NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 3 Water Resources are part of NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science. Here we have given NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 3 Water Resources.
|Social Science Geography
|Number of Questions Solved
NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 3 Water Resources
From the exam point of view, the students should be able to :
- Interpret the importance of water as a limited resource
- Analyse the reasons for growing water scarcity
- Recognise the need for water conservation
- Compare the traditional methods of water harvesting with modern multipurpose projects
- Appreciate the significance of rain water harvesting as an important method of water conservation
Based on the information given below classify each of the situations as ‘suffering from water scarcity’ or ‘not suffering from water scarcity’.
(a) Region with high annual rainfall
(b) Region having high annual rainfall and large population
(c) Region having high annual rainfall but water is highly polluted
(d) Region having low rainfall and low population
(a) Not suffering from water scarcity
(b) Suffering from water scarcity
(c) Suffering from water scarcity
(d) Suffering from water scarcity
Which one of the following statements is not an argument in favour of multipurpose river projects?
(a) Multipurpose projects bring water to those areas which suffer from water scarcity.
(b) Multipurpose projects by regulating water flow help to control floods,
(c) Multipurpose projects lead to large scale displacements and loss of livelihood.
(d) Multipurpose projects generate electricity for our industries and our homes.
Here are some false statements. Identify the mistakes and rewrite them correctly.
(a) Multiplying urban centres with large and dense populations and urban lifestyles have helped in proper utilisation of water resources.
(b) Regulating and damming of rivers do not affect the river’s natural flow and its sediment flow.
(c) In Gujarat, the Sabarmati basin farmers were not agitated when higher priority was given to water supply in urban areas, particularly during droughts.
(d) Today, in Rajasthan, the practice of rooftop rainwater harvesting has gained popularity despite high water availability due to the Rajasthan Canal.
(a) Multiplying urban centres with large and dense populations and urban lifestyles have not only added to water and energy requirements but have further aggravated the problem.
(b) Regulating and damming of rivers affect the river’s natural flow causing poor sedimentation at the bottom of the reservoir, resulting in rockier stream beds and poorer habitats for the rivers’ aquatic life.
(c) In Gujarat, the Sabarmati basin farmers were agitated and almost caused a riot over the higher priority given to water supply in urban areas, particularly during droughts.
(d) Today, in western Rajasthan, the practice of rooftop rainwater harvesting is on the decline as plenty of water is available due to the perennial Rajasthan Canal, though some houses still maintain the tanks since they do not like the taste of tap water.
Explain how water becomes a renewable resource.
Fresh water is obtained from precipitation, surface run-off and groundwater that is continually being renewed and recharged through the hydrological cycle. Since all water moves within the hydrological cycle, water is a renewable resource.
What is water scarcity and what are its main causes?
What is water scarcity? 
When the availability of water is less than 1000 cubic metre per person per day, it is known as water scarcity.
Main causes for water scarcity are:
(a) Variations in seasonal and annual precipitation
(b) Rapid growth of population
(c) Polluted water and unequal access to the population
(d) Over-exploitation to expand irrigated area
Compare the advantages and disadvantages of multipurpose river projects.
“In recent years, the multipurpose projects and i large dams have come under great scrutiny.” Give reasons. 
Mention any four disadvantages of multipurpose projects.  
How may the multipurpose river valley projects : become harmful for the country? Explain with four examples. 
Why are multipurpose projects facing resistance? Explain with three reasons. 
Advantages of multipurpose projects:
(a) Dams provide water for irrigation.
(b) Dams generate electricity.
(c) Dams help in controlling floods
(d) Dams enable recreation.
(e) through storing the water dams create inland navigation.
(f) In the reservoirs of the dams fish breeding can be done.
Disadvantages of multipurpose projects:
(a) Dams obstruct the natural flow of streams
(b) Due to dam natural sedimentation doesn’t happen and excessive amount of sedimentation happens in the reservoirs.
(c) Due to the fragmentation of river by dams migration of aquatic fauna stops.
(d) Reservoirs of the dams submerge the existing vegetation and soil which leads to its decomposition in future.
(e) Construction of dams causes deforestation and deforestation of the tribal or local people of the region.
(f) Due to reservation of water by dam leads to the outbreak of waterborne diseases sometimes.
Discuss how rainwater harvesting in semi-arid regions of Rajasthan is carried out.
Rooftop rainwater harvesting to store drinking water in tanks, conversion of agricultural fields into rainfed storage structures, that allowed the water to stand, and moisten the soil called ‘Khadins’ and ‘johads’ are the general rainwater harvesting techniques in semi-arid regions of Rajasthan. The traditional practice of rooftop harvesting has gone much into disuse as plenty of water is now available due to perennial Rajasthan canal. It is being adopted in other areas, e.g., Mysore and revived in Rajasthan.
In rooftop rainwater harvesting, sloping roofs of houses were connected by a pipe to the underground tankas. Rainwater falling of rooftops is drained in through the hole connected by pipe into tankas. Sometimes the tankas were as large as a big room, built inside the main house or the courtyard. The first spell of rain was usually not collected as they would clean the roofs and the pipes. The rainwater from subsequent showers was then collected. This roof water was an extremely reliable source of drinking water when all other sources dried up. It is commonly referred to as Palar-Pani and considered purest form of natural water.
Describe how modern adaptations of traditional rainwater harvesting methods are being carried out to conserve and store water.
In many areas and regions apart from using traditional methods of collecting rooftop rainwater, certain modern adaptations have also been used. Rooftop water is collected using PVC pipes, and water is filtered using sand and bricks. Underground pipe takes water to sump for immediate usage. Excess water from the sump is taken to the well. Water from the well recharges the underground aquifers. Still another adaptation is rainwater collected through pipe connected to the handpump. This recharges the groundwater.
In Meghalaya, bamboo pipes are used to divert spring water on hilltops. These bamboo pipes transport spring water over hundreds of metres.
Several other low-cost techniques to recharge groundwater and harvest the rainwater include construction of percolation pits, digging trenches around field, refilling of dug wells and collection of roofwater and storing it in tanks or below the ground.
We hope the NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 3 Water Resources help you. If you have any query regarding NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 3 Water Resources, drop a comment below and we will get back to you at the earliest.