Striving For Better Environment – Part II – Maharashtra Board Class 10 Solutions for Science and Technology (English Medium)
The use of natural resources which meet the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs is called sustainable use.
Objectives of sustainable development:
1. Reduce pollution by using eco-friendly technology
2. Restrain the use of natural resources to ensure availability for future generations
3. Protect the environment
4. Bring social equality in accessing resources
5. Ensure continuous economic growth
Measures to conserve water:
1. Close the taps when not in use.
2. Fix leaking taps immediately to avoid the wastage of water.
3. Practise rainwater harvesting and recycling of used water.
4. Spread awareness among people about the importance of water.
5. Restrain the use of appliances which require more water.
We can save energy in our day-to-day life by adopting the following measures:
1. Reduce our consumption of fossil fuels such as coal, oil and gas
2. Make efficient use of available energy
3. Eliminate the wastage of energy
4. Find new alternative sources of energy such as solar energy and wind energy
5. Spread awareness about the usage of energy
Reasons for the depletion of biological resources such as plants, animals and microorganisms:
1. One of the major reasons for the depletion of biological resources is human activities such as cutting down of trees resulting in deforestation.
2. Urbanisation clears the forests, kills wildlife and reduces biological resources.
3. Industrialisation is another reason for the depletion of biological resources.
4. Even the land is cleared for agricultural purposes which results in loss of biological resources.
5. Population explosion can result in depletion of biological resources.
The eco-labelling scheme constituted by the Government of India in 1991 for the easy identification of eco-friendly products aimed at the least impact on the ecosystem is called an eco-mark.
The process in which once used old materials are again used to make new products is called recycling. It is a type of green technology.
Examples of recycling:
1. Used paper, glass, plastic etc. are used to make new articles.
2. Old used car tyres can be recycled to make the surface of a playground soft so that the safety of children playing on the ground increases.
Directive Principles of State Policy, Fundamental Duties and Enforcement by Legislations are the provisions on the environment given in our Constitution. One of the provisions of Directive Principles of State Policy is Article 48 A which was added to Part IV of the Constitution. It states, “The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and safeguard the forests and wildlife for the country.”
The fundamental duties of every citizen regarding the environment are given in Article 51A (f) and 51A (g) of the Constitution. The Article states that it is the responsibility of every citizen to protect and improve the environment.
i. Every Indian citizen should protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wildlife.
ii. All should have compassion for living creatures.
iii. Every citizen should value and help in the preservation of the rich heritage of our composite culture.
Functions of MPCB for prevention of water pollution:
1. MPCB plans comprehensive programmes for the prevention, control and abatement of pollution.
2. MPCB supports and encourages the development in the field of pollution control practices.
The World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) is a global association of about 200 international companies. The work of WBCSD is as follows:
1. It deals exclusively with business and sustainable development.
2. It works on a variety of issues related to sustainable development.
3. The Council provides a platform for companies to explore sustainable development, share knowledge, experiences and best practices and to advocate business positions on these issues in a variety of forums, working with the governments, non-governmental and inter-governmental organisations.
4. It focuses on areas such as energy and climate, development, ecosystems and the role of business society.
5. It also looks after projects on cement, urban infrastructure, water, energy efficiency in buildings, forest Solutions and electricity utilities.
Eco-efficiency is defined as the creation of goods and services using few resources and creating less waste.
Ways to achieve eco-efficiency:
10 Use of alternative raw material: Instead of wood, one can use rice straw or wheat straw. Wheat straw can be used in cement-bonded particle boards and rice straw can be used in insulation boards.
2. Shifting to renewable sources of energy: Instead of non-renewable energy resources, renewable sources such as solar power, wind power, tidal power, hydropower etc. of energy can be used. These are inexhaustible and non-polluting. Organic waste can be used for energy generation, e.g. biogas, ethanol etc.
3. Technology to reduce pollution: Some technologies are pollution-free. They are called eco-friendly technologies, e.g. solar cooker, windmills etc. Some non-polluting fuels such as CNG and unleaded petrol should be used.
4. Reusing and recycling waste: Recycling is the green technology which helps in conserving resources. Paper, glass and plastic can be recycled.
5. Durable goods: Durable goods can be used for a longer time as they reduce the consumption of resources for future use.
Need to use eco-friendly technology:
i. Pollution and depletion of natural resources are the major problems of the present world.
ii. Eco-friendly technologies are pollution-free and cause minimum damage to the environment.
iii. In eco-friendly technology, resource utilisation is efficient with minimum wastage.
iv. In order to conserve the resources and safeguard the environment, we need to use eco-friendly technology.
The Water Act defines water pollution and water quality standards. It prescribes penalties to the offenders.
Objectives of the Water Act:
1. To prevent and control water pollution.
2. To maintain or restore the wholesomeness of water.
3. To establish boards for the prevention and control of water pollution.
The Government of India published Biomedical Waste Rules on 27 July 1998. The salient features of the Biomedical Waste Rules are as follows:
1. These rules deal with the generation, handling, treatment and disposal of biomedical waste.
2. These rules apply to all the persons who generate, handle, store, collect, receive, treat or dispose biomedical waste in any form.
3. It is the duty of the occupant to take all the steps to ensure that such waste is handled without any adverse effect to human health and the environment.
1. Consumerism is the desire to purchase more goods and services which may or may not be of immediate requirement.
2. Consumerism develops due to globalisation and more power to purchase.
3. More consumption of resources and the generation of wastes due to consumerism affect sustainable development.
4. It results in inequality of resources which also affects sustainability.
Reduce, reuse and recycle is the ‘three R mantra’. It is an effective approach to eliminate waste and conserve resources.
1. Reduce: Using fewer resources helps in reducing their consumption, e.g. use of less paper and less plastic carry bags.
2. Reuse: Using things again and again rather than throwing them after using them only once is called reuse, e.g. plastic jars can be reused for storing salt, food grains etc.
3. Recycle: The process in which substances which are used before are put back into process to make new items is called recycling, e.g. used and discarded plastic, glass, paper and metal are sent to the respective industries where they can be converted into other useful products such as lampshades, handbags etc.
Significance of the ‘three R mantra’:
All three processes cut down the amount of energy used for producing new items. It also reduces the pollution during the process. Thus, natural resources are conserved.
Powers of MPCB to control water and air pollution:
1. Implementation of environmental laws and pollution control laws.
2. Laying down standards of effluents and securing their compliances.
3. Inspecting and monitoring of all sources of pollution.
4. Issuance of notices to the polluting industries with time limit to comply with the legal requirements.
5. Closure of the defaulter units or industries if they are creating grave problems.
6. Prosecution of the polluters in cases of serious violation.
1. The use of a kullad in railways for providing tea and coffee is a way of sustainable use of resources.
2. A kullad is made of clay which can be recycled whenever the kullad is discarded.
3. Recycling of styrofoam glass is unlikely as it is made up of a non-degradable material and creates solid waste pollution.
4. Therefore, using a kullad is a way of sustainable use of resources.
1. Alternative fuels can be obtained through a lot of research.
2. Fossil fuels are non-renewable and are depleting rapidly. So, a lot of research is being conducted to find non-polluting renewable sources of energy.
3. Alternative fuels are obtained through organic waste from farms.
4. Ethanol is obtained from the fermentation of wheat, maize and sugarcane. It is mixed with petrol or diesel. It can act as an alternative source of energy.
5. Bagasse is the biomass left behind after extracting juice from sugarcane. It is used as a fuel for boilers and in the manufacture of paper.
6. Biogas is obtained by the fermentation of organic waste and animal dung in biogas plants.
7. Non-polluting and inexhaustible sources of energy such as solar power, wind power, tidal power and hydropower can act as alternative sources of energy.