NCERT Class 9 Science Lab Manual – Plant Kingdom
To study the characteristic of Spirogyra/Agaricus, Moss/Fern, Pinus (either male or female cone) and an Angiospermic plant. Draw and give two identifying features of groups they belong to.
- Classification: The organisms are classified/grouped based on the similarities (grouped together) and dissimilarities (grouped separately).
- Whittaker classification: It has five kingdoms and these groups are formed on the basis of their cell structure, mode and source of nutrition and body organisation. The classification is given below.
Further classification is done by naming the sub-groups at various levels as shown below:
- Species: Group of organisms capable of inter-breeding to produce off-spring, e.g. species of dog.
- Genus: Group of closely related species e.g. dog.
- Family: Group of genus with common characters.
- Order: Number of families with common characters.
- Class: All similar orders are placed in a class.
- Phylum/Division: Many classes with specific common characters.
- Kingdom: All the organisms with same fundamental characteristics are in one kingdom.
Thallophyta: (Thallus — undifferentiated; Phyta — Plant body.)
- Plant body is thallus
- Commonly called algae
- Are all aquatic plants
- These algaes make their own food by photosynthesis,
- Amphibian plants
- Plant body is commonly differentiated into stem and leaf like structures.
- No specialised vascular tissue for conduction of water and other substances.
e.g. Moss, Funaria.
- Land plants with vascular tissues.
- Plants body is differentiated into roots, stem and leaves.
- These plants do not produce seeds.
- Reproduce by spore, these are hidden hence called cryptogamae.
Angiosperms: (Angio – covered; Sperma – seeds)
- These are common flowering plants.
- These plants bear seeds.
- Reproduce by seeds present in fruits.
- Plant embryos in seeds have cotyledons (seed-leaves).
- Angiosperms are monocots with single cotyledon seeds,(e.g., Maize) or Dicots with two cotyledon seeds (e.g. Pea, beans).
Gymnosperms: (Gymno – naked; Sperma – seed)
- These plants bear naked seeds.
- Plants are evergreen, woody.
- The flowers are unisexual cones on same plant.
A slide of Spirogyra, specimen of Agaricus, Fern, Moss, Finns (male and female cone), Pea plant/any flowering plant, compound microscope.
Observe the given specimen carefully. Draw diagram of each specimen, label it and write 2-4 identifying features of the groups they belong to.
- Kingdom —> Plant
- Division —> Thallophyta
- Class —> Chlorophyta.
- It is a single cell thick, cylindrical filament, slimy to touch green coloured algae.
- It grows very fast in water.
- The filament has cells joined end to end.
- It has spiral shaped ribbon like chloroplast hence it is named Spirogyra. Each cell is rectangular with nucleus in the centre.
- Cell wall is clearly seen.
- Chlorophyll is present in chloroplast and helps in photosynthesis.
- Plant body is thallus like, not differentiated into roots, stems and leaves.
- It has green coloured spiral shaped, ribbon like chloroplast.
- It has a large central vacuole.
- Kingdom—> Planta
- Division —> Thallophyta
- Class —> Basidiomycetes.
- Agaricus is commonly called mushroom, it is non-green.
- It has a stalk and cap like structure with spores in it.
- The spores germinate to form mycelium.
- The cap on its lower sides has gills which bear spores.
- The body is thallus like, not divided into root, stem and leaves.
- No chlorophyll present, nutrition is saprophytic.
III. Fern (Dryopteris)
- Kingdom —> Plantae
- Sub-kingdom —> Cryptogamae
- Division —> Pteridophyta.
- These are commonly called wooden ferns, has 250 species of Dryopteris and around 12,000 species of ferns.
- It is found in water as well as land.
- Some species are found in humid places and few in. dry places.
- It consists of a horizontal root growing in soil called a rhizome and leaves are called fronds projecting upwards. The leaves are compound.
- On the underside of leaves (frond) are tiny, dark spots called sori that contain spores.
- The spores fertilize to give a sporophyte.
- The leaves are coiled when young and uncoil when they grow.
- It has a vascular tissue i.e. xylem and phloem for conduction of water and materials.
- The sporophyte has well differentiated body with roots, stems and leaves. The leaves contain sori.
- The roots are adventitious.
IV. Moss (Funaria)
- Kingdom —> Plantae
- Division —> Bryophyta
- Class —> Bryopsida.
- Moss plant grows in dense patches in moist shady and cool places during the rainy season. It has a height of 3-5 cm, shows radial symmetry.
- Plant body is differentiated into leafy shoot and rhizoids.
- These are multicellular, amphibious plants. Reproduce by spore formation.
- They do not have vascular system.
- They show alternation of generation i.e. the gaemetophytic stage alternates with the sporophytic stage.
- Plant body has radial symmetry and rhizoids (root like structures).
- No vascular tissues present.
- They need water for fertilization.
- Kingdom—> Plantae
- Division —> Pteripsida
- Class —> Gymnospermae.
- Pine trees are common in Himalayas, they are tall, conical, evergreen.
- Vascular system is well developed.
- Trees are large 30-50 m, trunk diameter up to 2 m. The leaves are needle like.
- Cones are green when young and become brown when 24 months old. Cones open on heat and release seeds.
- It is used for timber, resin.
- Vascular system present.
- Seeds are naked
- [Plant: Any flowering Plant e.g. – Pea, Mustard]
- Division: Trachaeophyta
- Class: Angiospermae.
- The flowering plants are called angiosperras. Flower is the reproductive organ.
- The plant body is well differentiated into roots, shoots, leaves, flowers and fruits.
- The seeds are enclosed in fruits.
- The root system may be tap root or adventitious.
- Reproduction takes place in flower.
- These are vascular plants.
- Stems bears distinct nodes and intemodes
What is common in thallophytes?
They have thallus body, not differentiated into root, stems, leaves.
Name the amphibious plants.
They are called Bryophytes.
What is the other name for Agaricusl
It is commonly known as mushroom.
What are fronds?
The leafy structures which contain sori are called fronds.
What is the sub-kingdom and division of Dryopteris?
The sub-kingdom is – Cryptogame Division: Pteridophyta.
What is Dryopteris commonly known as?
Give the economic importance of cone.
It is used for timber and resin.
Name the class of flowering plants.
They are all Angiosperms.
Who proposed the five kingdom classification? –
Give two examples of thallophytic plants.
Name the structure that holds the nucleus in the centre of the cell.
What is the mode of nutrition of Agaricusl
Agaricus (Mushroom) – It shows saprophytic mode of nutrition.
PRACTICAL BASED QUESTIONS
Why is Spirogyra named so?
Due to spiral shaped chloroplast, it is named as Spirogyra.
The plant body has vascular system, well differentiated body and leaves contain sori. Name the division of such plants.
Such plants are Pteridophytes (division).
The green patchy carpet plant that grows on moist wall, belongs to which division?
It is called Bryophyta.
Give two examples of Bryophytas.
Give one difference between male cone and female cone.
Male cone is short lived, produces pollen grains in microsporangium.
Female cone is long lived and produces ovules in megasporangium.
Give one difference between Funaria and Dryopteris.
Funaria – Bryophytes – It does not have vascular system.
Dryopteris – Pteridophyte – It has a vascular system.
Give one difference between gymnosperms and angiosperms.
Gymnosperms bear naked seeds while angiosperms have seeds enclosed in fruits.
A plant has vascular tissue, produces seeds, name its group.
Seed producing plants are Phanerogams.
NCERT LAB MANUAL QUESTIONS
Why is a Spirogyra plant green in colour?
The green color of Spirogyra is due to the presence of green colour pigment called chlorophyll in it.
Name two functions that are common to roots and rhizoids?
Two functions common to both roots and rhizoids are :
- absorption of water and minerals from the substrate
- attachment of the plant body to the substrate.
What do the cones in pine represent?
Cones are the reproductive parts of the Pine trees.
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS (MCQs)
Questions based on Procedural and Manipulative Skills
The structures present in spirogyra that holds nucleus is called
The male cone matures in
(a) 2 months
(b) 12 months
(c) 8 months
(d) 24 months.
Agaricus is commonly edible, fleshy fungi. It is
The group of plant having vascular tissues are
(d) both (c) and (b)
True roots are absent in
(a) naked seeds
(b) seeds contained in fruits
(c) exposed seeds
(d) body not differentiated into roots, stem and leaves.
Green, blue green plants that live in water or soil are
Thallophytes, the major group of plants include:
(a) bacteria, algae
(b) seed bearing plants
(c) ferns and their species
(d) mosses and liverworts.
The scientist who gave binomial nomenclature is
Agaricus is commonly named as
The mode of nutrition in Agaricus is
The branch of biology that deals with the study of fungi is
The dominant phase of fern plant in its life cycle is
Underground stem in pteridophytes is called as
Non-flowering plants belong to
Some students went to prepare a temporary mount of Spirogyra. Where should they search for a fresh specimen?
(a) In a pond of salty water
(b) In a pond of stagnant dirty water
(c) In a stream of running fresh water
(d) In a stream of running salty water
Megasporophyll and Microsporophyll are associated with
The plant with dominant gametophyte is
Questions based on Observational Skills
The correct identification of a given specimen is
Observe the given diagram and identify it.
(a) Male cone of Pinus
(b) Female cone of Pinus
(c) Rhizoids of Fern
(d) Annulus of Agaricus.
Which of the following characteristics, not seen in fungi?
The Spirogyra slide showed the following structure, it is labelled correctly in
(a) a – chloroplast, b – nucleus, c – pyrenoid
(b) a – pyrenoid, b – nucleus, c – chloroplast
(c) a – cytoplasm, b – nucleus, c – chloroplast
(d) a – chloroplast, b – cytoplasm, c – pyrenoid.
The correct labellings for the given diagram:
(a) 1 – cap, 2 – annulus
(b) 1 – cap, 2 – gills
(c) 1-annulus, 2-stipe
(d) 1 – stipe, 2 – pileus.
The correct description of cone (Pinus) is
(a) Cones are reproductive structures
(b) Male cone is small and seen in clusters on trees
(c) female cone is big and seen on tree single
(d) all of the above
Plants with true roots, stems, leaves and leaves with sori/spores are:
The plant that have enclosed seeds in a fruit is
The spiral shaped chloroplast is present in
To identify the slide of Spirogyra the most prominent feature one should look for is
(a) filamentous body
(b) Nucleus in the centre
(c) Spirally arranged chloroplast
(d) A big central vacuole
Needle shaped structure in Pinus plant is
(d) Reproductive part
While locating the stem of fern, the students find that it is
(a) underground rhizome
(b) vascular bundle
(c) a dependent sporophyte
(d) an independent sporophyte
Chloroplast in Spirogyra is
(a) spirally arranged and ribbon shaped with pyrenoids
(b) spirally arranged with pyrenoids
The following figure represents
(a) Male cone of Pinus
(b) Female cone of Pinus
(c) Rachis of Fern
(d) Annulus of Agaricus
The teacher had shown the students two specimens A and B from the plant kingdom whose pictures are given below. What was the correct identification and classification into its group?
(a) Cone of gymnosperm and flower of angiosperm.
(b) Cone of angrosperm and flower of gymnosperm.
(c) Cone and flower of an angiosperm.
(d) Cone and flower of a gymnosperm.
Questions based on Reporting and Interpretation Skills
Funaria differ from Dryopteris in having:
(a) Seed bearing plant
(b) Vascular bundle
(c) A dependent sporophyte
(d) An independent sporophyte
A plant bears naked seeds, it belongs to group
A plant has vascular system, but seeds do not bear fruits. It belongs to class:
The common point between Agaricus and Spirogvra is
(a) both have chloroplast
(b) both grow in water
(c) both are thallophytes
(d) both are autotrophic.
Chlorophyll is not present in
The following is the seedless plants
(d) all of these.
The structure by which the nucleus in Spirogyra cells is held is
(a) cell wall
(b) cytoplasmic strands
(c) cell membrane
Life cycle of Mosses is not complete without water because
(a) male gametes are motile
(b) fertilization needs water
(c) both (a) & (b)
(d) none of these
SCORING KEY WITH EXPLANATION
- (b)Pyrenoids holds the nucleus in spirogyra.
- (d)It takes 24 months for male cone to mature.
- (b)Fungus is saprophytic in nature.
- (d)Vascular tissues is not present in Bryophyta.
- (a)It has rhizoids which are false roots.
- (b)The fruits with seeds in it.
- (b)Algae can be found in various colours and grows in water or moist places.
- (a)The plants in this group are commonly called algae.
- (b)Linnaeus gave binomial nomenclature to plants.
- (c) Mushroom is fungus and also called Agaricus.
- (b)Agaricus is fungus and is saprophytic in nature. Mycology deals with the study of fungi.
- (a)Sporophytic phase bears spores on leaves to help reproduce the new plants.
- (b)Rhizome is the underground stem.
- (a)Cryptogams are non flowering plants.
- (b)Spirogyra grows in stagnant water.
- (d)Pinus has megasporophyll in female cones and microsporophyll in male cones.
- (c)Moss has dominant gametophyte.
- (b)It is a type of fungus.
- (b)It is female cone because it is bigger in size.
- (a)Fungus is saprophytic in nature and cannot prepare its own food.
- (a)Pyrenoids holds the nucleous in spirogyra and nucleous is at one side.
- (b)The upper structure is capped in gills.
- (d)Cones are reproductive structures of pinus plant. Pterodophytes have spores on leaves.
- (a)Angiosperms have enclosed seeds in it.
- (d)Spirogyra has spiral shaped chloroplast.
- (c)Spiral chloroplast is the unique feature of spirogyra.
- (a)Pinus plants leaves are needle shape.
- (a)Fern has rhizome, underground stem.
- (a)Spirogyra has spiral shaped chloroplast which is flat ribbon shaped.
- (b)Megasporophyll is a feature of female cone.
- (a)Correct identification.
- (b)Funaria shows vascular bundle.
- (c)In gymnosperms the seeds are naked.
- (b)Gymnosperms do not bear fruits.
- (c)Both are thallophytes.
- (d)Fungi is a non green plant and is saprophytic in nature.
- (d)All the given options are seedless.
- (d)Pyrenoids hold the nucleus in spirogyra.
- (c)Male gametes are motile/ move and for fertilization water is required.