Highway to Health – Maharashtra Board Class 9 Solutions for Science and Technology (English Medium)
- Any organism capable of producing disease is called pathogen.
- WHO stands for World Health Organization.
- Ability of an organism to resist disease is called immunity.
- Malaria is spread by the female Anopheles mosquito.
- Hepatitis B is transmitted through blood transfusion.
- HIV : AIDS : : HB : Hepatitis B.
- Typhoid : Salmonella typhi : : Tuberculosis : Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
- Pulse polio : Poliomyelitis : : DOTS : Tuberculosis.
- TB : communicable : : Cancer : non-communicable.
Differences between chronic disease and acute disease:
To preserve public health, the following rules have to be followed:
- Never spit on the road.
- Do not pollute the sources of water.
- Do not throw plastics indiscriminately.
- Never defecate or urinate in the open.
- Do not eat roadside, uncovered food.
- Use wet waste for vermicomposting instead of throwing it away.
- Do not litter places such as parks or gardens created for recreation.
- Do not contaminate potable water and food items by any means.
- Do not go to public places when sick.
- Cover your mouth with a handkerchief while sneezing.
Thus, one must be aware of the importance of hygiene and cleanliness for contributing to public health.
Principles of prevention of a disease:
- Every child and susceptible individual should be immunised.
- Everybody should get proper, clean and sufficient food and water.
- To keep away infectious pathogenic agents from normal persons, public and private hygiene should be maintained.
There are many cases in which we have experienced community health being sacrificed because of personal unhygienic habits. The following are a few:
- Indiscriminate spitting of tobacco, gutkha and pan in the nooks and corners of buildings roads, temples and other public places is very dangerous as it can transmit many air borne diseases by droplets of infection.
- Some situations are evident in places of pilgrimage. Many people take a holy dip in sacred rivers to wash off their sins. But they are not aware of the problems and health hazards while taking a holy dip.
- Many people have contagious skin diseases.
- Some people defecate, urinate, bathe and gargle in the same water.
- Some people wash soiled clothes and cattle in the river and use water from the same river for drinking and cooking purposes.
- Many water-borne epidemics can occur due to such activities of the people.
- Many people sneeze and clear their noses in open and throw their nasal mucus anywhere from which germs may spread in a short time.
- In bigger cities like Mumbai, where there are slums and crowding, the personal habits of people cause many epidemics such as dengue, swine flu and chikungunya.
- Thus, due to negligence in personal hygiene, community health is also affected.
- We have to take care of personal hygiene, so community health is not sacrificed.