providing inclusive and .accessible facilities, children with special needs are able to attend school and further contribute to the development of their society.
- Having a clean school fosters a child’s pride in his or her school and community. It enables every child to become an agent of change for improving water, sanitation and hygiene practices in their families and within their community.
(a) On the basis of your reading of the given passage, answer the following questions by choosing the most appropriate option. (1 x 2 = 2)
- Increasing the capacity of improves school sanitation and hygiene.
(a) Non-Governmental Organisations and Community Based Organisations
(b) teachers and education administrators
(c) community members
(d) All of the above
- Factors which make privacy more important for girls than boys are
(a) biological realities and menstruation.
(b) gender norms and physiology.
(c) good hygiene and sensitive health promotion.
(d) None of the above’
(b) Answer the following questions as briefly as possible. (1 x 6 = 6)
- Why are girls particularly vulnerable to dropping out of school?
- How does hygiene education in schools help children?
- How does having safe water, toilet and hygiene facilities in schools help in being fair and impartial to all?
- How does having a clean school develop a child’s pride in its school and community?
- What are the human development components that are necessary to produce a healthy school environment?
- What is a key feature of the Swachh Bharat-Swachh Vidyalaya campaign?
(c) Find the words in the given passage which convey the meaning similar to (1 x 2 = 2)
- Practical (para 1)
- Maintaining enrolment (para 2)
- (d) All of the above
- (b) gender norms and physiology.
- Girls are particularly vulnerable to dropping out of school, partly because many are reluctant to continue their education when toilets and washing facilities are not private, .not safe or not available at all.
- Hygiene education in schools helps to promote those practices in children that prevent water and sanitation related diseases as well as encourage healthy behaviour in future generations of adults.
- All children, including children with special needs, are equal in their right to access to safe drinking water, sanitation and hygiene facilities. Thus all children gain benefits through the improved hygiene practices promoted in schools. By providing inclusive and accessible facilities, the schools are fair and impartial to all.
- A clean school enables all children to become an agent of change for improving water, sanitation and hygiene practices in their families and within their community.
- The human development components are the activities that promote conditions within the school and the practices of children that help to prevent water, hygiene and sanitation related diseases.
- A key feature of the campaign is to ensure that every school in India has a set of functioning and well-maintained water, sanitation and hygiene facilities.
3. Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow. (8)
The work of the heart can never be interrupted. The heart’s job is to keep oxygen-rich blood flowing through the body. All the body’s cells need a constant supply of oxygen, especially those in the brain. The brain cells live only four to five minutes after their oxygen is cut off, and then death comes to the entire body.
The heart is a specialised muscle that serves as a pump. This pump is divided into four chambers connected by tiny doors called valves. The chambers work to keep blood flowing round the body in a circle.
At the end of each circuit, veins carry the blood to the right atrium, the first of the four chambers. Two-fifth oxygen by then is used up and it is on its way back to the lung to pick up a .fresh supply and to give up the carbon dioxide it has accumulated. From the right atrium, the blood flows through the tricuspid valve into the second chamber, the right ventricle.
The right ventricle contracts when it is filled, pushing the blood through the pulmonary artery, which leads to the lungs. In the lungs the blood gives up its carbon dioxide and picks up fresh oxygen. Then it travels to the third chamber, the left atrium. When this chamber is filled, it forces the blood through the valve to the left ventricle. From here it is pushed into a big blood vessel called the aorta and sent around the body by way of arteries.
Heart disease can result from any damage to the heart muscle, the valves or the pacemaker. If the muscle is damaged, the heart is unable to pump properly. If the valves are damaged, blood cannot flow normally and easily from one chamber to another, and if the pacemaker is defective, the contractions of the chambers will become un-coordinated.
Until the twentieth century, few doctors dared to touch the heart. In 1953, all this changed. After twenty years of work, Dr John Gibbon in the USA had developed a machine that could take over temporarily from the heart and lungs. Blood could be routed through the machine, bypassing the heart, so that surgeons could, work inside it and see what they were doing. The era of open heart surgery had begun.
In the operating theatre, it gives surgeons the chance to repair or replace a defective heart. Many patients have had plastic valves inserted in their hearts when their own were faulty. Many people are being kept alive with tiny battery operated pacemakers; none of these repairs could have been made without the heart-lung machine. But, valuable as it is to the surgeons, the heart-lung machine has certain limitations. It can be used only for a few hours at a time because its pumping gradually damages the blood cells.
(a) On the basis of your reading of the given passage, make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary (minimum 4). Use a format you consider suitable. Also supply an appropriate title to it. (5)
(b) Write a summary of the given passage in about 80 words. (3)
(a) Title: Heart-Lung Machine Replaces the Heart
- Function of heart
- vital for living
- never stop wrkg
- supplies oxygen-rich blood to various parts of body
- Structure of the heart
- connected by valves
- blood purified-lungs
- arteries carry pure blood to dfrt parts of body
- Heart disease because
- weak heart muscle
- defective valves
- defective pacemaker
- History open heart surgery
- 1953- Dr Gibbon inv heart-lung machine
- blood could pass thru machine
- enabled open heart surgery
- plastic valves replace defective heart valves
- used only for few hrs
- pumping damages blood cells
Key to Abbreviations
(b) Summary The heart is a vital organ of the body that works non-stop. It sends oxygen-rich blood all over the body. It is divided into four chambers connected by valves. Blood purified in the lungs is carried by arteries to different parts of the body. Heart disease has certain causes like weak muscles, defective valves or a defective pacemaker. Open-heart surgery originated in 1953 when Dr Gibbon developed the heart-lung machine. Replacement of valves and other areas of a damaged heart is now possible.
Section B : Writing Skills [30 Marks]
You are a student of St Christie Convent School, Shimla. The school is holding a Book Fair in the school premises. Famous author and novelist Arundhati Roy has consented to be the Chief Guest and inaugurate it. Design an invitation card to be sent to the parents and other invitees.
You are Akshay/Varsha. You have been invited to attend the wedding of your friend’s sister. Respond to the invitation, regretting your inability to attend it, giving a reason. (4)
House No 242/ A-41
First Floor, Sulekha Road
Bahadurgarh – 124507
19th May, 20XX
I was happy to receive the invitation to your sister Akshita’s wedding. I would have loved to join you on this auspicious occasion, but father is in hospital. He had a heart attack last week and needs my constant care. Please convey my best wishes to the happy couple.
You are Asha/Ashwani of 15, Esplanade Road, Bengaluru – 560003. Write a letter to the Editor of ‘Deccan Herald’ about rising prices of essential commodities. Give suggestions on how to control the price rise.
IIMT University, Pune, offers different courses of studies through correspondence. Write to the Director, IIMT Institute of Correspondence Courses and Continuing Education, IIMT University, Pune requesting him to send you the prospectus. (6)
15, Esplanade Road
Bengaluru – 560003
17th May, 20XX
Subject Skyrocketing Prices of Essential Commodities
This is to bring to the notice of the government through your columns to the plight of the common man because of the skyrocketing prices of essential commodities.
The prices of vegetables and fruits as well as essentials like sugar, milk and lentils have touched a new high in recent months. The recent implementation of the sixth pay commission and the unseasonal rains in rural areas seem to have triggered this hike. People are compelled to cut down their expenditure on all essential food items to make both ends meet.
Government must take some stringent measures to control the rising prices, so that food riots do not break out.
Flat No 462/ VKT
VK Society, Kohat Enclave
12th June, 20XX
Institute of correspondence and continuing education
Subject Request to send prospectus
This is with reference to your admission notification published in ‘The Tribune’ dated 10th June, 20XX regarding various correspondence courses offered by your university, you are requested to send me a copy of the prospectus. I am enclosing herewith a self-addressed stamped envelope and a demand draft of ₹ 1200 for this purpose.
You are Ashok/Arpana, Class XII-A. The Historical Society of your school organised a trip to visit the Taj Mahal during the autumn break. You were impressed and noted the following points.
Autumn Break – Trip organised – Travel by Taj express – First sight of Taj – History teacher as guide – Visit to Fatehpur Sikri – Trip educative and entertaining.
Using the above notes and your own ideas, write an article on A visit, to a place of Historical Interest’ in (150-200) words.
You are Binod/Barkha, a student of New Manglapuri Public School, New Delhi. Prepare a speech for the morning assembly in not more than 200 words on the topic, ‘Commercial Advertisements: a boon or a curse of the 21st century’. Use the inputs given below Attractive Advertisements – Glorify product in a consumerist society – Do not give full information – People easily duped – Cause greed and dissatisfaction if unaffordable – Create general awareness – Make it possible to compare products and services. (10)
A Visit to a Place of Historical Interest
by Arpana, Class XU-A
During the recent autumn break, our school organised a one-day trip to Agra for Class XI and XII students interested in visiting places of historical interest. Our two History teachers accompanied us on the visit. We were a group of 120 students and started our journey from Delhi by the Taj Express, which reached us to the Agra Cantonment station at 10 am. We took buses to visit the Taj Mahal. Its first signt was wonderful and many of us photographed it from a distance. During a tour around the Taj, both our History teachers took pains to explain the architecture of the mausoleum and why Shah Jahan had pains takingly got it built over 20 years.
Later on we visited Akbar’s Fort at Fatehpur Sikri, about 30 km away. This visit was also highly educative due to the efforts of our teachers. We had our lunch there before returning to Agra for catching the Taj Express back to Delhi. The trip has been highly educative and entertaining due to the complete involvement of our teachers.
Respected Principal, worthy teachers and my dear friends. Today I, Barkha of Class Xll-B, want to express my views on the topic, ‘Commercial Advertisements: a boon or a curse of the 21 st century’.
The plus points of commercial advertisements are that they create awareness in the minds of consumers about new products or services being made available, educate society in new uses and applications of existing products and lead to improvements in product or service quality due to competition. In many cases, they make possible the comparison between competing products or services. Thus, they are a boon to society.
The downside to the proliferation of advertising of products and services is that often attractive advertisements glorify products by giving incomplete or even misleading information. This may dupe the innocent people using the product or service, as they assume that what is advertised is fully correct. Such advertisements, if liked by people who are not able to afford the items advertised, lead to greed and sometimes dissatisfaction in the minds of many consumers. This is particularly true of food and lifestyle products.
Thus, we can conclude that commercial advertisements are both a boon and a curse of the 21st century, depending on how they project the product or service advertised.
You are Swati/Sarthak of Rani Jhansi Public School, Delhi and commute to your school everyday by the Metro Rail. You notice its benefits of travelling, controlling air pollution and reducing traffic jams. Write an article for a local newspaper on the topic, ‘Metro Rail – A Boon for Traffic’ in 150-200 words.
You are Manvendra/Madhulika. Prepare a speech to be delivered in the morning assembly on ‘Cleanliness is next to Godliness’ in about 150-200 words (10)
Metro Rail – A Boon for Traffic
by Swati, Class Xll-B
The Metro Rail has become a landmark in the localities of Delhi and was started just when Delhi was choking with the pollution from vehicle exhausts and incessant traffic jams. Travelling on the Metro is time saving due to there being no traffic jams. You don’t have to drive your own vehicle, reducing the stress your mind and body is subjected to. As the trains are air conditioned, you don’t face the scorching heat of summer on Delhi roads. As successive Metro stations are only about 1 km apart, it is a convenient walking distance away if you want to travel by the Metro.
The biggest advantage of the Metro is that it is pollution free, being run by electricity. No more choking with exhaust fumes! Many people nowadays travel by the Metro for work, parking their personal vehicles at home. This has resulted in reducing traffic jams all over the city. Even the people travelling on the Metro trains are more social and well-behaved, making travelling by Metro a pleasant experience. We wonder why the government did not bring it to Delhi earlier.
Respected Principal, worthy teachers and my dear friends. Today I, Manvendra of Class Xll-A, want to express my views on the topic, ‘Cleanliness is next to Godliness’.
All of you are aware that in our city, filthiness is observed on the roads, near housing colonies, around hospitals and even in the parks. All this leads to the breeding of disease carrying insects, which cause people to keep on falling ill, resulting in an overall feeling of despondency in which there is no place for thinking deeply on spiritual matters. In fact, the people quarrel with each other on petty issues, wasting their time.
In contrast, if we see some towns like Surat in Gujarat and many others in advanced countries, the civic sense of the people living there has ensured all-round cleanliness, so that the general mood of the people is uplifted and diseases caused by breeding insects have been drastically reduced. All this ensures that people there can devote more ti me to spiritual matters, thus ensuring that they come nearer to God. There is more amity between people living in such places, thus proving that cleanliness is really next to Godliness.
Section C : Literature Textbooks and
Long Reading Text [40 Marks]
8. Read the extracts given below and answer the questions that follow. (1 x 4 = 4)
A thing of beauty is a joy forever
Its loveliness increases, it will never
Pass into nothingness; but will keep
A bower quiet for us, and a sleep
Full of sweet dreams, and health, and quiet breathing.
- What kind of joy does a beautiful thing provide?
- Explain : “Its loveliness increases.”
- What does the poet mean by saying “it will never pass into nothingness”?
- What does ‘quiet breathing’ imply?
And yet, for these
Children, these windows, not this map, their world,
Where all their future’s painted with a fog,
A narrow street sealed in with a lead sky
Far far from rivers, capes, and stars of words.
- What comprises the world for these children?
- What future do these children have in store for themselves?
- What does ‘lead sky’ symbolise?
- What bounties are these children deprived of?
- A thing of beauty provides eternal and everlasting joy to us because it leaves an indelible imprint in our mind.
- Joy multiplies with every beautiful thought. Likewise the loveliness of a beautiful thing increases manifold each time we visualise it.
- The enjoyment that a beautiful thing provides is eternal. The imprint it leaves on our mind is indelible. Thus it’s loveliness can never fade away or die out.
- It implies a sense of peace and serenity that one experiences on seeing beautiful things. It refreshes and relaxes us by driving away aggression and restlessness.
- The world for these children is confined within the walls of their slum.
- The future for these children is bleak and foggy. They may nurture hopes of a better future, but achieving these hopes is a vision, a dream for them.
- ‘Lead sky’ is black or dull grey sky, symbolic of hopelessness and despair.
- These children are deprived of all the bounties of nature like rivers, snow-capped mountains etc as they are confined in the fills of the narrow streets of their slums.
9. Answer any four of the following questions in about 30-40 words. (3 x 4 = 12)
- What did the peddler think about rattraps when he lost his way in the forest? How was it different from his previous thoughts about rattraps?
- What was Gandhi’s advice to the lawyers that made them champion peasants’ rights?
- What thoughts does Kamala Das put away while travelling with her mother in the car? Why do you think she puts them away?
- What makes Evans comment that his ‘gobble hat’ is a ‘kind O’ lucky charm’ for him?
- It is better to have tried and failed than never to have tried at all. How would you relate this observation to the author of ‘The Cutting of My Long Hair’?
- What was M Hamel’s contribution to the school in Alsace?
- At first the peddler thought that the whole world was nothing but a big rattrap. It baited people but
as soon they were tempted, it closed in on them, and then everything came to an end.
After stealing the money, the peddler lost his way in the wood. He realised then that it was his turn to be trapped. He had let himself be fooled by a bait and had been caught. The whole forest closed in upon him like a prison from which he could never escape.
- The prominent lawyers told Gandhiji that they had come to advise and help him and if he went to jail, they would go home. When Gandhiji talked to them about the injustice to the sharecroppers, the lawyers thought that Gandhiji was a complete stranger and yet he was prepared to go to prison for the peasants. If they, on the other hand, being residents of the adjoining districts and also having claimed to have served these peasants, should go home, it would be a shameful desertion.
- Kamala Das feels a nagging ache for not being able to care for her mother well enough. She sees her mother’s frail body and fears that she may die soon. She tries to drive away these thoughts from her mind because they are sickening and dreadful. Moreover, there is little she can do about the whole situation.
- Evans is bent upon making the escape-plan a success and for that purpose he had clipped his hair short in order to pass off as McLeery later on. Jackson disapproves of the dirty ‘Gobble hat’ and asks him to remove it. Evans immediately comes out with a ploy to avoid detection by telling Jackson that the hat has always brought him good luck. This makes the prison officer relent.
- On learning that her long hair would be cut the author immediately retorts, “I will not submit! I will struggle first.” Her expression “I will struggle first” is significant and the use of the word ‘first’ makes it clear that she knows that she is going to lose, yet she tries her utmost to avoid getting shingled hair. Hence the observation suits the author fully well as she is a fighter by temperament.
- M Hamel had given forty years of long and faithful service to the school in Alsace. Though the students found him crake, he was a true Frenchman at heart, who took immense pride in teaching his mother tongue. He loved the school and wanted the children to love and respect their language.
Answer the following questions in about 120-150 words. (6)
The experience had a deep meaning for me, as only those who have known stark terror and conquered it can appreciate. In death there is peace. There is terror only in the fear of death, as Roosevelt knew when he said, ‘All we have to fear is fear itself.”
We all have one fear or another but few of us are able to overcome it. With reference to the chapter ‘Deep Water’, draw out qualities that one should possess to overcome his/her fear of water? (VBQ)
According to a famous quote, “It was once said that the moral test of a government is how that government treats those who are in the dawn of life, the children; those who are in the twilight of life, the elderly; and those who are in the shadows of life, the sick, the needy and the handicapped.”
Relating the above quote to your understanding of the chapter ‘Lost Spring’, how would you rate the political system in our country? Write an article on, The Performance of the Indian Political System.
It is true that we all suffer from one weakness or the other. Some of us are able to overcome it and the rest live with that very weakness, unable to overcome it, getting more and more habituated to live with it. Douglas belonged to the first category. Whenever he tried to swim, his aversion to water and weariness overpowered him, not allowing him to swim.
But he had strong willpower to conquer his weakness and he did it. It was the fear that he was fearing. Finally, he overcame every hurdle and emerged perfect, free from all weaknesses.
Thus it is not death but the fear of death that instils terror and anxiety in our minds. Clinging to past fears can spoil one’s present, hence intensive and persistent efforts are needed to shake off the fears of the past. It is therefore imperative to make such efforts, otherwise one might develop a life-long complex.
The Performance of the Indian Political System
After a long period of independence, India is still overwhelmed with such social, economic and political evils highlighted in the story ‘Lost Spring’, which are getting more and more complex with the passage of time. Poverty is one of them. A large number of people in India make their livelihood through rag – picking. The thought that the garbage thrown by us is the source of their survival is really maddening.
Not only this, a number of people work in Firozabad, where they are employed in bangle-making, exposing them to the highest temperature, which ultimately deprives them of their precious eyes permanently.
The Indian political system has completely failed in its test, as it cannot provide a proper childhood to its children. Nor has it succeeded in stopping child trafficking, or the employment of children in hazardous conditions. We have not developed sufficiently to ensure a proper life for our children.
Answer the following questions in about 120-150 words. (6)
“Things that matter. Things nobody else has ever said. Things I want to think about.” What are the ‘things’ that Derry is referring to?
How would you describe the behaviour of the Maharaja’s minions towards him? Do you find them truly sincere towards the Tiger King or are they driven by fear when they obey him?
Derry faced a great deal of rejection early in life. People felt that his face was ‘a terrible thing’ and shunned him. But, Mr Lamb says that beauty was relative and that he enjoyed everything God made. Mr Lamb said that Derry had arms, legs, eyes, ears, tongue and a brain. He could get on the way he wanted like else perhaps everyone or even better. He also said hating people would do him more harm than any bottle of acid. It would burn away his inside. He clarified to Derry that people with the same deformity could also be different and that it was incorrect to judge people by what they looked like.
Derry was thus determined to go back to Mr Lamb, sit and listen to the bees singing and him talking about things that mattered, about things nobody else had ever said, about things he wanted to think about.
The Maharaja is a true representative of the ruling class in India. He is conceited, ruthless, cruel and driven by whims and fancies. His courtiers fear his authority and know that going against him can have disastrous consequences.
Devoid of any logic or reasoning powers, the Maharaja sets out on a tiger hunt, and nobody has the courage to speak or advise him against the move. The dewan, supposedly a mature and wise man, supports the Maharaja’s marriage to a.princess whose kingdom has a sizeable tiger population. When the hundredth tiger cannot be found, the dewan plants a tiger for the Maharaja to shoot, just to save himself.
When the king misses his mark, his minions kill the emaciated tiger themselves to save their jobs. They even take out a procession as per the instructions given by the Maharaja. None of his minions wants to incur his wrath by revealing the truth, or by going against him. Undoubtedly, it is the fear of authority of the king that makes the minions work for the Tiger King.
Answer the following questions in about 120-150 words. (6)
What impression do you form about the owner of the costume shop (the hunchback), the shop that Griffin looted in Drury Lane?
Mr Marvel was the ultimate opportunist. Comment.
We encounter the hunchback – a name given to him by Griffin and Dr Kemp – when Griffin narrates the incidents that happened in Drury Lane. We don’t know his name but he owned a rather shabby costume shop. He was a short, slight, hunched, beetle-browed man, with long arms and very short bandy legs.
Griffin sneaked into his shop only to realise that the man had a very sharp hearing sense. He nearly caught Griffin moving here and there in his house. He had no table manners and was irritable.
He was also very cunning. He tried to see who was in his house by sneaking slowly upstairs. He also tried to lock each and every room of his house so that he could catch the culprit. He was so clever that Griffin had to knock him down to steal what he wanted.
Mr Thomas Marvel is a jolly old tramp who has no home or work. He goes around from place to place, asking people for food or money. He becomes the first visible partner or assistant to the Invisible Man, quite unknowingly. It is Griffin himself who chooses him. He wants Marvel to serve and help him. However he later realises that the man is lazy, stupid and good for nothing. Mr Marvel is a rather sneaky character who spares no opportunity to deceive people. He accedes to Griffin’s request because he knows that Griffin is a man of power and can help him a lot. But, the first chance he gets to escape Griffin, he tries to run away with his books, but is caught. The second time he is successful in running away with three of his books and all his money. He hides the books in a swamp and is clever enough to get himself arrested as he knows that Griffin will come after him.
Thus, Marvel becomes Griffin’s partner in crime but cheats him. He establishes himself with Griffin’s money and opens an inn named ‘The Invisible Man.’ He is no doubt the ultimate opportunist, who becomes rich at the cost of the Invisible Man.
Answer the following questions in about 120-150 words. (6)
What is the most important internal conflict presented in the beginning of the story ‘Silas Mamer’?
How did Nancy react to Godfrey’s revelation about Eppie? What does it speak about her character?
The most important internal conflict Silas Marner faces at the beginning of the novel stems from several
external conflicts. First is about Silas’ excommunication from the church and the subsequent denial of his faith. He is framed in a crime he cannot remember committing and loses respect, his fiance, his sense of identity, and his faith-all at once. Next is that Silas is the only weaver in town. His trade is one of skill, which sets him apart from others. It also keeps him indoors. His profession alone makes him different and isolates him from others.
Silas is further scorned by the town after an incident with a sick woman for whom he provides a relieving tea (as his own mother once drank). When the tea does provide some comfort, the town immediately believes Silas to have healing powers and the people begin bringing him their sick and hurt. He sends them all away and they proceed to blame him for all the ba’d things that happen to them. This isolates Silas even further.
Godfrey and Nancy loved each other and had been married for a long time. They had been through a tragedy (the loss of their child) and had supported each other in the most difficult circumstances. When Godfrey revealed to Nancy that Eppie was his own daughter, whom he had abandoned due to his father’s fear, Nancy behaved with utmost dignity.
Nancy was no doubt hurt at the revelation. She sat still, pale and quiet like a statue, but was soon able to rise above her own sorrow and realise the wrong that had been done to the child. She spoke up with deep regret at her husband’s action. She said that if Godfrey had told her the truth years ago, she would perhaps have adopted Eppie as her own daughter.
Nancy was quite earnest about Eppie’s welfare and decided to meet Silas and request him to allow Godfrey and her to adopt Eppie. Her behaviour shows that Nancy was a kind and sensitive woman who could empathise with others. She was also a suffering mother who could not get over her child’s death, and felt the Eppie might fill up the emptiness caused in her life by the loss of her own child.
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